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青岛市新阳光妇产医院是公办的吗88互动高密市中心医院在线询问

2018年10月17日 18:49:20    日报  参与评论()人

李村儿童医院产科青岛哪里可以做微创人流SEOUL, South Korea —Five yearsago, Sun Mi Stapel, a claims handler at a Dutch insurance company, begansearching for her South Korean birth family.韩国首尔——五年前,在一家荷兰保险公司任核保员的善美·施塔珀尔(Sun Mi Stapel)开始寻找在韩国的亲生父母。Stapel first turned to the Dutch adoptionagency that had placed her with her adoptive parents in Krommenie, theNetherlands, where she grew up. 施塔珀尔首先去找了一家荷兰领养中介公司,当初她就是通过这家公司被荷兰克罗默尼的养父母领养的,她在那里长大。Then she tried Korea Social Service, whichhad handled the Korean side of her adoption. 然后她又找到了在领养中负责在韩事务的韩国社会务公司(Korea Social Service)。Last year, she finally obtained heradoption files, but they were missing vital information.去年,她终于拿到了领养文件,但是其中丢失了一些关键信息。She traveled to Seoul, appearing on amorning television show with her baby photos and asking viewers to call ahotline with any information. 她来到首尔,拿着自己幼时的照片出现在一个早间电视节目上,请求观众通过热线电话提供有关信息。She registered for a national database formissing people. 她在一个国家失踪人口数据库做了登记。She distributed fliers in the neighborhoodaround her orphanage in Incheon, where she was born, and visited nursing homesand community centers there in hopes of finding someone who knew her parents.她到了仁川,在自己当初所在的孤儿院周遭散发传单,她就是在那里出生的,她还去了养老院和社区中心,以期找到认识她父母的人。No one did.没有人了解情况。So on a recent Tuesday afternoon, Stapel,46, went to a guesthouse for adoptees in Seoul, where a volunteer rubbed theinside of her cheek with a cotton swab, dropped the swab in a tube and shippedit to a lab in Texas, where her DNA will be analyzed and uploaded to a websitethat scans submitted samples for genetic matches.于是,在最近一个周二的下午,46岁的施塔珀尔来到首尔一家面向被领养人的招待所,一名志愿者用棉签在她口腔内侧刮了刮,把棉签扔进一根细长的保存瓶里,然后寄到德克萨斯的一座实验室,在那里,她的DNA经分析后被上传到一个网站,和已提交的基因进行比对。The result could link her to her birthfamily and fill in some of the blanks of her personal history.比对结果也许能帮她找到自己的亲生父母,填补她的个人历史中的某些空白。I want to know the simple things, she said.我想知道的东西很简单,她说。When is my real date of birth? Who is myfather? Who is my mother? Do I have siblings? Do I look like somebody?我的真实生日是几号?我父亲是谁?母亲是谁?我有兄弟吗?我长得像谁?Many South Korean adoptees who have thesame questions are turning to DNA testing to circumvent what has long been atortuous and often fruitless process.许多怀着同样问题的韩国被领养人选择了DNA测试,以绕过一个漫长曲折且往往徒劳无获的过程。For years, South Korea was the world’s leadingbaby exporter. 韩国多年来一直是全球最大的婴儿出口国。Since the 1950s, it has sent about 200,000children abroad for adoption, including about 150,000 to the ed States.自上世纪50年代起,该国共有约20万名儿童被外国领养,其中约有15万名前往美国。Every year adoptees return, looking forinformation about their past. 每年都有被领养者返回韩国,寻找有关自己过往的信息。But South Korean laws block them fromobtaining their full birth records without their birth parents’consent. 但因为韩国法律的限制,在没有获得亲生父母允许的情况下,他们无法获得自己完整的出生记录。And government adoption files are oftenfalsified, incomplete or missing, making birth parents impossible to trackdown.而政府的领养文件往往有虚假成分、不完整或是丢失了,这让他们很难找到亲生父母。From 2012-15, fewer than 15 percent ofadoptees who asked to reunite with their birth parents were able to do so,according to Korean government figures.韩国政府统计的数据显示,从2012年至2015年,要求与父母团聚的被领养者中只有不足15%的人做到了这一点。For many, DNA testing offers a way aroundthe bureaucratic hurdles and flawed records.对很多人来说,DNA检测提供了一种绕过官僚障碍和瑕疵文件的办法。Stapel was one of a few dozen adoptees whotook free DNA tests made available in Seoul this month during the InternationalKorean Adoptee Associations Gathering, which meets every three years.本月,三年一度的国际韩国被领养人协会大会(International Korean Adoptee Associations Gathering)举行期间,几十名被领养人接受了免费的DNA检测。施塔珀尔就是其中之一。Monica Toudahl Knudsen, 33, who grew up inthe Jutland peninsula, in Denmark, also took the test. 33岁的莫妮卡·托达尔·克努森(MonicaToudahl Knudsen)也接受了这项检测。She has been searching for her birth familysince 2012.她在丹麦的日德兰半岛长大,自2012年开始就一直在寻找自己的生身父母。According to her adoption file, her parentswere teenage sweethearts who could not afford to raise her. 领养文件显示,她的父母当时是一对十几岁的情侣,无力抚养她。On a previous trip to Seoul, she hadvisited the site of the midwife clinic where she was born. 上一次去首尔时,她曾经到访自己出生的那个助产士诊所所在地。It now houses a cafe and fried chickenrestaurant.如今那里是一间咖啡馆和一个炸鸡店。She feels grateful for her life in Denmark,where she is a chef. 她在丹麦做厨师,对自己现在的生活充满感恩。If she is ever able to meet her birthparents, she said, I just want to thank them for letting me go.她说,如果能见到亲生父母,我只想谢谢他们送走了我。The DNA testing movement has been largelyfinanced by Thomas Park Clement, a Korean adoptee who now lives in Manhattanand in Bloomington, Indiana. 这项DNA检测活动主要是由托玛斯·帕克·克莱门特(Thomas Park Clement)资助。他也是一名韩国被领养人,如今在曼哈顿和印第安纳州布鲁明顿两地生活。A scientist who founded Mectra Labs, amedical manufacturing company, he has pledged to spend million on DNA kitsto give away.这名科学家是医疗设备制造公司梅茨特拉实验室(Mectra Labs)的创立者。他承诺付100万美元购买成套DNA检测务,用于捐赠。I have throughout the years experienced somany of my fellow Korean adoptees’frustrations with birth relative searches, he said in a recentinterview. 这些年来,我目睹那么多同为韩国被领养者的人在寻找亲生父母方面遭遇挫折,他在最近接受采访时说。DNA is shortcutting the search process andbringing all parties in direct communication with each other.DNA提供了一条捷径,可以缩短寻找的过程,让各方进行直接的交流。He has donated 2,550 kits to Koreanadoptees and Korean War veterans in the ed States. 他捐献了2550套DNA检测务给韩国被领养人和美国的朝鲜战争退伍军人。Some of the veterans are the fathers of thefirst wave of South Korea’s international adoptees. 这些退伍军人中,有一些是第一波被跨国领养的韩国人的生身父亲。He has also given 450 test kits to325Kamra, a volunteer organization started last year, to distribute in SouthKorea.他还捐赠了450套检测务给去年成立的志愿者组织325卡姆拉(325Kamra),让它针对韩国进行分配。When testing works, it is remarkablyefficient.DNA检测起效的时候,效率是非常惊人的。This month, 325Kamra announced its firstmatch between a Korean birth mother and an American adoptee. 本月,325卡姆拉宣布了该机构配对成功的第一对——一名韩国生身母亲和一位身在美国的被领养人。Within 48 hours, the adoptee, Kyung EunDavidson, 33, of Everett, Washington, was speaking to her mother for the firsttime in 30 years.不到48小时,生活在华盛顿州埃弗雷特的被领养人、33岁的京银·戴维森(Kyung Eun Davidson)便和她的母亲说上了话,这是30年来的头一遭。It’s been an amazing,crazy and wonderful experience, Davidson told The Korea Herald.那是一种让人惊奇、有些疯狂同时也很棒的体验,戴维森对《韩国先驱报》(The Korea Herald)讲道。Adoptees are not the only ones placingtheir hopes in DNA tests.被领养者并不是唯一将希望寄托在DNA检测上的人。Last month, Song Chang-sook, 89, traveled200 miles from Pusan with his caregiver to take a DNA test in Seoul. 上个月,89岁的宋章肃(Song Chang-sook,音)与他的护理员跋涉200英里,从釜山来到首尔接受DNA检测。Having heard about the testing on a morningtelevision program, he was searching for the three sons he relinquished foradoption more than 40 years ago.他在一档早间电视节目中听说了这个检测项目,之前他一直在寻找自己在40多年前送养的三个儿子。When his wife died of typhoid fever in1970, his mother-in-law decided that the children should be given up foradoption rather than raised by a single father. 在他的妻子于1970年死于伤寒时,他的岳母坚持认为,三个孩子应该被送出去,而不是由一个单身父亲抚养。He gave up his three sons: Won Ho, born in1965; Won Young, born in 1967; and Won Hee, born in 1968.他放弃了自己的三个儿子:生于1965年的元镐(Won Ho,音)、1967年的元融(Won Young,音)和1968年的元熙(Won Hee,音)。Five years later, he returned to theadoption agency, Holt International, asking for their whereabouts. 五年后,他返回领养机构霍尔特国际(Holt International),询问他们的下落。He inquired many more times after that. 此后,他又问过很多次。At one point, someone told him that hissons were living together in France. 曾经有人告诉他,三个儿子一起生活在法国。But Holt was prohibited from disclosingpersonal information about the three boys. 但霍尔特被禁止泄露三个男孩的个人信息。The 2012 adoption law that gives adopteesthe right to petition for their birth records offers no such benefit to theparents.2012年的领养法允许被领养者申请获得自己的出生记录,但没有赋予送养的父母同样的权利。Song thinks about the last time he saw hischildren, on Nov. 3, 1971. 宋章肃时常想到自己最后一次见到孩子们的时候,那是1971年11月3日。The year before, his oldest son, Won Ho,had been hospitalized for a month with a broken shoulder from a car accident. 之前的一年,他的大儿子元镐曾因在车祸中肩部骨折而住了一个月的院。 /201609/463857山东省第一人民医院医生值班 ;W; means wide connection.W代表广联互通。Wuzhen is located in Zhejiang province, an economic powerhouse in East China. 乌镇位于中国经济强省浙江。More than 80 percent of the country’s e-retailers, 70 percent of exports, and 60 percent of e-commerce relies on platforms based in Zhejiang. 我国80%以上的电子零售商、70%的出口以及60%的电子商务都是依托浙江省内的平台开展业务。Tongxiang itself, which Wuzhen is a part of, is home to 560 Internet enterprises, over 30,000 registered retailers and 48 Taobao service stations.仅桐乡市就有560家互联网企业,3万多家登记在册的零售商和48个淘宝网务站点。The essence of Internet is connection, the value of information lies in interflow. 互联网的精髓在于互联,而信息的价值在于互通。The World Internet Conference brings opportunities and vigor to Wuzhen, a city which perfectly reflects nature, tradition, development and modernity.世界互联网大会为乌镇带来了机遇和活力,而这个城镇本身就完美体现了自然、传统、发展与现代。;U; means universal vision.U代表全球视野。With a theme of ;Innovation-driven Internet Development for the Benefit of All – Building a Community of Common Future in Cyberspace;, the conference will be composed of forums, an expo, and a release event in addition to the opening and closing ceremonies. 在创新驱动,造福人类——携手共建网络空间命运共同体的主题下,本届互联网大会将举办论坛、览会、发布活动以及开闭幕式等活动。The conference will host 16 forums covering 20 hot issues, such as Internet economy, Internet innovation, Internet culture, governance in cyberspace and international cooperation on Internet.大会将举办16场论坛涵盖20个热门话题,包括:互联网经济,互联网创新,互联网文化,网络空间治理以及互联网国际合作,等等。World leading Internet achievements will be on display at the Light of the Internet Expo.全球领先的互联网成果将在互联网之光览会上展出。;Z; means zealous ideas.Z代表充满的想法。Wuzhen’s Xizha scenic spot and Wucun county have been selected to host brainstorming activities for Internet and tech giants, such as Alibaba, Foxconn, Jinritoutiao, 58.com.乌镇西栅景区和乌村会举办互联网和科技界大咖头脑风暴活动,大咖们来自阿里巴巴、富士康、今日头条以及58同城等。;H; means humanitarian care.H代表人道主义关怀。Industry experts and insiders from across the globe have been invited to attend. 全球的行业专家和内部人士都受邀出席本次大会。It is the first time that the Light of the Internet Expo will be open to the public. 互联网之光览会也首次对公众开放。Microsoft, IBM, SAP, Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu and over 310 well-known enterprises will attend the expo. 微软、IBM、SAP、阿里巴巴、腾讯、百度以及310多家知名企业都将现身览会。A total of 6,300 multilingual students from 15 universities in Zhejiang province will serve as volunteers in reception centers, main venues, news centers, airports and hotels.来自浙江15所高校的6300名多语种学生在接待中心、主场馆、新闻中心、机场和酒店提供志愿务。;E; means economic benefits.E代表经济收益。Cross-border and rural electricity suppliers, sharing economy, big data, cloud computing, Internet finance and intelligent equipment have become common place in daily life, not to mention information economy is now an important contributor to Chinese GDP.跨境和农村电力供应、分享经济、大数据、云计算、互联网金融以及智能设备已经在日常生活中普及,更不用说,信息经济如今已经是我国国内生产总值的重要组成部分。Innovation-driven development is key to succeeding in the international economy, and innovative Internet development will bring prosperity to the whole world. 创新驱动发展是在全球经济中取得成功的关键,而创新的互联网发展将为整个世界带来繁荣。The Chinese Internet Plus initiative lays the foundation for digital China construction, boosting Internet innovation and bringing untold benefits. 中国的互联网+战略为数字中国建设奠定了基础,促进了互联网创新,还带来了无数利好。The rapid development of the Chinese Internet is set to bring more opportunities to international enterprises and entrepreneurs.中国互联网的快速发展必将为全球的企业和企业家们带来更多机遇。;N; means new future.N代表新的未来。The Wuzhen International Internet Convention Center, a permanent home for the World Internet Conference, was designed by Wang Shu, a professor at the China Academy of Art, winning a Pritzker Architecture Award. 世界互联网大会的永久场馆——乌镇互联网国际会展中心由中国首位普利兹克建筑奖得主、中国美院教授王澍领衔设计。Covering 81,000 square meters and consisting of three functional areas (a conference center, a reception center, and an exhibition center), the venue will meet the needs of the event, including hosting meetings, forums, and exhibitions. 会展中心占地8.1万平方米,由三个功能区组成(会议中心、接待中心以及展览中心),将满足世界互联网大会的所有需求,包括举办会议、论坛和展览。The conference center is composed of a main venue and 18 meeting rooms, while the exhibition center has eight pavilions. 会议中心由一个主场馆和18个会议室组成,展览中心有8个展馆。The interior decoration of the venue meets the standards of most large international conferences with a complete set of facilities, plus fast and reliable Internet services.会展中心的内部装饰达到了举办大型国际会议的标准,设备齐全,网络务快捷稳定。 /201611/478980青岛省妇幼保健院

青岛普通人流手术Britons are the world's biggest fans of fast food, just ahead of Americans, while the famously gastronomic French are the least attracted to quick meals, according to a study published last week.The survey of 13 countries also confirmed growing concern over obesity worldwide, but noted different priorities and strategies in different parts of the world for tackling it."People are inherently contradictory and nowhere is it more obvious than on such a sensitive and important issue as their weight," says Steve Garton of polling body Synovate, who produced the survey jointly with the B."The results show there's a world of people who cannot deny themselves that hamburger or extra piece of pizza, but probably make themselves feel better by washing it down with a diet cola."In terms of fast food, 45 percent of Britons agreed with the statement "I like the taste of fast food too much to give it up" ahead of 44 percent for Americans and Canadians at 37 percent.The French, long proud of their reputation for high-class cuisine, strongly disagree: 81 percent rejected the statement, followed by 75 percent of Singaporeans and 73 percent of people from Romania."Britons love their fish and chips," Garton says."French people take care of their image as a matter of course. Being thin is part of our culture and a point of pride," he says. "On top of this there is increasing awareness of the devastation obesity can cause to one's health."Overall the obesity problem is fuelling increasing concern worldwide - although some are more concerned than others.Fifteen percent of French people and 12 percent of Americans weigh themselves every single day.In terms of how to shed weight there are also different strategies. Globally most people say cutting food intake is the best answer, followed by 43 percent who do more exercise.But there are regional variations: 57 percent of Americans, 56 percent of French and 54 percent of Britons cut down on food to shed weight, while 14 percent of Malaysians opt for herbs and supplements to cut their weight. 上周公布的一项调查表明,全世界最爱吃快餐的是英国人,其次是美国人;而以高超烹饪技艺而著称的法国人最不喜爱快餐。此外,该项针对13个国家的调查实,世界各地的人们越来越关注肥胖问题,但各国对这个问题的关注程度和应对方法不尽相同。该调查由Synovate民调机构与B联合开展。Synovate民调机构的史蒂夫#8226;加顿说:“人天生矛盾,而在体重这个敏感重要的问题上体现的尤为明显。”“调查结果显示,全世界的人们似乎都无法抗拒汉堡或皮萨饼的诱惑,但可能用杯减肥可乐将它们冲下肚感觉会好些。”就快餐而言,45%的英国人选择的是“我太喜欢快餐的味道了,简直无法割舍。”;44%的美国人和37%的加拿大人同意该说法。向来以高品位烹饪技艺而著称的法国人强烈反对这一说法,81%的受访者不同意该观点;新加坡和罗马尼亚的这一比例分别为75%和73%。加顿说:“英国人深爱他们的炸鱼和炸薯条。”他说:“法国人很注重自己的形象,这是件很自然的事。保持苗条的身材是我们文化的一部分,也是一种骄傲。此外,人们也越来越意识到肥胖给健康造成的危害。”总体来看,全世界对于肥胖问题的担忧日益加剧,不过有些人对此尤为担心。15%的法国人和美国人每天都称体重。人们的减肥方法也不尽相同。从全世界范围看,多数人称节食是最佳减肥法,其次是运动减肥,43%的人选择运动减肥。但同时还存在一些地域差别:57%的美国人、56%的法国人和54%的英国人通过节食减肥,14%的马来西亚人用草药和补品减肥。 /200803/32755青岛哪家医院做人流安全保密 青岛手术打胎价钱

青岛看妇科疾病的医院哪个比较好The technology industry is facing up to the world-shaking ramifications of artificial intelligence. There is now a recognition that AI will disrupt how societies operate, from education and employment to how data will be collected about people.科技行业正准备迎接人工智能带来的震撼世界的影响。如今人们意识到,从教育、就业,到如何收集人们的数据,人工智能将扰乱社会运转的方式。Machine learning, a form of advanced pattern recognition that enables machines to make judgments by analysing large volumes of data, could greatly supplement human thought. But such soaring capabilities have stirred almost Frankenstein-like fears about whether developers can control their creations.机器学习是一种高级形态的模式识别,能够让机器通过分析大量数据来做出判断。这有望大大辅助人类思维。但这种与日俱增的能力引发了近乎“科学怪人”(Frankenstein)式的担忧:开发人员能否控制他们创造出的机器?Failures of autonomous systems — like the death last yearof a US motorist in a partially self-driving car from Tesla Motors — have led to a focus on safety, says Stuart Russell, a professor of computer science and AI expert at the University of California, Berkeley. “That kind of event can set back the industry a long way, so there is a very straightforward economic self-interest here,” he says.加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)计算机科学教授、人工智能专家斯图亚特?拉塞尔(Stuart Russell)表示,自动系统的失误(就像去年驾驶一辆特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)部分自动驾驶汽车的美国驾车者死亡那样)促使人们关注安全。他表示:“这种事件可能会严重阻碍行业的发展,因此这里有着非常直接的经济自身利益。”Alongside immigration and globalisation, fears of AI-driven automation are fuelling public anxiety about inequality and job security. The election of Donald Trump as US president and the UK’s vote to leave the EU were partly driven by such concerns. While some politicians claim protectionist policies will help workers, many industry experts say most jobs losses are caused by technological change, largely automation.除了移民和全球化,对人工智能驱动的自动化的担忧,正引发公众对于不平等和就业安全的担忧。唐纳德?特朗普(Donald Trump)当选美国总统以及英国投票退出欧盟(EU)在一定程度上就是受到这类担忧的推动。尽管一些政治人士声称,保护主义政策将有利于劳动者,但很多行业专家表示,多数就业损失是由科技变革(主要是自动化)造成的。Global elites — those with high income and educational levels, who live in capital cities — are considerably more enthusiastic about innovation than the general population, the FT/Qualcomm Essential Future survey found. This gap, unless addressed, will continue to cause political friction.英国《金融时报》/高通(Qualcomm)联合开展的Essential Future调查发现,全球精英(那些收入和受教育程度高、生活在首都城市的人)对于创新要比普通大众热情得多。除非弥合这种差距,否则它将继续引发政治擦。Vivek Wadhwa, a US-based entrepreneur and academic who writes about ethics and technology, thinks the new wave of automation has geopolitical implications: “Tech companies must accept responsibility for what they’re creating and work with users and policymakers to mitigate the risks and negative impacts. They must have their people spend as much time thinking about what could go wrong as they do hyping products.美国企业家、撰写道德和科技文章的学者维微克?瓦德瓦(Vivek Wadhwa)认为,新的自动化浪潮具有地缘政治上的潜在影响:“科技公司必须对他们所创造出的东西承担责任,并与用户和政策制定者合作,缓解风险和负面影响。他们必须让员工花时间思考哪里可能出错,就像他们花时间宣传产品那样。”The industry is bracing itself for a backlash. Advances in AI and robotics have brought automation to areas of white-collar work, such as legal paperwork and analysing financial data. Some 45 per cent of US employees’ work time is spent on tasks that could be automated with existing technologies, a study by McKinsey says.人工智能行业正在准备应对反弹。人工智能和机器人领域的进步,已经把自动化引入白领工作领域,例如法律文书和分析财务数据。麦肯锡(McKinsey)的一项研究称,在美国员工的工作时间中,大约有45%用在可以借助现有技术实现自动化的任务上。Industry and academic initiatives have been set up to ensure AI works to help people. These include the Partnership on AI to Benefit People and Society, established by companies including IBM, and a m effort involving Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Groups like Open AI, backed by Elon Musk and Google, have made progress, says Prof Russell: “We’ve seen papers?.?.?.?that address the technical problem of safety.”为了确保人工智能有利于人类,已经建立了一些行业和学术计划。其中包括由IBM等公司创建的人工智能造福人类和社会合作组织(Partnership on AI to Benefit People and Society),以及涉及哈佛大学(Harvard)和麻省理工学院(MIT)的一项2700万美元计划。得到埃隆?马斯克(Elon Musk)和谷歌(Google)持的OpenAI等组织已取得进展,拉塞尔教授表示:“我们看到了一些论文……它们针对安全性的技术问题。”There are echoes of past efforts to deal with the complications of a new technology. Satya Nadella, chief executive of Microsoft, compares it to 15 years ago when Bill Gates rallied his company’s developers to combat computer malware. His “trustworthy computing” initiative was a watershed moment. In an interview with the FT, Mr Nadella said he hoped to do something similar to ensure AI works to benefit humans.这方面有一些过去应对新技术影响努力的回声。微软(Microsoft)首席执行官萨蒂亚?纳德拉(Satya Nadella)将其与15年前相比,当时比尔?盖茨(Bill Gates)动员公司的开发人员抗击电脑恶意程序。他发起的“可信计算”倡议是一个分水岭。纳德拉在接受英国《金融时报》采访时表示,他希望采取类似的举措以确保人工智能造福于人类。AI presents some thorny problems, however. Machine learning systems derive insights from large amounts of data. Eric Horvitz, a Microsoft executive, told a US Senate hearing late last year that these data sets may themselves be skewed. “Many of our data sets have been collected?.?.?.?with assumptions we may not deeply understand, and we don’t want our machine-learned applications?.?.?.?to be amplifying cultural biases,” he said.然而,人工智能带来了一些棘手的问题。机器学习系统从大量数据中得出见解。微软高管埃里克?霍维茨(Eric Horvitz)去年底在美国参议院听会上表示,这些数据集可能本身就存在问题。他表示:“我们的很多数据集是……在假设我们可能并不深入理解的情况下收集的,我们不希望让我们的机器学习应用……放大文化偏见。”Last year, an investigation by news organisation ProPublica found that an algorithm used by the US justice system to determine whether criminal defendants were likely to reoffend, had a racial bias. Black defendants with a low risk of reoffending were more likely than white ones to be labelled as high risk.新闻机构ProPublica去年进行的一项调查发现,美国司法机构用来确定刑事被告人是否有可能再次犯罪的算法存在种族偏见。再次犯罪风险较低的黑人被告比白人被告更容易被标记为高风险。Greater transparency is one way forward, for example making it clear what information AI systems have used. But the “thought processes” of deep learning systems are not easy to audit.Mr Horvitz says such systems are hard for humans to understand. “We need to understand how to justify [their] decisions and how the thinking is done.”提高透明度是一条出路,比如明确人工智能系统使用了哪些信息。但深度学习系统的“思维过程”不容易加以审查。霍维茨表示,人类很难理解这种系统。“我们需要理解如何明(它们的)决策合理,以及这种思考是如何完成的。”As AI comes to influence more government and business decisions, the ramifications will be widesp. “How do we make sure the machines we ‘train’ don’t perpetuate and amplify the same human biases that plague society?” asks Joi Ito, director of MIT’s Media Lab.随着人工智能影响更多政府和企业决策,影响将是广泛的。“我们如何确保我们‘培训’的机器不会固化和放大困扰社会的人类偏见?”麻省理工学院媒体实验室主任伊藤穰一(Joi Ito)问道。Executives like Mr Nadella believe a mixture of government oversight — including, by implication, the regulation of algorithms — and industry action will be the answer. He plans to create an ethics board at Microsoft to deal with any difficult questions thrown up by AI.纳德拉等高管认为,将是结合政府监督(言外之意,这包括对算法的监管)和行业行动。他计划在微软成立一个道德委员会,以处理人工智能带来的任何棘手问题。He says: “I want?.?.?.?an ethics board that says, ‘If we are going to use AI in the context of anything that is doing prediction, that can actually have societal impact?.?.?.?that it doesn’t come with some bias that’s built in.’”他说:“我希望有……一个道德委员会,它会这样说,‘如果我们要在任何作出预测、可能具有实际社会影响的场合使用人工智能……那么它不带有内置的一些偏见’。”Making sure AI systems benefit humans without unintended consequences is difficult. Human society is incapable of defining what it wants, says Prof Russell, so programming machines to maximise the happiness of the greatest number of people is problematic.确保人工智能在不会带来一些意想不到的后果的情况下造福人类,是很困难的。拉塞尔教授说,人类社会无法界定自身想要什么,因此通过编程让机器为最多数量的人谋求最大幸福是存在问题的。This is AI’s so-called “control problem”: the risk that smart machines will single-mindedly pursue arbitrary goals even when they are undesirable. “The machine has to allow for uncertainty about what it is the human really wants,” says Prof Russell.这就是人工智能所谓的“控制问题”:智能机器将一心追逐武断的目标,甚至当这些目标并不可取的时候也是如此。“机器必须考虑到人类真正想要的东西具有不确定性,”拉塞尔教授说。Ethics committees will not resolve concerns about AI taking jobs, however. Fears of a backlash were apparent at this year’s World Economic Forum in Davos as executives agonised over how to present AI. The common response was to say machines will make many jobs more fulfilling though other jobs could be replaced.然而,道德委员会无法平息人们对人工智能夺走工作的担忧。在今年的达沃斯世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)上,对反弹的担忧很明显,高管们对于如何采用人工智能并作出解释十分焦虑。普遍的回应是,声称机器在可能取代一些工作的同时,也将让许多工作更能带来成就感。The profits from productivity gains for tech companies and their customers could be huge. How those should be distributed will become part of the AI debate. “Whenever someone cuts cost, that means, hopefully, a surplus is being created,” says Mr Nadella. “You can always tax surplus — you can always make sure that surplus gets distributed differently.”对科技公司和它们的客户而言,生产率提高带来的利益可能是巨大的。如何分配这些利益将成为有关人工智能的辩论的一部分。“每当有人削减了成本,那就意味着有望创造出一些盈余,”纳德拉说,“你总可以对盈余课税——你总可以确保以不同的方式分配这些盈余。” /201702/493454 On June 20, 2016, CEO of Alibaba Jack Ma said at the 20th St. Petersburg International Economic Forum that his biggest mistake was that he made Alibaba.2016年6月20日,阿里巴巴总裁马云在第二十届圣彼得堡国际经济论坛上说,他最大的错误就是创立了阿里巴巴。“My biggest mistake was that I made Alibaba. I never thought this thing would change my life. I was just trying to run a small business, and it grew that big, it brought about that much responsibility and brought about so much trouble.”“我人生中最大的错误是创立了阿里巴巴。我从没想过阿里巴巴会彻底改变我的生活。我明明就是想做点小生意而已,没想到它会发展到这么大规模,带给我太多责任和麻烦。”Jack Ma said if there was a next life, he would never do a business as big as Alibaba, “I want to be my own self, and I want to enjoy my life.”马云说如果有来生,我再也不想做阿里巴巴这么大规模的生意了,“我只想做我自己,我只想享受我的生活。”During his trip to the forum, Ma also met with a representative of the Russian Government. Ma said it was a productive discussion and helped Alibaba to promote more business opportunities in Russia. “I think the development of e-commerce will bring more job opportunities there.”在论坛期间,马云还和俄罗斯政府代表进行了会面。马云说这次的论坛收获很大,给阿里巴巴创造了更多来自俄罗斯的商机。“我想电子商务的发展会给这片土地带来更多工作机会。”A representative of the Russian Government claims that Alibaba and Tmall will soon set up offices in Russia.一名俄罗斯政府代表表示阿里巴巴和天猫将会很快在俄罗斯设立办公室。Russia, Europe, and Southeast Asia are strategic priority areas for Alibaba. Ma points out that the company values a lot of the countries along “one belt one road” since these places do have many good products but are facing trouble with selling due to limitedinfrastructure.俄罗斯,欧洲以及东南亚都是阿里巴巴目前的战略重地。马云强调公司十分重视“一带一路”沿线的国家,因为这些国家有许多好的商品正由于基础设施的限制而面临着销售问题。 /201606/451095青岛无痛人流手术那家医院好青岛阳光女子医院不孕不育科

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