湖州市曙光医院光子脱毛手术多少钱国际助手

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原标题: 湖州市曙光医院光子脱毛手术多少钱导医门户

With bellies full of turkey and hearts full of mirth, millions of Americans will head to the mall this extended weekend — to buy Ugg Boots, Xboxes and Frozen dolls for themselves and for loved ones.数百万吃饱了火鸡、满心欢笑的美国人将会在这个大周末来到商场,为自己和亲朋好友购买UGG雪地靴、Xbox游戏机和冰雪娃娃。Increasingly, another industry is cashing in on Black Friday and Cyber Monday, and it’s not one you usually associate with teeming crowds and slashed prices — autos.另一个行业也逐渐开始利用黑色星期五和网络星期一的商机,而通常情况下,这里看不到热闹的人群和跳水的价格,这个行业就是汽车业。Car shoppers are visiting car dealers in greater numbers around the Thanksgiving holiday. Alex Gutierrez, an analyst at Kelly Blue Book, said that while Black Friday hasn’t yet reached the level of Memorial Day or Labor Day for car sales, it’s quickly becoming one of the bigger weekends of the year for dealers.感恩节前后,大量购车者会光顾汽车店。Kelly Blue Book的分析师亚历克斯o古铁雷斯表示,尽管黑色星期五的汽车销量目前尚未达到美国阵亡将士纪念日和劳动节的水平,但对汽车经销商而言,它已迅速成为一年中最重要的周末之一。Granted, the deals offered on car lots aren’t always short-term, he noted. Many manufacturers are “running their Black Friday specials throughout the month of December,” he said.然而,古铁雷斯称,汽车打折并非都是短期活动,许多汽车厂商的“打折活动会从黑色星期五一直持续到12月底。”So what is driving this increase in Black Friday car shopping? Some of it, surely, is just the growing focus on the weekend as a time for all things consumerist, with cars dragged along for the ride. Gutierrez also notes that for the past year or so, the auto industry has been recovering from a historic low point that came during 2009 and 2010 in the aftermath of the credit crisis.那么,是什么推动了汽车销量在黑色星期五实现增长?毫无疑问,部分原因只是更多人将这个周末当作购买一切商品的好时机,而汽车业只是搭了个顺风车。不过古铁雷斯也表示,在2009年至2010年的金融危机过后,汽车业的表现跌至历史最低,如今已经开始恢复生气。The other thing driving auto sales on Black Friday and Cyber Monday is the increasing importance of online shopping to the car buying process. Dealer.com, a Dealertrack TRAK 2.02% company that sells shopping tools to auto dealers, saw a 7% increase in the total traffic during the two weeks leading up to Black Friday in 2013 compared to 2012.而另一个促使汽车销量在黑色星期五和网络星期一攀升的因素,是网购在购车过程中的重要性日益增加。Dealer.com是Dealertrack旗下一家为汽车经销商提供购买工具的网站。该网站在2013年黑色星期五前两周的访问量同比提高了7%。“We are seeing a major surge in traffic, and we saw it last year too,” said Dave Winslow, Dealertrack’s vice president of digital strategy. Winslow pointed out that, with customers going online to shop, it doesn’t really matter if they are actually heading to the lots this weekend, because most of the decision-making happens before they actually go to buy a car.Dealertrack的数码战略副总裁戴夫o温斯洛表示:“我们发现,这段时间的网站访问量大幅增加,去年也有这个情况。”温斯洛指出,随着顾客们开始网购,他们是否在这个周末光临了汽车店并不重要,因为他们在买车之前已经做出了大部分决策。One online auto company is taking things a step further in its appeals to Black Friday shoppers by offering a flat discount of ,000 on all cars. That would be Carvana, a startup that calls itself the “Amazon of cars,” in that the cars — all used — are sold entirely online, including financing, and delivered the next day with no test drive. (The company does offer a no questions asked, full refund return within seven days of delivery.) Carvana currently operates in Atlanta, Nashville and Charlotte.一家汽车网购公司在吸引黑色星期五的顾客上更进一步,公司对所有车辆都提供1,000美元的折扣。这家初创公司名为Carvana,它自称是“汽车业的亚马逊(Amazon)”。Carvana只卖二手车,所有的购买手续,包括付款在内,都在网上进行,汽车将于次日送至客户处,其中没有试驾过程。(不过公司提供送达七日内无条件全额退款。)目前,Carvana只为亚特兰大、纳什维尔和夏洛特三座城市提供务。Carvana CEO Ernie Garcia stressed that Carvana wasn’t raising prices for two weeks before Black Friday and then cutting prices back down to what they were originally. With so many of their competitors taking that tack, Garcia said the company was stressing the promotion too much.Carvana的首席执行官欧尼o加西亚强调,他们没有在黑色星期五之前两周提价,然后再在活动期间降回原价。加西亚表示,许多竞争对手都会玩弄这种伎俩,但他们公司非常重视这次促销。“Every automotive retailer out there is going to have some crazy Black Friday thing,” he said. “That’s because they’re playing games. That’s really hard for us to really get through to customers.”他说:“外面每家汽车经销商都会在黑色星期五打出一些疯狂的活动,因为他们只是玩玩。让顾客听到我们的声音真的十分困难。”Is Black Friday really a great time to buy a car? Larry Dominique, an executive vice president at Truecar TRUE -2.00% , a service that tracks car prices, said that while it may be a good time, but shoppers can do even better.黑色星期五真的是买车的好时机吗?提供汽车价格追踪务的Truecar的执行副总裁拉里o多米尼克表示,这也许是个不错的时机,但顾客可以有更好的选择。He said that while discounts are very good on Black Friday, they actually improve at the end of the month. This is because car makers and dealers are looking to move as many vehicles off the lot as possible before the end of the year — manufacturers so they can report the best yearly sales they can, and dealers to reach the sales goals set by the manufacturers.他表示,尽管黑色星期五的折扣不错,但月底实际上会有更加优厚的让利活动。因为汽车制造商和经销商都希望在年底之前尽可能多地把车卖出去——如此一来,汽车厂家就能报出更多的年销量,而经销商也更容易达成厂家设定的销售目标。(财富中文网) /201412/346014

Wang Linshi, a thin, erudite 69-year-old from China#39;s eastern city of Taizhou, has a soft spot for chickens.69岁的王林诗是江苏泰州人,学多才,人很清瘦,尤擅画鸡。He paints them. In his work, done in the traditional Chinese style, daubs of black ink dart and splay into astonishing renditions of tiny claws, or fade to gray to become wings, or come alive with expressions, and the humor he gifts them.在他的传统中国水墨画中,可以看到他用墨汁随意抹两笔便绘出了鸡的爪子,用浅墨涂几下便描出了翅膀和神态。他笔下的鸡栩栩如生,作品意趣盎然。#39;Once, he painted five chickens, four of them eating rice, and one of them standing on a stone,#39; said Yang Linchuan, Mr. Wang#39;s friend and fellow painter. #39;I asked him why he left that chicken without food. He said the chicken is on guard, sacrificing himself for the happiness of others.#39;王林诗的朋友、画家杨林川说,有一次他画了五只鸡,四只在啄米,一只站在石头上。他问王林诗那只鸡为何不吃米,后者答道,这是站岗鸡,辛苦自己,幸福大家。Mr. Wang is a #39;typical Southern Chinese literati#39; who doesn#39;t say much, but when he does he isn#39;t above dropping Tang and Song dynasty verse into casual conversation, Mr. Yang said.杨林川说,王林诗是典型的中国南方文人,平日话不多,但一旦开口,闲谈之中不知不觉就会吐出唐宋诗词。On Jan. 20, the pair attended a celebration of the 30th anniversary of the Nanjing Zhongshan Painting Institute, to which they both belonged. It might be the last time Mr. Yang would see his friend.今年1月20日,王林诗和杨林川一同参加了南京中山书画院建院30周年的庆祝活动。他们二人均曾供职于该书画院。这也许是杨林川最后一次见到王林诗。Mr. Wang was among 18 Chinese artists--calligraphers, painters, poets--aboard Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 . The artists had been invited to a three-day exhibition last week in Kuala Lumpur organized by a Chinese online commerce group called IBICN.王林诗是马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines)370航班上18位中国艺术家之一。这个中国艺术代表团由书法家、画家和诗人组成。他们上周应邀参加了吉隆坡一个为期三天的展出,主办方是中国在线商务网站国联资源网(IBICN)。Some in the group are regarded as heavyweights in the Chinese art scene.代表团中一些艺术家被认为是中国艺术界的重量级人物。Liu Rusheng, a 76-year-old Nanjing man, heads at least three traditional-Chinese art groups and is a member of the state-backed China Calligraphy Association. He is known for his mastery of portraiture, birds and flowers. Where Mr. Wang favors chickens, Mr. Liu has a knack for grapes and plum blossoms.76岁的刘如生是至少三个书画院的负责人,是官方的中国书法家协会会员。他以擅长画人物和花鸟闻名。王林诗爱画小鸡,刘如生则在画葡萄和梅花方面技艺精湛。#39;He was exemplary among artists because he had great technique, and he had a lot of friends,#39; said Ma Yongan, chairman of the China Calligraphy and Art Association.中国书法艺术家协会主席马永安称,他是艺术家中的典范,他的绘画技巧高超,而且有很多朋友。Mr. Liu#39;s work is of such high quality that it attracted the attention of Chinese officials, who presented it as an official gift to Taiwan#39;s former premier, Lien Chan, Mr. Ma said. Mr. Lien#39;s office confirmed the gift. #39;We wish Mr. Liu all the very best and we hope the situation is not as bleak as it seems,#39; said Ting Yuan-chao, a spokesman for Mr. Lien#39;s office.马永安表示,刘如生的作品造诣颇高,受到了中国官员的关注,中国官员曾把他的作品作为官方礼物赠送给前台湾行政院院长连战。连战办公室确认收到过这份礼物。连战办公室发言人丁远超说,祝刘先生好运,希望事情不像看起来那么糟糕。Friends say Mr. Liu is an exuberant and energetic man given to speaking in a somewhat formal manner.朋友们都说,刘如生是一位精力旺盛、充满活力的人。#39;He has an air of celebrity, as he worked in an art troupe before,#39; Mr. Yang said. The term in China refers to a Communist Party vehicle for popular live drama.杨林川称,刘如生有一种名人气质,因为他以前在文工团工作。在中国,文工团指的是在共产党领导下的文艺团体。Mr. Liu performed in such a troupe for coal miners in the past, Mr. Yang said. A 2006 essay written by Mr. Liu described how his father, a coal mine boss in eastern Nanjing, had been stabbed to death by Japanese soldiers during Japan#39;s 1937 invasion of China. It was the first of six #39;close brushes with death#39; for Mr. Liu detailed in the essay, which has been circulating on the Internet since the disappearance of Flight 370.杨林川表示,刘如生以前在煤矿文工团当演员。刘如生曾在2006年发表过一篇名为《曾与死亡六次擦肩而过》的散文,其中描述了他的父亲、南京一煤矿老板在1937年日本侵华时被日本士兵杀害的经历。这是他六次与死亡擦肩而过的第一次,这篇文章在马航370航班失联后就在互联网上广为流传。Mr. Liu would continue to entertain even in Kuala Lumpur, where he held court on the bus en route to Kuala Lumpur#39;s Istana Negara, or Royal Palace, singing a #39;classic red song,#39; said Zheng Wenbin, a 45-year-old calligrapher from China#39;s port city of Shenzhen, who was in the group.45岁的书法家郑文彬说,刘如生在吉隆坡也继续给大家带来欢乐,他在开往吉隆坡马来西亚王宫(Istana Negara)的汽车上还唱了一首经典的红歌。郑文彬来自深圳,他也是此次访问马来西亚艺术家代表团的成员。The exhibition in Malaysia, billed by organizers as a four-year-old Sino-Malaysian art and cultural exchange, wasn#39;t a major international showcase. But for some in the group, like Maimaitijiang Abula, the fair was special because it was his first such outing abroad.在马来西亚的这次展览(主办方将其称为“中马艺术文化交流”,已经举行了四年)并不是一项重大国际项目。但对参加展览的买买提江#12539;阿布拉等人来说,这一项目有特殊意义,因为这是他第一次在国外参展。Mr. Abula, a clean-cut 34-year-old oil painter, has just started to get internationally noticed. For most of his career, he has worked in his hometown of Kashgar, China#39;s westernmost city in the Xinjiang region, where he developed a talent for depicting earth-toned images of faded urban desolation, including portraits of Uighurs, the ethnic minority to which Mr. Abula belonged.阿布拉现年34岁,是一位外表整洁的油画家,刚刚开始在国际上受到关注。在职业生涯的大部分时间里,他都是在自己的故乡喀什工作。喀什是新疆地区最西部的一个城市。他擅长用土黄色调表达城市的荒芜感,他还画维吾尔族人的肖像画,他自己也是维族人。Mr. Abula#39;s remote location has left him cut off from much of the art world, but he has sought to maintain a presence in the provincial capital of Urumqi.身处偏远地区的阿布拉基本与外面的艺术世界隔离,但他仍然在省城乌鲁木齐有着一席之地。#39;Kashgar and Urumqi are separated by 1,500 kilometers (930 miles) so he didn#39;t come here often, but he was our member and took part in our exhibitions,#39; an official with the 1,300-member Xinjiang Artists Association said.新疆美术家协会的一名负责人说,喀什和乌鲁木齐相隔1,500公里,因此他不怎么经常来乌鲁木齐,但他是协会会员,参加协会的展览。该协会有1,300名会员。Mr. Abula was thrilled to be invited by the organizers to the trip, said his friend and fellow painter Yimamu Aishan.阿布拉的朋友、同样也是画家的依麻木艾山说,在收到主办方的邀请时,阿布拉非常高兴。On Thursday, Mr. Aishan got a text message apparently sent by Mr. Abula from Kuala Lumpur. The group had mostly wrapped up the official portion of the visit by then.上周四,艾山收到了阿布拉从吉隆坡发来的短信。那时,艺术代表团的官方行程部分已经基本结束。#39;He said he was getting y to come back to Beijing,#39; said Mr. Aishan, as he sat beside Mr. Abula#39;s older brother in a Beijing hotel that Malaysia Airlines set aside for friends and relatives of the missing. #39;He said he won#39;t call because he might not have enough money on his phone card.#39;艾山称,阿布拉说他已经准备返回北京,说他不会再打电话,因为电话卡上的钱可能不够了。艾山此时正在北京一家马航为失联乘客亲友安排的酒店中,阿布拉的哥哥就坐在他身边。The pair met in Xinjiang Normal University more than 10 years ago, where they studied art, Mr. Aishan said. Both men favored oils, and painted together whenever they could. When Mr. Aishan moved to Beijing to study stage design at the Communication University of China about a year ago, Mr. Abula stayed in Kashgar.艾山说,他与阿布拉相识于十多年前,当时两人都在新疆师范大学(Xinjiang Normal University)学画画。两人都酷爱油画,一有时间就在一起搞创作。大约一年前艾山来到北京,在中国传媒大学(Communication University of China)学舞台美术设计,阿布拉则继续留在了喀什。Mr. Yang, the Nanjing painter, recalled inviting Mr. Wang to the podium to address the Nanjing Zhongshan Painting Institute in January.南京画家杨林川回忆起了1月份他邀请王林诗在南京中山书画院成立30周年座谈会上发言的情景。#39;He sat in the back, so I asked him to come up and speak,#39; Mr. Yang said.他说:当时王林诗坐在后排,我专门请他到台上来发言。When Mr. Wang did, #39;he spoke of how he wanted to do more charity work such as bringing art to the rural areas. He talked about his work plans, such as participating in overseas art activities after the Lunar New Year.王林诗上台之后,说了他希望多参加“送画下乡”这样的公益活动,还谈了他的工作计划,说他打算过完春节去国外参加一个艺术活动。#39;I didn#39;t think at the time what it would mean.#39;杨林川说,当时他不知道这个“国外”是不是马来西亚。 /201403/280286HONG KONG — American allies in Asia on Wednesday welcomed a ed States Senate vote that appeared to clear the way for a final round of negotiations over a sweeping trans-Pacific trade pact and may have made it easier for governments to make politically risky concessions.香港——周三,美国的亚洲盟友对联邦参议院的表决结果表示欢迎。这一结果看来为一项广泛的跨太平洋贸易协定开展最后一轮谈判扫清了障碍,而且可能会令各国政府更易于做出带有政治风险的让步。Japan’s minister responsible for trade negotiations, Akira Amari, said a congressional victory for President Obama could open the way for a deal as soon as next month.日本负责贸易谈判的大臣甘利明(Akira Amari)表示,奥巴马总统在国会获取的胜利或许会为最快于下月达成协议铺平道路。“It’s possible we could have a ministerial-level meeting in July and conclude a broad agreement,” he told reporters. Any agreement would then require putting legislation in each country into effect, followed by approval there, which could take months.“我们有可能在7月举行部长级会议,达成一项广泛的协议,”他告诉记者。无论内容如何,协议均需各个国家的立法机构批准并实施,而这个过程可能需要好几个月的时间。China, which is not among the 12 nations negotiating the deal and had proposed a competing agreement, refrained from criticizing the vote.中国并未包含在参与这项协定谈判的12个国家中,并已提出了一个与之竞争的协议。它没有对参议院的此次表决提出批评。For Mr. Obama, the deal, which appeared headed toward passage on Wednesday, represents an important element of the so-called pivot to Asia to help maintain ed States influence as countries grow increasingly dependent on trade with China. For American allies, it offers the political cover to commit to trade concessions, removing the risk that Congress might reject the negotiated deal.看起来,该协定在本周三离获得通过更进一步。对于奥巴马来说,它是“重返亚洲”战略的重要一环。就在各国日益依靠对华贸易的时候,美国实施了“重返亚洲”战略,以维持自身在该地区的影响力。对于美国的盟友来说,它为承诺做出贸易让步提供了政治掩护,消除了美国国会拒绝接受谈判协议的风险。China was initially wary of the trade measure, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, seeing it several years ago as potentially giving an advantage to American allies’ business over Chinese companies in ed States markets. But those objections have faded as China has begun energetically pursuing its own regional trade agreements with East Asian neighbors.中国起初对这项名为“跨太平洋伙伴关系”(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的贸易协定持警惕态度,头几年的时候认为它可能会使来自美国盟友的公司在美国市场上比中国公司更占优势。然而,随着中国开始积极与东亚邻国达成区域性的贸易协议,这种反对的声音逐渐消退。“Even if T.P.P. is done, I don’t think it will pose any threat to China — we follow our own efforts,” said He Weiwen, a former Chinese commerce ministry official who is now a director of the influential China-ed States-European Union Study Center at the China Association of International Trade in Beijing.曾担任商务部官员的中国国际贸易学会中美欧研究中心主任何伟文表示,“即便达成了TPP协定,我觉得也不会对中国构成威胁——我们要走自己的道路。”The Senate voted on Tuesday to end debate on legislation that would give Mr. Obama and his successor the authority for the next six years to negotiate trade agreements and submit them to Congress with no amendments or filibusters allowed.参议院周二的表决是为了结束围绕授予奥巴马总统及其继任者贸易谈判权的立法所展开的辩论。这项授权将允许总统在接下来的六年时间里就贸易协定开展谈判,并将协议提交给国会,而国会无权修订最后的协定,也无法再实施冗长演说拖延战术。Ending debate required 60 votes, which the Senate’s Republican leadership barely mustered with limited support from Democrats. Passage of the actual legislation requires only 51 votes and would send the bill to the president, as the House of Representatives has aly approved it.参议院的共和党领导层获得了民主党人的有限持,勉强凑够了结束辩论所需的60票。实际的授权只要51票便能获得通过,然后就可以提交给总统签署,因为众议院已经批准同样的提案。Like previous presidents, who have had similar trade negotiating authority, Mr. Obama contended that the authorization was necessary so other countries would make all available concessions in talks with American trade negotiators, instead of reserving some in case Congress rewrote a deal.前几任总统也拥有类似的贸易谈判权。与他们一样,奥巴马提出,这种授权是必要的,如此一来,其他国家才会在与美国贸易谈判代表进行协商的时候做出所有可能的让步,而不是有所保留,以防美国国会改写协议。But American labor unions, environmental activists and other critics bitterly opposed passage of the negotiating authority, contending that it undermined the ability of Congress to stop administration negotiators from working with large corporations to craft deals that might not be advantageous to workers or the environment.不过,美国国内的工会组织、环保人士及其他一些持批评态度的人士强烈反对通过授予总统谈判权的法案,认为这会削弱国会阻止政府谈判代表与大企业携手达成可能会对劳动者或环境不利的协议的能力。Final congressional approval of the legislation would clear the way for a difficult final round of talks on the details of the trade agreement, which would remove trade barriers from Canada and Chile to Australia, Singapore and Japan.国会最终通过这项授权会为开启最后一轮有关TPP细节的艰难谈判扫清障碍。该协议将会移除从加拿大、智利到澳大利亚、新加坡和日本的贸易壁垒。Japan has been an especially difficult negotiating partner for the ed States because it wants to preserve trade barriers on rice, pork and other agricultural products. Tokyo has indicated that it is prepared to compromise but, fearful of Japan’s restive farm lobby, it has refused to discuss details in public as long as it was unclear whether Mr. Obama had the power to conclude a deal.对于美国来说,日本是一个特别难对付的洽谈伙伴,因为日本希望保留大米、猪肉及其他一些农产品的贸易壁垒。东京方面已经表明,日本准备做出让步,但由于担心强硬的本国农业游说团体,只要尚不确定奥巴马是否有权达成协议,日本就拒绝公开探讨细节。Another difficult question, which comes up for practically every free trade agreement, lies in so-called rules of origin: how to determine which goods are really made predominantly within the free-trade region and therefore qualify for tariff removal and other preferential trade access.另一个难题几乎每项自由贸易协议都会遇到,那就是所谓的“原产地规则”:如何确定哪些商品真的是在自由贸易区制造的,因此有资格免除关税,并获得其他优惠贸易待遇。Under the North American Free Trade Agreement, for example, garments do not just need to be sewn in North America to cross borders without being subject to tariffs; the garments generally need to be made from fabric that was woven in North America, and the fabric itself must be woven from yarn that was made in North America. That rule was written to prevent Mexican manufacturers from buying lots of precut, cheaper fabric from China and elsewhere and assembling it into inexpensive shirts for duty-free shipment to the ed States.例如,根据北美自由贸易协定(North American Free Trade Agreement)的规定,要想免除关税,装类产品不仅需要在北美缝制,通常还需要由北美的布料制成,而这些布料本身必须由北美生产的纱线制成。制定这项规定是为了防止墨西哥生产商从中国等地方购买大量预先裁剪的便宜布料,再利用这些织物缝制成便宜的成衣,运往美国,而不用交税。The Trans-Pacific Partnership includes Vietnam, a large garment-manufacturing nation that relies heavily on fabric imported from China. The negotiations pose the next battleground in a decades-long fight. The American textile industry consistently lobbies for the trade status of garments to be determined by where the material was made, not just where garments were sewn.TPP谈判国中包括越南。这个装生产大国严重依赖从中国进口的布料。相关谈判为这场长达几十年的争斗开辟了另一个战场。美国纺织业一直在开展游说活动,希望装的贸易地位由原材料的产地决定,而不仅仅是缝制成衣的地点。But large retailers and fashion brands want to link the trade status only to where garments are sewn, making it easier to use low-cost Chinese fabrics.不过,大型零售商和时尚品牌希望这种贸易地位只由成衣产地决定,更易于它们使用成本较低的中国布料。China’s trade policy analysts are eager to scrutinize the language of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership pact as soon as it is completed and released, to determine how it might actually affect Chinese exporters, Mr. He said.何伟文表示,这12个国家一达成并公布TPP协定,中国的贸易政策分析人士就会马上细读协定条文,从而判断实际上它会如何影响中国出口商。 /201506/383097

China’s central planning agency is trying to stimulate growth by appealing for private investment in prospective infrastructure projects worth more than 0bn.中国的中央计划机构正试图为耗资逾3000亿美元的潜在基建项目吸引私人投资,以刺激经济增长。The National Development and Reform Commission, which runs the country’s five-year plans, on Monday listed 1,043 public private partnership projects for which it was seeking partners in 29 regions, including Beijing.周一,负责五年计划的中国国家发改委(NDRC)发布了1043个政府和社会资本合作(PPP)项目,并在29个地区(包括北京)寻求合作伙伴。Attracting private funding is seen as a crucial means of filling funding gaps as growth slows.随着中国经济增速放缓,吸引私人资本被视为填补资金缺口的重要手段。China’s economy grew 7 per cent year-on-year in the first quarter, the slowest pace in six years. The government has rolled out a series of measures to sustain growth, including monetary-policy easing, more central-government spending and a plan to allow local governments to sell bonds.今年第一季度,中国经济同比增长7%,为六年来最低。为了稳增长,中国政府推出了一系列措施,包括放松货币政策、加大中央政府出,以及出台允许地方政府发债的计划。Infrastructure and transport stocks traded on the Shanghai stock exchange jumped on the news.该消息一经发布,在上海券交易所挂牌上市的基建和运输类股票应声上涨。The list of projects released by the NDRC includes three subway projects in Beijing, seven water-resource projects in the southwestern province of Sichuan and high-speed rail and expressway projects in east China’s Shandong province.发改委此次发布的项目库包括:北京的三个地铁项目、四川省的七个水利项目以及山东省的高速铁路和公路项目。In another measure designed to spur growth, China’s finance ministry said on Monday it would cut import duties on cosmetics, shoes and clothes by 50 per cent on average, as part of a plan to boost domestic consumption.另一项旨在刺激增长的举措是,中国财政部周一宣布将降低化妆品、鞋类和装的进口关税,平均降幅达50%,以此作为提振国内消费计划的一部分。Over the next few years China’s policy makers have said they want to see a switch from investment-driven growth, based on government spending, to a consumption-driven economy where private spending by consumers replaces headline project spending by the government as the driver of growth.中国政策制定者已表示,未来几年里,他们希望看到中国经济从依靠政府出的投资驱动增长模式,转型为消费驱动型经济,让消费者的私人消费取代政府的项目出,成为经济增长的驱动力。China’s State Council, the top government body, last month said it planned to cut taxes on a wide range of imported consumer goods to spur retail spending.上月,中国国务院表示,拟大范围降低进口消费者产品税率,以刺激零售消费。 /201505/377160ABUJA, Nigeria — As the death toll mounted from the worst outbreak of the Ebola virus, West African leaders quickened the pace of emergency efforts Thursday, authorizing house-to-house searches for infected people and deploying the army to combat the disease.尼日利亚阿布贾——随着这次最严重的埃拉病毒爆发造成的死亡人数的上升,西非地区多国领导人周四加快了应急行动的步伐,授权挨门挨户寻找感染者,并部署军队抗击该疾病。International efforts to contain the virus also gained momentum and urgency. The World Health Organization announced a 0 million plan Thursday to get more medical experts and supplies to the overwhelmed region, as the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the ed States committed the agency to sending 50 more experts there in coming weeks.国际社会控制埃拉病毒的努力也逐步加强,并且变得更为紧迫。世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)于周四宣布了一项1亿美元(约合6.2亿元人民币)的计划,让更多的医疗专家和医疗用品进入病毒肆虐的西非地区。与此同时,美国疾病预防与控制中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)的主任也承诺,在未来几周内再派50名专家前往当地。First recognized in March in Guinea, the Ebola outbreak has surged through porous borders to invade neighboring countries in an unprecedented way, quickly outstripping fragile health systems and forcing health officials to fight the battle on many fronts. Past outbreaks have been more localized, but the current one has sp extensively over a vast region.今年3月,首先在几内亚发现了埃拉病毒的这一轮爆发的迹象。现在,疫情已经以一种前所未有的方式越过疏于防范的边境,攻入邻国,很快便让脆弱的卫生系统不堪重负,迫使卫生官员多线作战。以往的爆发更多地出现在局部地区,但当下这一轮疫情已在一片幅员辽阔的地区广泛扩散。The stepped-up effort is long overdue, according to some analysts. They say the initial response was inadequate on both the national and international level and allowed the disease to mushroom from a local outbreak to an international threat.一些分析人士认为,早就应该加强行动了。他们表示,国家内部和国际社会最初均应对不力,导致疾病从局部爆发迅速演变成了国际威胁。The viral illness has extracted a terrible toll, killing 729 people, including top physicians in Liberia and Sierra Leone, nations that aly face an acute shortage of doctors. The outbreak has also sickened two U.S. aid workers, who were being rushed back to the ed States for treatment.这一病毒性疾病已经造成了惨重损失,导致729人死亡,其中包括利比里亚和塞拉利昂的顶尖内科医生。这两个国家本来就面临着严重的医生短缺。本轮爆发还导致两名美国援助人员患病。美国正在努力将二人尽快送回国内接受治疗。“The whole thing has been very incompetently handled,” said Lansana Gberie, a historian from Sierra Leone. “If the government had quarantined this area” where the outbreak started, in the remote northeast, “they could have contained it. Instead they opened a treatment center in Kenema, a major population center.”“对整件事情的应对都非常不力,”来自塞拉利昂的历史学者兰萨纳·格贝里(Lansana Gberie)说。“如果政府起先对这片地区进行隔离,他们可能已经控制住了。相反,他们在人口密集的大城市凯内马开设了一家治疗中心。”他指的地区是疫情开始爆发的地方,位于该国偏远的东北部。On PoliticoSL, a widely followed website in Sierra Leone, journalist Umaru Fofana has written recently that “the country seems leaderless in the fight.” Now that cases have sp so widely, controlling the outbreak will be more costly and difficult.在塞拉利昂关注者甚众的网站PoliticoSL上,记者奥马鲁·福法纳(Umaru Fofana)最近写道,“在这场战斗中,国家似乎群龙无首。”鉴于感染病例的扩散已如此之广,控制疫情将变得更加困难,代价也将更高。Dr. Thomas R. Frieden, the director of the CDC, warned on Thursday that the worsening outbreak could take at least three to six months to bring under control, “even in a best-case scenario.” Hostility and violence directed at health workers are making the job harder, he said.CDC主任托马斯·R·弗里登士(Thomas R. Frieden)周四警告,“即便是在最乐观的情况下”,也需要至少三至六个月时间才能将日渐恶化的疫情控制住。他说,针对医务人员的敌意和暴力行为加大了这项工作的难度。The CDC advised Americans to avoid all nonessential travel to the three countries hardest hit by the virus: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. The agency issued a “Level 3” travel warning, reserved for grave situations. It was also used for the outbreak of the highly contagious respiratory disease SARS.CDC建议美国人,如无绝对必要,避免前往受病毒打击最严重的三个国家:几内亚、塞拉利昂和利比里亚。CDC发布了“3级”旅行预警,用以表示形势极为严峻。在传染性很强的呼吸道疾病SARS爆发时,也曾用到“3级”预警。Frieden said that a major concern is that travelers who become ill or injured and need medical care may risk being exposed to Ebola at hospitals in the region. When infection-control measures are poor, hospitals become “amplification points,” sping the disease they are supposed to contain, he said.弗里登称,一大隐患是,生病或受伤的旅行者会因为需要医疗救治而在当地医院接触到埃拉病毒。他说,当传染控制措施比较薄弱时,医院就会成为“扩散点”,传播它们本应控制的疾病。The White House press secretary, Josh Earnest, said Thursday that the ed States was considering a medical evacuation to bring home U.S. aid workers diagnosed with Ebola. Two, infected in Liberia, were in grave condition, according to a statement on the website of a charitable organization, Samaritan#39;s Purse.白宫新闻发言人乔希·欧内斯特(Josh Earnest)周四表示,美国正在考虑医疗疏散,将确认感染埃拉病毒的美国救援工作者接回国。慈善组织撒玛利亚救援会(Samaritan#39;s Purse)在其网站上发表声明称,在利比里亚受到感染的两人病情危险。Emory University Hospital in Atlanta issued a statement on Thursday saying it had been told of plans to transfer a patient with Ebola to its special containment unit, set up in collaboration with the CDC, in the next several days. Because of privacy laws, the hospital declined to name the patient.亚特兰大艾默里大学医院(Emory University Hospital)周四发表声明称,已接到通知,旗下的疾病特控部门将在未来几天内收治一名感染埃拉病毒的患者。这一部门由CDC与该医院合作成立。因为考虑到隐私法规,医院拒绝透露患者姓名。WHO said the tally of deaths from Ebola rose after 56 more people died during a four-day period between July 24 and 27 in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Nigeria had one fatality. In the same period, 122 new cases were detected, bringing the total of confirmed and suspected cases to 1,323.世卫组织表示,在几内亚、利比里亚和塞拉利昂,从7月24日到27日的四天时间内,共有56人身亡,进一步增加了死于埃拉病毒的人数。尼日利亚有一人死亡。在同一时期内,发现了122个新病例,使得确认和疑似病例总数上升到了1323例。The virus causes high fever, vomiting, diarrhea and, in some cases, bleeding. In the current outbreak, about 60 percent of the cases have been fatal. It is transmitted by contact with bodily fluids from someone who is ill.这种病毒会引发高烧、呕吐、腹泻,有时还会造成出血。在本轮疫情中,大约60%的病例死亡。它通过接触患者的体液来传播。There is no vaccine to prevent the illness, and no specific treatment for it, only care to try to nurse people through the worst of the fevers, bleeding and other symptoms. The only way to stop an outbreak is to isolate each infected patient, trace all their contacts, isolate the ones who get sick and repeat the process until, finally, there are no more cases.目前尚无任何疫苗可以预防这种疾病,也没有专门的治疗方法,只能照顾患者,尝试让其熬过发热和出血等症状最凶猛的阶段。唯一能阻止疫情传播的方法就是隔离每位受感染的病人,找到每个曾与他们接触的人,隔离其中的患者,然后重复这一过程,直到没有任何新病例为止。President Ernest Bai Koroma of Sierra Leone declared a public health emergency. He said security forces would be deployed to support health professionals, and that “all epicenters of the disease will be quarantined” along with “localities and homes where the disease is identified.” The measures would be enforced for 60 to 90 days.塞拉利昂总统欧内斯特·巴伊·科罗马(Ernest Bai Koroma)宣布全国进入公共卫生紧急状态。他表示,将部署安全部队前去持专业医护人员,“对所有发病中心”以及“发现患者的地点和家庭采取隔离措施”。这些措施的实施时长将为60至90天。 /201408/318656Out of the crooked timber of humanity, no straight thing was ever made. This famous remark of the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant, is particularly relevant to economists. “Homo economicus” is far-sighted, rational and self-interested. Real human beings are none of these things. We are bundles of emotions, not calculating machines. This matters.“人性这根曲木,绝然造不出任何笔直的东西。”经济学家尤其应该听听德国哲学家伊曼努尔#8226;康德(Immanuel Kant)的这句名言。“经济人”有远见、理性而且自私。真正的人跟经济人完全不一样。我们感情充沛,不是精于计算的机器。这非常关键。The World Bank’s latest World Development Report examines this territory. It notes that “behavioural economics” alters our view of human behaviour in three ways: first, most of our thinking is not deliberative, but automatic; second, it is socially conditioned; and, third, it is shaped by inaccurate mental models.世界(World Bank)在其发布的最新一期《世界发展报告》(World Development Report)中研究了该领域。它指出,“行为经济学”从3个方面改变了我们对人类行为的看法:首先,我们的大部分想法并非经过深思熟虑,而是自动产生的;其次,它受到社会的制约;第三,它脱胎于不精确的思维模式。The Nobel laureate, Daniel Kahneman, explored the idea that we think in two different ways in his 2011 bookThinking, Fast and Slow. The need for an automatic system is evident. Our ancestors did not have the time to work out answers to life’s challenges from first principles. They acquired automatic responses and a cultural predisposition towards rules of thumb. We inherited both these traits. Thus, we are influenced by how a problem is framed.诺贝尔奖得主丹尼尔#8226;卡内曼(Daniel Kahneman)在其2011年出版的《思维,快慢有别》(Thinking, Fast and Slow)一书中探讨了人类有两种不同思维方式的观点。拥有一种自动反应的思维体系显然是必要的。我们的祖先没时间从基本原则中寻找解决生活挑战的办法。他们获得了自动反应的本领,也形成了听从经验法则的文化倾向。这两种特质我们都继承了。因此,我们会受问题提出方式的影响。Another characteristic is “confirmation bias” — the tendency to interpret new information as support for pre-existing beliefs. We also suffer from loss aversion, fierce resistance to losing what one aly has. For our ancestors, on the margin of survival, that made sense.另一个特征是“确认偏误”(confirmation bias)——即将新信息解读为能够持已有观点的倾向。我们还有“厌恶损失”(loss aversion)的倾向,即强烈抗拒失去我们已经拥有的东西。对我们只能勉强维持生存的祖先来说,这种倾向非常明智。The fact that humans are intensely social is clear. Even the idea that we are autonomous is itself socially conditioned. We are also far from solely self-interested. A bad consequence of the power of norms is that societies may be stuck in destructive patterns of behaviour. Nepotism and corruption are examples. If they are entrenched, it may be difficult (or dangerous) for individuals not to participate. But social norms can also be valuable. Trust is a valuable norm. It rests on one of humanity’s strongest behaviours: conditional co-operation. People will punish free-riders even when it costs them to do so. This trait strengthens groups and so must raise members’ ability to survive.人类具有强烈的社会性,这是显而易见的。就连我们是独立的个体这个想法本身,也是受到社会制约的。我们也绝非完全自私。社会规范的强大威力带来的一个糟糕后果是,社会可能陷入消极的行为模式。裙带关系和腐败就是例。如果裙带关系或腐败根深蒂固,个人不参与其中或许就很困难(或危险)。但社会规范也可能是有用的。信任是一种有用的规范。它依赖于人类最擅长的行为之一:有条件的合作。人们将会惩罚搭便车者,即便惩罚他们要付出代价。这种特质增强了团队的凝聚力,从而肯定会提高团队成员的生存能力。Mental models are essential. Some seem to be inbuilt; and some can be damaging — as well as productive. Ideas about “us” and “them”, reinforced by social norms, may well lead to results that range from the merely unfair to the catastrophic. Equally important may be mental models that create self-fulfilling expectations of who will succeed and who will fail. There is evidence, notes the WDR, that mental models rooted in history may shape people’s view of the world for centuries: caste is an example. Such mental models survive because they are reproduced socially and become part of the automatic rather than the deliberative system. They influence not just our perceptions of others, but perceptions of ourselves.思维模式非常关键。有些似乎是人内在固有的,此外,有些模式可能同时具有创造性和破坏性。关于“我们”和“他们”的观念如果经过社会规范的强化,很可能导致各种各样的结果,从仅仅是不公平的,到酿成灾难的。有些思维模式能够产生有关谁将成功、谁将失败的预期(并且这种预期具有自我实现的能力),这些思维模式同样重要。《世界发展报告》指出,有据表明,有深厚历史根源的思维模式可能决定人们数百年的世界观:种姓制度就是一个例子。此类思维模式之所以经久不衰,是因为它们在社会上不断繁殖,成为了一种自动(而非经过深思熟虑)的反应。它们不仅影响我们对其他人的看法,还影响我们对自己的看法。To illustrate the relevance of these realities, the report analyses the policy challenges of poverty, early childhood development, household finance, productivity, health and climate change.为了表明这些研究与现实密切相关,该报告还分析了贫穷、幼儿期发展、家庭财务、生产率、健康和气候变化的政策挑战。On household finance, for example, the report notes that it makes a difference whether would-be borrowers are told explicitly how much more expensive is a payday loan than an equivalent loan on a credit card. Revealing the status of low-caste boys in a mixed-caste classroom depresses the performance of students from lower castes compared with what happens if caste is not revealed. The boys respond to how they are presented. Again, poverty is not just a lack of material resources:it undermines the ability to think deliberately.例如,在家庭财务方面,该报告指出,潜在借款者是否被明确告知发薪日贷款(payday loan,一种小额、短期的高利贷,用于贷款人下一次发薪之前临时急用——译者注)与等额信用卡贷款相比有多么昂贵,结果将大为不同。如果在一个种姓混杂的班级里让大家知道谁是低种姓学生,那么低种姓学生的表现就会不如其身份没有暴露时的表现。别人如何介绍自己,会影响这些男孩的表现。同样,贫穷不仅仅是物质资源的匮乏:它还削弱一个人审慎思考的能力。The way people think may also affect their productivity. An example is the benefits of contracts that penalise a worker for failing to meet the output targets she has chosen for herself. This is a way of closing the gap between good intentions and actual performance, such as when we agree to put money in the swearbox when we curse. We often disappoint ourselves. We may wish to bind ourselves to better behaviour, like Odysseus to his mast.人们的思考方式也可能影响他们的生产效率。一个例子是,签订这样的合同有不错的效果:约定工人如果未能完成自己选择的产量目标就会受到惩罚。要消除良好意愿与实际表现的差距,这是一种方法,比如我们同意只要我们骂人就要往罚款箱里投钱。我们常常让自己失望。我们可能希望约束自己、迫使自己表现得更好,就像奥德修斯(Odysseus)让人把自己捆在桅杆上(以抵挡海妖歌声的诱惑)那样。Health creates vital examples. One is the importance of mental models. An obvious one is the anti-vaccination hysteria. Another, illustrated by the WDR, is the tendency of poor women to believe that the right treatment for diarrhoea is to cut fluid intake, to stop their child “leaking”. Another is the tendency of people to be put off by even a very small charge for health products. The explanation for the reluctance to pay anything may, it suggests, be because free provision underpins the norm that everybody ought to take the medicine.健康领域产生了一些重要的例子,其中之一是思维模式的重要性。一种明显的思维模式是非理性地反对接种疫苗。《世界发展报告》举出的另一种思维模式是,贫穷的妇女往往认为,腹泻的正确治疗方法是减少液体的摄入,这样他们的孩子就不再“拉稀”。还有一种思维模式是,人们往往不愿购买收费的健康产品,哪怕金额极低。报告称,人们之所以一分钱都不愿花,可能是因为,免费提供才符合有难同当的社会规范。These then are intriguing examples of a more nuanced approach to policy. Another area where a narrow focus only on incentives is likely to be misleading is financial regulation. Many economists believe that dysfunctional behaviour in financial markets is due solely to distorted incentives: deposit insurance, the perception that institutions are “too big to fail” and a host of other explicit and implicit subsidies. Equally important, however, are behavioural norms, such as the view that the primary duty of bankers is to themselves not their customers; or inappropriate mental models, such as the widesp pre-crisis belief that house prices could not fall across the US. Regulation needs to be built on an understanding of such human frailties. It must focus on norms and groupthink, as well as on distorted incentives.因此这些有趣的例子表明了政策手段有必要更加细致。另一个关键领域是金融监管,在这一领域中,如果仅仅关注于激励就可能导致误解。许多经济学家相信,金融市场中的失灵行为完全是扭曲的动机造成的,比如:存款保险、机构“太大而不能倒闭”的观念,以及其他众多显性和隐性补贴。然而,同样重要的是社会行为规范,比如认为家主要应该对他们自己、而不是客户负责的观点;或者不适当的思维模式,比如危机前人们普遍认为,美国的房价不会普跌。监管需要建立在了解此类人性弱点的基础之上。它必须不仅关注于扭曲的动机,还关注于社会规范和群体迷思(groupthink)。How far should policy be based on these perceptions, particularly since those who make policy are, as the WDR admits, prone to all sorts of biases in their own decision-making? We are all made of Kant’s crooked timber: nobody has godlike wisdom and self-control.政策应该在多大程度上以这些观念为基础?尤其是正如《世界发展报告》承认的那样,那些制定政策的人士往往对他们自己的决策存在各种各样的偏见。我们全都由康德所说的“曲木”制成:没有人有上帝那样的智慧和自制力。Yet policy must be made. It is surely better to make well-informed and realistic policy than base it on a grossly simplistic view of our true capacities. Moreover, nudging people in the direction they aly want to go — by encouraging them to save, learn, behave healthily or bring up their children better — is hardly a gross violation of liberty. Yet encouragement should not slide too easily into coercion. Adults are not to be treated as children. That, too, is a social norm and quite a fundamental one.然而政策是必须制定的。充分了解相关信息、从现实出发制定政策,肯定要比基于对我们真实能力的过分简单化理解制定政策要好。此外,通过鼓励人们储蓄、学习、过健康生活或更好地抚育子女,推动人们朝他们本来就希望的方向前进,这不能说是严重侵犯自由。然而,鼓励不应轻易地演变为强制。不应把成年人当做小孩对待。那也是一种社会规范,而且还是相当根深蒂固的一种。 /201501/355489

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