2019年02月19日 02:59:12|来源:国际在线|编辑:排名诊疗
Very stupid robbersTwo robbers were robbing a hotel. The first robber said, ;I hear sirens. Jump!;两个盗贼在一家旅馆偷东西。第一个说:“我听到警报响了,快跳吧!” The second one said, ;But we#39;re on the 13 th floor!;The first one screamed back, ;This is no time to be superstitious!;第二个说:“但是我们现在在第13层啊!”第一个尖叫着回敬他:“都什么时候了,还这么迷信!”Three hundred sixty-three thousand and fifty-three dollars was the amount that Edith Windsor was assessed in federal estate taxes when her wife, Thea Spyer, died in 2009. Zero dollars, everyone agrees, would have been the amount she owed if the federal government had recognized their marriage, as the state of New York aly did. There are other numbers that are more relevant to their story—like forty-four, the number of years they spent with each other; or twenty-two, the share of those years during which Spyer lived with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, the disease that eventually killed her—and that Windsor gave up her own job to nurse her through. There were the numbers Windsor worked while getting a graduate degree in mathematics in the nineteen-fifties, and those in the early computer codes that she wrote for the Atomic Energy Commission’s UNIVAC and at I.B.M., where she was, at the time, one of very few women programmers. But the difference between zero and three hundred sixty-three thousand andfifty-three is what gives Windsor standing to bring a case challenging the Defense of Marriage Act. The Supreme Court will hear her case on March 27th, and, the day before, it will hear another one challenging Proposition 8, California’s ban on same-sex marriage.36万3053美元——这是伊迪斯·温莎在其伴侣西娅·斯拜尔去世以后应当缴纳的联邦遗产税。不过所有人都一致同意,如果联邦政府能像纽约州那样承认她们的婚姻,那么她将付的税额则为:0美元。还有些数字和她们联系更为紧密——例如“44”,她们陪伴彼此44年;或者“22”,斯拜尔与多发性硬化症斗争了22年,而温莎也辞去工作照顾了她22年,并一直陪着她走到了生命的终点。还有的数字伴随温莎于20世纪50年代拿到了数学研究生学位,有的蕴含在她为原子能委员会的通用自动计算机编写的代码里,抑或是在美国国际商用机器公司(IBM)工作的时候,那时她可是极为少有的女性程序员之一。虽然数字众多,但正是0和363053之间的差距成为了温莎上诉,挑战《婚姻保护法》权威的立足点。最高法院将于3月27日审理她的案件,而在26日,法院会审理另外一宗叫板加利福尼亚州禁止同性婚姻8号提案的案件。How much does money matter when thinking about same-sex marriage, or about marriage at all? The essence of the debate—and certainly its emotional heart—lies with words like family and respect, honor and honesty, and, above all, love. But those words, and even more so others—security, protection, sickness and health, home and career—are not divorced from finances. This is particularly true when any one of them is used in the same sentence as “children.” Another number to add to the equation: eleven hundred and thirty-eight, which is the number of federal laws that rely on a definition of marriage. Many more of them are about money, in one way or the other, than about love. Nor is the concern simply that of the family involved: companies have an interest, too, as does the larger business world, in not having families live in what might be called an economic closet.当谈及同性婚姻或者干脆只谈婚姻的时候,钱到底有多重要呢?这场辩论的实质——当然还有它的情感内涵——是“家庭和尊重”、“荣誉和诚信”、以及最重要的“爱”等词汇。但是这些词汇,甚至是其他的一些诸如“安全”、“保护“、”疾病“、”健康“、“家庭”、“事业“等都和财产有着紧密的联系。尤其是它们和”孩子“一词出现在同一个句子里的时候。在这个等式当中还能加进一个数字:1138,这是给”婚姻“下一个定义所需要的联邦法律的数目。这些法律当中,更多的是和金钱有着千丝万缕的联系,而并非是和爱有关。而似乎和家庭本身也并没有多大关系:因为只要能让同性家庭出”经济柜“,公司和企业界都能从中获利。That there is a business case for marriage equality was confirmed this week with the news that at least sixty major corporations will file an amicus curiae brief in support of overturning Prop. 8—a move, depending on how the Court writes the decision, that could establish a right to same-sex marriage not only in California but in the country as a whole. (Some leading Republicans are also submitting a brief.) More may sign on before the filing deadline on Thursday. The companies range from Apple to Xerox, with everyone from Levi Strauss, Cisco, Morgan Stanley, Nike, and Panasonic in between. Fortune got a draft of the brief, which s in part这周有一起关于婚姻平等的案子,据说该案件周至少有60家企业会作为法庭之友进行案件陈述,以此来持推翻8号提案——这一举动很可能会在加利福尼亚州乃至全国范围内为同性婚姻建立一项合法权益,当然也要依赖于法院的最终判决。(一些共和党领导人也提交了案件陈述。)周四提出议案之前可能还会有更多成员签字。这些公司范围从苹果到施乐,其间还包括李维斯、思科、根斯坦利、耐克、松下等公司。《财富》杂志拿到了一份案件陈述的草稿,该陈述在某种程度上是为一些受到不公正待遇的人群辩护,因为8号提案阻止了商业进行市场理想的高效运作——尤其是在招新、雇佣以及维持状态最佳且最能胜任工作的人才方面。埃米希公司正与来自美国内外的公司竞争,他们持不管是不是同性的所有情侣都享有平等的婚姻权利。If one believes that protecting children is a priority, then so is same-sex marriage. A third of lesbian couples and a fifth of gay couples who live together aly have children, according to the Census, and a lack of access to marriage takes both social and economic security away from them. A widow or widower with a minor child whose income falls below a certain level can get social-security benefits based on the deceased spouse’s earnings—but not if the spouse is of the same sex. The same is true of tax laws, like the one affecting Windsor, that might cost families their homes. Some opponents of same-sex marriage have turned this on its head and wondered if it will cost the government too much money. The answer, according to a Congressional Budget Office study, is that it most likely will not, both because the amounts, though large in the life of, say, a widow with a child, are not so large in terms of the federal budget. The government will also make money from things like imposing the income-tax marriage penalty on more couples, and from some people losing eligibility for benefits when their combined income is calculated. (There are harder-to-answer questions, like how much it might save Medicare if, earlier in life, a person had access to preventive care through a spouse’s insurance.) Marriage equality does not inflate budgets; it removes irrational distortions from them.有人觉得对于儿童的保护应该摆在首位,而实际上同性婚姻也是如此。据人口普查,三分之一的女同伴侣和五分之一的男同伴侣已育有子女,可是由于婚姻不能合法化,子女的社会和经济安全都无法得到保障。丧偶的寡妇或鳏夫如果育有未成年子女,且收入未能达到一定水平,则有权利获得社会保障金——但如果配偶是同性则无权获得。而税法,比如影响温莎的税法,却对于同性婚姻具有同等效力,这很有可能让家庭离破碎,以至于让很多人无家可归。一些同性婚姻的反对者却将此归罪与同性婚姻本身,并怀疑这会给政府带来很大的经济负担。不过,据国会预算办公室的调查显示,这种情况并不会发生,因为尽管现实生活当中,一个寡妇带着孩子的情况很多见,但实际上联邦政府的预算并不多,政府可以从向更多的夫妻征收婚姻罚款所得税以及向因计算累计收入而失去获利资格的人那儿把钱挣回来。(还有一些更难回答的问题,例如如果早先一方从配偶的保险当中获得了预防护理的话,那么承认同性婚姻可能会省下多少医疗保险的钱等等。)婚姻平等并不会扩大政府预算,反而会去除预算当中的非理性因素。And that is why, if one believes in protecting free markets, then same-sex marriage should be a priority, too. This is the point that the amicus brief made with regard to recruiting. It hurts companies and the economy when the choice in taking a job at one firm or the other is not based on its salary offer or a belief in its prospects, but by whether it is based in a state the recognizes the employee’s marriage. It hurts, too, when a spouse who is a foreign citizen is not welcome here. And—something the corporate brief also mentions—there is the wedding business to consider, too. Last summer, New York City estimated that it gained two hundred and fifty-nine million dollars from same-sex marriages in the first year that they were legal in the state. “Marriage equality has made our city more open, inclusive, and free—and it has also helped to create jobs and support our economy,” Mayor Bloomberg said.这也就是为什么持保护自由市场的人也将同性婚姻合法化视作是首要任务。这也是法庭之友的书面陈述所要表达的关于公司招聘的观点。如果人才在选择工作的时候不是看公司所开出的薪资待遇也不看公司的发展前景,而是看公司所处的州是否认同员工婚姻的话,那么这将危及到公司以及经济的发展。如果因配偶不是本国公民而不被接纳,这也会带来一定损害。在公司的案件陈述当中还提到,婚姻产业也是需要考虑的一个因素。去年夏天,纽约市估计,在纽约州同性婚姻合法化之后第一年,同性婚姻为其带来了2亿5900万美元的收益。纽约市长彭说:“婚姻平等让我们的城市变得更加开放、包容和自由——而且也帮助我们创造更多的工作机会,并持我们的经济向前发展。“But there are less obvious ways that a failure to recognize same-sex marriage can reduce the transparency that helps the private sector thrive. For example, the Windsor brief notes that DOMA has the effect of exempting same-sex spouses of politicians and public officials from financial-disclosure requirements. It also denies them the protection of laws that, for example, make threatening the spouse of a federal agent a crime.但是,不任何同性婚姻还会以一些不太明显的方式减弱有利于私营部门发展的透明度。例如,在温莎的案件陈述中指出,《婚姻保护法案》具有免除同性恋政府官员及公职官员披露财务的效力,而同时也否认他们受到例如认为威胁政府机构配偶为犯罪的法律保护。I.B.M. didn’t know it at the time, but it came close to losing Edith Windsor when, as her brief recounts, it “unwittingly ran afoul” of an executive order that forbade companies with federal contracts from having gay or lesbian employees—the order was issued in 1953, the year before the computer pioneer Alan Turing, who had faced similar barriers in Great Britain, killed himself by eating a poisoned apple. Luckily, the F.B.I. didn’t ask Windsor about the women in her life when interviewing her for a security clearance (to work on that UNIVAC), and I.B.M. didn’t find out, either; she wore a diamond pin, rather than a ring, as a symbol of her long engagement to Spyer. And then she left the company to care for a woman who, for many years, she could only say was a friend.IBM公司起先并不知道她是同性恋,而在温莎快要离开的时候,(据温莎陈述)公司与一项行政命令“无意间发生冲突“——这一命令是在1953年签发的,禁止和政府签约的公司雇佣同性恋员工,而在前一年,计算机工程师阿兰·图灵也在英国面临同样的障碍,最终他选择了毒自杀。所幸的是,联邦调查局在对温莎进行(通用自动计算机)安全调查的时候,并没有问及她另一半的情况,而IMB公司也并没有察觉。她当时戴着一枚钻石胸针而并非传统的钻石戒指来象征着她和斯拜尔的婚姻。接着,她便离开了公司,去照顾那个多少年来,她只能以”朋友“相称的女人。 /201303/228261Chances are, the petite woman hanging onto the pole, barely able to maintain her balance on the swaying No. 7 train, does not have a beer gut. 大多数时候,如果你看到摇摇晃晃的纽约地铁七号线上有个紧紧抓住把手、几乎快要摔倒的娇弱女子,要记得,她那隆起的腹部可不是啤酒肚。 No, ladies and gentlemen, her protruding stomach inches away from your Kindle or iPhone holds part of the future generation of our great city. She#39;s pregnant! So have some pity in these dog days of summer and give up your seats, you lazy bums. 是的,女士们先生们,那个距离你们的Kindle电子书或是iPhone电话几厘米远的大肚子里,装着的可是我们这个伟大城市未来一代的一分子。她正怀着!所以,在这大热天里,有点同情心吧,快站起来让座,懒虫! Let#39;s be real: We are all guilty of ignoring the pregnant woman sometimes. I, too, confess to pretending not to see her out of the corner of my eye. I#39;m napping. I#39;m engrossed in #39;Gone Girl.#39; I fought hard for this seat, damn it, and someone else will surely get up, right? 让我们诚实一点吧:我们都有过假装看不见妇的时候。我承认,我也这样做过,装作什么都没有看见。我在打盹儿,我在专注地看《Gone Girl》。该死,我费了好大劲才得到这个座位,而且总会有别的人站起来让座的,对吧? Ah, the plight of the pregnant. 唉,怀的苦恼啊。 Marion Koshy strategizes. The Kew Gardens resident is seven months pregnant. Her commute is long. We#39;re talking more than an hour long, a bus ride to the E train to the 6 train long. 住在丘园小区(Kew Gardens)的马里昂#8226;科希(Marion Koshy)为此大费周章。科希是一名34岁的社工,怀七个月了。她每天上班路上花费的时间很长。我们一路聊了一个多小时,从乘公交车到换乘E线地铁,再转乘地铁六号线。 She has tried leaving home earlier. She#39;s tried different cars. She#39;s tried taking the local instead of the express. Her secret weapon: eye contact. 她曾试着早点从家里出发,也试过乘坐其他交通工具,或是避开地铁快车,只坐慢车。她的秘密武器是:对眼神儿。 #39;I have this thing where I kind of just peer over the paper and I#39;ll look at the person, but it#39;s as if I#39;m ing and maybe I#39;ll catch their glance and then hope they#39;ll give me their seat,#39; said the 34-year-old social worker. 她说,“我的一套办法是,我会盯着报纸看,然后我看人,不过看起来我还是在看报纸,没准儿我会和谁对上眼神儿,然后他也许会把座位让给我。” It doesn#39;t always work. One day this week, she was standing up ing the paper. The train was crowded. Three men were sitting near her. #39;One looked up at me and then looked down again,#39; she recalled. #39;I know he was ing the back of my paper. He didn#39;t say a word.#39; 这办法不是总能奏效。曾有一天,她正站着看报纸,地铁里很挤,在她边上坐着三名男性乘客。她回忆当天的情景说,“其中一个抬头看了我一眼,然后又低下了头。我知道他正在看我手里这张报纸的背面。他什么都没有说。” Chivalry, apparently, is dead. 显然,绅士已死。 #39;It#39;s kind of like you#39;re a panhandler,#39; added Ms. Koshy, one of many pregnant woman to make this analogy. #39;They pretend like you don#39;t even exist.#39; 科希接着说,“这感觉就好像你是个乞丐。他们假装你根本不存在。”很多妇都做过同样的类比。 Ms. Koshy was one of those who refused seats when she first started to show. No, she could stand, thank you very much. Now she#39;ll take it where she can get it, which is about 50% of the time. 和其他一些人一样,肚子刚开始有点显的时候,如果有人给她让座,科希总是婉言谢绝。不用了,她站着没事儿,非常感激。而如今,只要有空座,她就会坐上去。而能得到空座的概率只有50%左右。 Come on New Yorkers, we can do better than that! 嘿,拜托,纽约人,你们就不能表现得好一点吗? Men will explain that you never ask or assume a woman is pregnant. This is true: It#39;s a cardinal sin. But there comes a point when there#39;s no question that a woman is pregnant. This is the point where you simply get up, folks. Don#39;t make a show of it, don#39;t embarrass the poor woman, just get up and motion to the seat. 男士们会为自己开脱说,你既不能去问一位女性是不是怀了,也不该做出这样的凭空假设。没错,这样做会犯下滔天大错。不过总有一些时候你能毫无疑问地看出来一位女士的确是怀了。诸位,总有一些时候,你要做的只是站起来而已。别大惊小怪的,别让那位可怜的女士尴尬了,你只需站起来,指指空出来的座位。 Christopher Diamond says he always gets up for the pregnant and he thinks most everyone does so─when they notice. #39;A lot of times, people are so immersed in whatever they#39;re ing or playing that they don#39;t notice,#39; said the 45-year-old Prospect Heights resident. #39;Large bellies don#39;t really stand out that much on the subway.#39; 现年45岁、家住展望高地(Prospect Heights)的克里斯托夫#8226;戴蒙德(Christopher Diamond)说,他看到妇总是会站起来让座,而且他认为大多数人都是这样做的──只要他们注意到了。他说,“很多时候,人们太专注于自己手中的书或是游戏,注意不到周围的事情。在地铁上,大肚子其实不是那么明显。” In London, the Transport for London agency doles out officially sanctioned #39;Baby on Board#39; badges to pregnant women. More than 380,000 badges have been requested since the program was launched in 2006, according to an email from a press officer. 在伦敦,伦敦交通局(Transport for London)向妇发放印有“宝宝在内”(Baby on Board)字样的小牌子。根据来自新闻部门官员坎迪斯#8226;琼斯(Candice Jones)的邮件,自2006年开始推行这个做法后,要求获得这个小牌子的申请已经超过38万份。 #39;The badge aims to encourage customers to give up their seats to pregnant women and help mothers-to-be feel more comfortable using the Tube,#39; wrote Candice Jones. 琼斯说,“这个小牌子旨在鼓励人们让座给妇,帮助准妈妈们能够更舒地乘坐地铁。” New York has the MTA#39;s #39;Courtesy is Contagious#39; announcements, but no one listens to them. 纽约的大都会运输署(MTA)贴出了“礼貌可以影响他人”(Courtesy is Contagious)的宣传语,但大家对此都无动于衷。 Pregnant women─past and present─have a lot to say on this topic. 提起这个话题,妇们──无论是怀过的还是正在中的──都有一肚子的话要说。 There is no trend. Some say they always get a seat; others that they rarely do. 没有什么趋势可循。一些人说她们总能得到座位,另一些人则表示她们很少能坐下。 Expecting mothers have different strategies. 准妈妈们各有各的办法。 Lindsay Reitzes, who gave birth five months ago, used to take the Q train every day and strip down to her lightest layer. #39;I always put on a big show when I got on the subway,#39; said the 33-year-old Park Slope resident. #39;I#39;d take off my jacket and I#39;d sit there holding my stomach and kind of leaning against the bar looking very tired and exhausted.#39; 现年33岁的林赛#8226;雷泽斯(Lindsay Reitzes)家住公园坡(Park Slope),五个月前刚刚生完孩子,怀时她天天乘坐Q线地铁,每次都会放弃自己最后的矜持。她说,“当我上地铁的时候,我总是把动静搞得很大。我会脱下外套,然后用手捧着肚子,依着扶手,看上去非常疲惫、筋疲力尽的样子。” If no one relented, she would take to shouting out: #39;Will someone give up a seat to a very pregnant woman?#39; 如果没有人动怜悯心,她会大叫道:“有没有人愿意把座位让给一个肚子很大的妇啊?” One white woman said men and women of the same race as her were more inclined to offer their seats. Many pregnant women said fellow women are more gracious in offering their seats, and there is always that woman who very loudly tries to publicly shame someone on their behalf to give up a seat. 一位白人女性说,和她同样肤色的男性和女性更愿意给自己让座。很多妇表示,女性同胞在让座方面更慷慨一些,而且往往是那些女性会试图大声地公开羞辱那些不让座的人。 Danielle Guzman, who is due at the end of the month, said unequivocally it was African-American men who offer up their seats during her daily commute to a job at Wall Street. She is white. Still, she only snags a seat about 25% of the time. 现年42岁、家住公园坡的丹妮尔#8226;古斯曼(Danielle Guzman)本月底即将分娩,她明确表示,在她每天乘地铁去华尔街上班的途中,给她让座的是非洲裔美国男性,她本人则是白人。不过她得到座位的概率也只有25%左右。 #39;I#39;ve never had a female ever, of any type, offer me a seat,#39; said the 42-year-old Park Slope resident. #39;I#39;ve had women look at me and make eye contact and smile, but then that#39;s it, they go back to whatever they#39;re doing.#39; 她说,“从来没有女性给我让过座,哪个种族的都一样。曾有女性看着我,用眼神示意微笑,但只是如此而已,然后她们就继续回去做自己的事情了。” There have been experiments on this kind of thing. Elizabeth Carey Smith, a graphic designer, kept track of the final four months of her pregnancy and documented the results. Out of 108 crowded train rides, she was offered seats 88 times and men and women were about equally willing to offer up a seat. The Greenpoint resident took a number of trains and found she fared the worst on the G and E. 曾有人就这个问题做过实验。平面设计师伊丽莎白#8226;凯莉#8226;史密斯(Elizabeth Carey Smith)在她怀的最后四个月里追踪记录下了自己的乘车经历。在她108次乘坐拥挤地铁的经历中,被让座88次,愿意让座的男性和女性比例大致相当。史密斯家住格林波伊恩特(Greenpoint),要乘坐多趟地铁,她发现自己在G线和E线上的待遇最糟糕。 New Yorkers, the Midwest transplant concluded, are more considerate than rude. 从美国中西部移居纽约的史密斯因此得出结论,能为他人考虑的纽约人要多过没礼貌的纽约人。 I#39;m still on the fence on whether I think that#39;s true. On Thursday, I rode the train with Ms. Koshy from the Union Turnpike stop in Kew Gardens into Manhattan, about a 30-minute ride. No one offered her a seat when she got on. A woman standing up with her young son frowned. 对此,笔者仍有些怀疑。不久前,我与科希一同从丘园小区的联合大道(Union Turnpike)地铁站,乘坐开往曼哈顿的地铁,全程共30分钟。当她上车时,没有人起来让座。一位带着年幼儿子站在一边的女士皱起了眉头。 #39;It#39;s very upsetting,#39; she said. #39;I#39;m from Poland, so it#39;s normal for us to give up a seat….The crowd will sneer if you don#39;t.#39; 她说,“这太让人不舒了。我从波兰来,在我们那里,让座是很正常的一件事……如果你不让座,大家会嘲笑你的。” Ms. Koshy stood in front of a row of six people. Two men were dozing. One older woman looked her up and down and went back to ing her tabloid. It wasn#39;t until one stop before hers that someone got up and another woman motioned for her to take the seat. 科希站在一排六人座前面。有两位男士在打盹儿,一位年长的女性上下打量了她一番,然后继续看手中的小报。直到地铁行至科希的倒数第二站时,才有人站起来,另外一位女士向科希示意要她坐下。 On the transfer to the No. 6 train, again there were no seats. An elderly man looked at her and looked down. A few seconds went by. 换乘六号线时,还是没有座位。一位年长男士上下打量了她一番。几秒钟过去了。 #39;You want to sit down?#39; asked Harvey Feuerstein, a dapper attorney who would be getting off at the next stop. 衣冠楚楚的律师哈维#8226;福伊尔施泰因(Harvey Feuerstein)问道,“你要坐这里吗?”他到下一站下车。 #39;Thank you,#39; she said, sitting down with relief. “谢谢,”科希回答道,坐下来松了一口气。 As he got up, a woman younger than him asked if he would like her seat. 当福伊尔施泰因站起身时,一个比他年轻的女士问他想不想坐在她的座位上。 Perhaps the MTA is onto something with that Courtesy is Contagious line after all. 或许大都会运输署这句“礼貌可以影响他人”的宣传语总归还是有些用处的。 /201208/197162

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