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青岛市立医院做人流要多少钱

楼主:导医热点 时间:2019年02月19日 19:42:22 点击:0 回复:0
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China’s own satellite navigation system has won a stamp of approval from an international maritime body, an important step toward its goal of global acceptance for its answer to the ed States’ Global Positioning System (GPS).中国自己开发的卫星导航系统获得了一个国际海事机构的批准,这是朝着其全球目标迈出的重要一步。该系统是对美国“全球定位系统(GPS)”的回应,中国希望它在全球范围内能获得广泛接受。The Maritime Safety Committee of the International Maritime Organization, a ed Nations body that sets standards for international shipping, formally included Beidou in the World-Wide Radionavigation System during its Nov. 17-21 meeting. This means that the Chinese system has become the third system, after GPS and Russia’s Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), recognized by the ed Nations body for operations at sea.国际海事组织(International Maritime Organization--IMO)的海上安全委员会(Maritime Safety Committee),是负责在制定国际航运标准的联合国机构。该委员会在11月17日至21日的会议上,正式把中国的北斗系统列入全球无线电导航系统(World-Wide Radionavigation System, WWRNS)。这意味着,北斗已经成为继GPS和俄罗斯全球导航卫星系统(GLONASS)之后,获得海上安全委员会认可的第三个海上作业系统。The inclusion of Beidou “is a recognition that Beidou can provide positioning data of adequate accuracy for its coverage area,” said Kevin Pollpeter, who focuses on China’s space program and information warfare issues at the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation at the University of California, San Diego.列入北斗“是因为它能够在覆盖区域内,提供足够精确的定位数据,”凯文·波尔彼得(Kevin Pollpeter)表示。他在加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California, San Diego)全球冲突与合作研究所(Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation)研究中国的太空计划和信息战问题。China first tested the Beidou system in 2000 and has since invested billions in its development to compete with and lower the country’s dependence on GPS. It has mandated the use of the domestic system in government departments including public security, disaster relief and tourism. In January 2013, the country’s transportation authority ordered all tour buses, long-distance buses and vehicles transporting “dangerous articles” in nine provinces to install the system. New heavy trucks manufactured in the nine provinces must install the system or they will not receive transportation permits, the vice minister of transport said. The country has also installed the navigation system in more than 50,000 Chinese fishing boats, including those plying the waters of the disputed South China Sea.中国第一次测试北斗系统是在2000年,此后该国投入数以十亿计的美元来开发它,以便与与GPS抗衡,降低该国对GPS的依赖。中国规定公安、抢险救灾和旅游等政府部门使用国产系统。2013年1月,交通运输部责令九个省为所有旅游大巴、长途客车和运送“危险物品”的车辆安装北斗系统。这九个省制造的新重型卡车必须安装该系统,否则无法获得交通运输许可,交通运输部副部长说。该国还把这种导航系统安装在5万多艘中国渔船上,其中包括那些在有争议的南海海域作业的渔船。But Beidou is not yet a mature system and is hardly poised to rival GPS globally, analysts say. Currently, GPS holds 95 percent of China’s navigation market.但北斗还不是一个成熟系统,尚未做好在全球范围内和GPS竞争的准备,分析师说。目前,GPS在中国导航市场上占有95%的份额。“I would not expect this announcement to result in an upsurge of demand for Beidou,” Mr. Pollpeter said, citing such factors as the decades-long proven reliability of GPS, its accuracy and cheaper receiver cost.“我觉得北斗成为全球无线电导航系统的消息,不会导致人们对它的需求高涨,”波尔彼得说,因为GPS的可靠性经过了数十年的考验,它有很高的准确性,而且GPS接收器也更便宜。However, what the Beidou system does have is strong backing from the Chinese government. In 2012, the vice chairman of the country’s top military body, the Central Military Commission, urged the country’s researchers to improve the system’s capacity to prevent interference, calling the system a “milestone” for the country and military, the state news agency Xinhua reported. The following year, the country’s powerful National Development and Reform Commission drew up a national development plan for Beidou.然而,北斗系统得到了中国政府的大力持。据中国官方通讯社新华社报道,2012年,该国最高军事机构中央军事委员会副主席敦促中国研究人员提高该系统的抗干扰能力,他还称该系统为国家和军队树立了一个“里程碑”。次年,中国强大的发改委为北斗制定了全国性发展计划。Not content with the system’s adoption within China, the government has also set the goal of providing global coverage with 35 geostationary and non-geostationary orbit satellites by 2020. To promote the system’s adoption by other Asian countries, China has been offering civilian use of the service free, the director of the Beidou Satellite System Application Center told Xinhua last year.中国政府不满足于国内对北斗系统的采用,还设立目标,决心到2020年,用35个对地静止和非静止轨道的卫星提供覆盖全球的信号。去年,北斗卫星系统应用中心的主任告诉记者,为了促进其他亚洲国家对该系统的采用,中国免费用它提供民用务。The government says the system is being tested across the region, from taxi-dispatching services in Cambodia to land-use management in Myanmar.政府说,从柬埔寨的出租车调度务,到缅甸的土地使用管理,该系统正在亚洲各地进行测试。“China sees development of Beidou as critical to its military and economic security and has designated it as part of its national infrastructure,” Mr. Pollpeter said.“中国认为北斗系统的开发是其军事和经济安全的关键要素,并将其作为国家级基础设施来建设,”波尔彼得说。Beijing wants to reduce its dependence on GPS because it is concerned the ed States “could disable or degrade the GPS signal to China and thus render its precision-guided smart weapons dumb,” he said. In addition, loss of navigation could also affect sectors as wide-ranging as banking and power transmission.中国政府希望减少对GPS的依赖,因为它担心美国“屏蔽或减少传送到中国的GPS信号,导致中国的精确制导智能武器无法发挥作用,”他说。此外,失去导航信号可能会给很多部门带来影响,比如和电力传输部门。In addition to security concerns, there are economic factors behind the promotion of Beidou.除了安全问题之外,推广北斗系统也有经济上的考量。“The market for satellite navigation products and services in China is estimated to reach to 400 billion renminbi,” about billion, by 2020 and China wants Beidou to capture 70 to 80 percent market share, Mr. Pollpeter said.到2020年,“中国的卫星导航产品和务市场规模可达4千亿人民币,”中国希望北斗系统能够占据70%至80%的市场份额,波尔彼得说。The Chinese Ministry of Transportation sent a delegation to the Maritime Safety Committee meeting, held in London, to introduce the Chinese system. Beidou is the Chinese name for the Big Dipper constellation, one of the brightest clusters of stars in the solar system, which long served as a crucial navigational tool for travelers.中国交通部的代表团参加了海上安全委员会在伦敦举行的会议,并对北斗系统做了介绍。北斗是Big Dipper的中文名字,从太阳系中看去,它是最明亮的星群,长期以来都是旅行者的重要导航标志。What China has been able to do in recent years is overtake Europe’s efforts with its Galileo system, said Todd E. Humphreys, assistant professor at the University of Texas at Austin’s Cockrell School of Engineering. Galileo has not yet been included in the World-Wide Radionavigation System.欧洲也在开发伽利略(Galileo)系统,最近几年,中国赶超了他们,德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校科克雷尔工程学校(University of Texas at Austin’s Cockrell School of Engineering)的助理教授托德·E·汉弗莱斯(Todd E. Humphreys)说。伽利略尚未被列入全球无线电导航系统。“It’s interesting that BDS” — Beidou — “began in earnest after Galileo, but has by now outpaced Galileo in establishing itself as a global system,” Mr. Humphreys said. “The Europeans are hampered by too many committees.”“有趣的是,BDS(即北斗)比伽利略后发而先至,已经成为了一个全球性系统,”汉弗莱斯说。“欧洲的委员会太多,阻碍了他们的步伐。” /201412/347002India launches its biggest ever rocket:Capsule onboard the mighty GSLV Mk-III could one day carry astronauts into space.印度升空其最大型的火箭:GSLVMk-III火箭上的太空舱有朝一日或许会携带宇航员进入太空。India successfully launched its biggest ever rocket today in an effort to ramp up its ambitious space programme.印度发射了其最大型的火箭以进行其雄心勃勃的太空计划。The rocket, designed to carry heavier communication and other satellites into higher orbit, blasted off from Sriharikota in the southeast state of Andhra Pradesh.这种火箭在设计上是用来携带重型通信和其他卫星进入更高轨道的,在东南部安德拉邦的斯里赫里戈达岛发射升空。The launch was the next crucial step inIndia#39;s space programme history, after the nation successfully put a satelliteinto orbit around Mars in September.这次发射在印度空间项目历史上是关键的另一步,而在九月份印度成功将一颗卫星送到火星周围的轨道上。#39;This was a very significant day in the history of (the) Indian space programme,#39; Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman K.SRadhakrishnan said from mission control.“这在印度空间项目历史上,这是具有重要意义的一天,”印度空间研究组织主席如是说。ISRO scientists have been riding high since an Indian spacecraft successfully reached Mars on a shoe-string budget, winning Asia#39;s race to the red planet.在预算不多的情况下,印度成功的将一颗卫星送到火星,是亚洲首个抵达火星的国家,这让印度空间研究组织的科学家们情绪高涨。Although India has successfully launched lighter satellites in recent years, it has struggled to match the heavier loads sent up by other countries.虽然印度最近几年也成功发射了一些轻型卫星,但是在火箭运载量上却无法和其他国家抗衡。The new rocket, weighing 630 tonnes and capable of carrying 4 tonnes, is a boost for India#39;s attempts to grab a greaterslice of the #163;190 billion (0 billion) global space market.而这种新型的火箭重达630吨,能携带4吨重的物体,这将让印度在价值达3000亿美元的全球太空市场中获得更大的一杯羹。 /201412/350297

The Water一driven Armillary Sphere漏水转浑天仪In the middle of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zhang Heng,an outstanding astronomer, made bold innovations to the armillary sphere,and de-signed and made the first water-driven armillary sphere in the world to measure the position of celestial bodies,which was carved with known important astronomical phenomena. People could observe the movement of the sun,the moon and the stars.汉中期,杰出的天文学家张衡对浑仪作了大胆创新,设计并制作了漏水转浑天仪。张衡还制造出了世界上第一架测量天体位置的水运浑天仪,凡是已知的重要天文现象,都刻在这架仪器上。人们可以通过浑天仪观测到日月星辰运行的情况。To enable the armillary sphere to rotate,Zhang employed the gear system,linking the celestial globe with the kettle clepsydra. Powered by the water leaked out of the kettle,the gear drove the celestial globe to rotate around the axis,one day per circuit, in synchronization with the celestial body(sun).In this way,the celestial changes were presented accurately.By observing the instrument,one could know when a star rose in the east and set in the west.漏水转浑天仪的主体是一个代表天球的球体模型。球里面有一根铁轴贯穿球心,轴的方向就是天球的方向,也是地球自转轴的方向。轴和球有两个交点,一个是北极(北天极),一个是南极(南天极)。为了让浑天仪能自己转动,张衡采用齿轮系统把浑象和记时用的漏壶联系起来,用漏壶滴出来的水的力量带动齿轮,齿轮带动浑象绕轴旋转,一天一周,与天球同步转动,这样,就可以准确地把天象的变化表示出来。人在屋子里看着仪器,就可以知道某星正从东方升起,某星就要从西方落下。The world’s first water-driven astronomic instrument with explicit historical re-cords,the new armillary sphere employed an extremely complex gear system. It was a proud achievement for ancient Chinese people to work out such a complex instrument. Unfortunately,the driving system was not handed down,as made in the remote past.漏水转浑天仪是有明确历史记载的世界上第一架用水力驱动的天文仪器。浑天仪应用到的齿轮机构和凸轮机构十分复杂。远在1800多年前,中国古人就可以造出这样复杂的仪器是很值得自豪的。可惜的是,这套复杂的传动系统因为年代久远没有能够流传下来。 /201511/409370

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