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时间:2018年10月16日 14:00:34

Language in Taiwan汉语在台湾Lost in Romanisation迷失拼音Ideological warfare over spelling拼写上的意识形态冲突THE policy of détente with China espoused by Taiwans president, Ma Ying-jeou, has caused fears among some Taiwanese that the islands rowdy democracy will be pushed into Beijings political embrace. Fears of future reunification are even causing some Taiwanese cities to reject hanyu pinyin, the official system for Romanising Chinese words in both China and Taiwan, in favour of an older system.台湾总统马英九就两岸关系主张缓和政策。这让台湾民众忧心忡忡,生恐岛内吵闹的政治局面将台湾推向大陆的怀抱。对于回归的担忧甚至引发部分台湾城市抵制汉语拼音,转而持旧有的拉丁化方案。Mr Mas government declared more than five years ago that the country would start using hanyu pinyin. The reasoning is sensible. It is the phonetic system used virtually everywhere in the world, including the ed Nations and the International Organisation for Standardisation, for transcribing Mandarin pronunciation of Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet. The one problem: it was developed in Communist China in the 1950s and so, for some Taiwanese, remains suspect.早在5年多以前,马英九政府就宣布台湾将开始使用汉语拼音。其理由也非常充分,这种拼音方案几乎被全球所有地区用来将汉字发音转化为拉丁字母,包括美国和国际标准化组织。唯一的问题在于:这个方案诞生于19世纪50年代共党治下的中国,因而台湾民众对它疑心重重。Officials argue that its use will improve Taiwans economic competitiveness by co-ordinating with other Chinese-speaking societies. But some Taiwanese believe this is a ploy by Mr Ma covertly to integrate Taiwan more closely with mainland China.官方认为使用汉语拼音的能够同其他使用汉语的社会统一标准,从而也能提高台湾的经济竞争力。但不少台湾人坚信这这是马英九暗中将台湾和大陆一体化的阴谋。Hanyu pinyin is now used on street signs in the islands capital, Taipei, but some cities ruled by opposition mayors are staging a boycott. They include Kaohsiung, the islands second-largest metropolis, and Tainan, a popular tourist spot filled with charming temples. These cities are clinging to the Romanisation system known as tongyong pinyin, which was introduced in 2002 and is closely associated with Mr Mas predecessor, Chen Shui-bian, a passionate advocate of independence. Tongyong pinyin is unique to Taiwan, and its use was once lambasted by Xinhua, the mainlands official news agency, as a move to rid Taiwan of Chinese influence.汉语拼音如今已经用于首都台北的路牌,不过由反对党市长领导的城市仍在进行抵制。其中包括岛内第二大城市高雄和寺庙充盈的旅游胜地台南。这些城市坚持使用“通用拼音”,该拉丁化方案在2002年开始使用。这套方案的使用同马的前任—激进的台独分子陈水扁,有很大关系。通用拼音仅被台湾采用,并且曾被大陆官媒新华社斥责为意图消除台湾的中华传统。Expatriate newcomers who cannot Chinese characters easily lose their way. The Altar of Heaven, a temple in Tainan, is located on a lane off Jhongyi Road on the city government website, but is off Zhongyi Road on Google Maps. A lingering third system known as Wade-Giles, used before both the others, confuses visitors even more. Mr Mas officials say there is no legal requirement for local governments to adopt hanyu pinyin and they are reluctant to push too hard, lest theystir up memories of the harsh martial-law regime that ended over two decades ago. But, even in language, Taiwan remains divided.不懂汉语的移民后代重回台湾时,很容易就会迷路。比如,台南天坛位于忠义路边上的小巷中,这条路的路牌上写的是Jhongyi Road,而谷歌地图的显示是Zhongyi Road。还有第三种拼音方案叫做威妥玛式拼音法,曾被双方使用,但是却更让游客迷惑。马英九政府的官员表示,法律上并没有要求地方政府接受汉语拼音,政府也不愿意强制推行,以免让他们觉得回到了20多年前残酷的军统时期。即便是从语言上说,台湾仍出在和大陆分离的状态。 /201407/309545

Sports Direct运动品牌直售Game, set, match大获全胜How Britains biggest sports retailer flourished during the recession且看英国最大的体育用品零售商如何在经济疲软的大势中杀出一条血路A SPORTSWEAR shop in Westfield, a vast shopping centre in east London, is not an obvious tourist attraction. But for Roy and Viv Robertson, from New Zealand, splurging in Sports Direct is one of the highlights of their stay. In addition to visiting their daughter, who works in London, the shop is “what we came for”, says Mrs Robertson, as her husband clutches a bag bulging with polo shirts and trainers.在韦斯特菲尔德—伦敦东部的一家大型购物中心的一家运动饰专卖店,并不是一个明确的旅游景点。但对于来自新西兰的Roy 和Viv Robertson来说,在Sports Direct挥霍一番是他们此次在英停留期间的一件大事。除了拜访他们在伦敦工作的女儿之外,Robertson夫人表示这家店“就是我们来这的目的”,而此时他的丈夫正提着装满POLO衫和运动鞋的包包。Their surprising enthusiasm is widely shared. Sports Direct is hugely successful. Between and 2014 the sportswear market in Britain grew only slightly in value. Yet over the same period the revenue of Sports Direct, boosted by acquisitions, increased by around 40% to 2.2 billion. Small wonder the firms idiosyncratic founder and deputy executive chairman, Mike Ashley, succeeded on July 2nd in securing a fat bonus for himself and around 3,000 eligible employees—albeit at the third time of asking and after a testy standoff with shareholders.许多人也像他们一样对此及其热衷。Sports Direct无疑是成功的。在年至2014年间,英国的运动装市场仅有细微地增长。然而,在相同的时间内Sports Direct的收益因合并而有很大的增长,提高了约40%,直逼2.2 billion。虽然经过了三轮争取和与股东们的紧张对峙,这位性格古怪的创始人兼执行副主席Mike Ashley还能在7月2号成功地为他和近3000名合格的员工争取到一笔丰厚的奖金。Sports Directs success is all the more remarkable in view of the devastation that has occurred elsewhere in British retailing. Around 14% of retail lots are estimated to be vacant, according to the Local Data Company, a research firm. Yet Sports Direct has thrived, not least by taking the measure of the times with relentless discounting. Signs boasting “mega-deals” hang throughout its shops, which often resemble jumble sales. Lillywhites, a retailer acquired by Sports Direct in 2002, used to be a posh London department store stocked with the finest sporting goods. “Now it is ‘pile it high, sell it cheap,” sniffs Matthew Hopkinson, an analyst.相较于英国其他零售业所出现的不景气,Sports Direct的成功便更为突出。根据一个调查公司——地方数据公司,近14%的零售地段是空滞的。然而Sports Direct的成绩不断看涨,尤其是采取了偶尔打超低折扣的措施后。标志有“大甩卖”这种类似义卖活动的横幅经常挂在其商店中。一个零售店Lillywhites在2002年被Sports Direct合并,这个曾用来囤积豪华伦敦百货商店的优质运动商品。“现在它‘堆得高,卖的贱,”分析师Matthew Hopkinson颇有怨词道。Another ingredient of Sports Directs success is that it makes much of what it sells, under a variety of brands. Like Lillywhites, these tend to be tired but venerable names, such as Lonsdale and Dunlop, which have been revived through clever marketing. This allows Sports Direct to keep prices low but margins high. And unlike JJB Sports, parts of which the company bought after it entered administration in 2012, the chain is generally cannier about negotiating store leases, too. Unprofitable stores are shut down swiftly.Sports Direct成功的另一个因素在于它卖的是什么。像是Lillywhites,这些老旧但应人尊重的品牌,再如Lonsdale和Dunlop,这些以精明的营销方式重新复活的品牌。这都使得Sports Direct能保持低价格高利润。不像公司在被接入管理之后并购的JJB Sports,其连锁店在店铺租约的谈判上通常也是很精明的。无利润可言的店铺会被迅速关闭。The groups remarkably lean supply chain is another advantage. Rather than use third-party firms, Sports Direct tends to look after most of its logistics itself, says Dave Forsey, the groups chief executive. This cuts down costs, reducing the number of hands goods pass through. And it helps boost online sales, which are growing.该集团的一条非常精明的供应链是其另一个制胜法宝。该集团的首席执行官表示,相较于使用第三方公司,Sports Direct 更偏爱亲自管理运营其物流。这降低成本,减少货物经多方过手。并且它也有利于提高在线销售,该销售方式正不断成熟。Behind nearly all of this is Mr Ashley, who founded the business with a 10,000 loan in 1982. Also the owner of Newcastle ed football club, he has a far higher public profile than most company founders. A on YouTube which appears to show him drinking a pint of beer in less than a minute has been watched nearly 90,000 times. Analysts adore him: “Hes a genius,” coos one.这一切背后的操盘手便是Ashley先生,这位于1982年以10,000 的贷款创立该业务。他同时也是纽约斯卡尔足球俱乐部的老板,相较于其他的公司创立人他有更广泛的公众形象。YouTube上一则显示他在一分钟之内干掉一品脱啤酒的视频已经被点击将近九万次。分析师们羡慕的低语:“他真是一个天才。”Yet some doubt that the good times can continue, particularly if Mr Ashley were to take a step back from the business. As the economy recovers it will become harder to find good deals on retail sites, says Matt Piner of Conlumino, a consultancy. This may mean that any further expansion will have to be outside Britain.然而这样的好时候能否持续下去还是个问题,特别是若Ashley在其生意上退一步。随着经济复苏,它将更难在零售方面找到好的交易,来自Conlumino的咨询顾问Matt Piner说。这可能意味着任何更深远的扩展将踏出英国的范围。But the firm also seems to be betting on a move away from its cheap and cheerful roots. It is sprucing up its shops, and later this year will be opening a series of concessions in Debenhams, a chain of department stores. The new flagship shop on Oxford Street in London is large and sleek, and sells brogues and more expensive T-shirts alongside tracksuits. This may attract new customers, which would be a better option than just trying to squeeze more cash out of existing ones. But it also brings the company into ever greater competition with big general fashion retailers. Unless it can keep down prices as it moves into this new market, loyal fans such as the Robertsons may become rarer.但是公司似乎在试图摆脱其廉价又曾辉煌的根基上赌一把。它装饰自己的店铺,于今年晚些时候在Debenhams—一个连锁的百货商场,给出一系列特许权。位于伦敦牛津街的新的旗舰店又大又洋气,在专业的运动训练衣裤的旁边还摆出了皮鞋和更昂贵的t恤。这可能会吸引新客户,相较于从现有客户压榨更多的现金,这样的举措无疑是个更好的选择。但这也给公司带来了与大型时装零售店更大的竞争。除非它能在进入这个新市场的同时保持低价,否则那些像Robertsons的忠实粉丝会变得越来越少。 /201407/311502

Sauroposeidon towers over Deinonychus. In fact, its mammoth size is its primary defense. But this giant begins life very small. 波塞东龙比恐爪龙高出很多。事实上,他们高达的体型就是他们最主要的防御武器。但是这种大型恐龙刚出生的体型很小。For Deinonychus, Sauroposeiden would be a great meal, at least the juveniles, because there would’ve been lots of them and because they would’ve been effectively defenseless. 对于恐爪龙来说,波塞东龙可能是一顿大餐,至少年幼的波塞东龙绝对是一顿大餐,因为年幼的波塞东龙数量很多,而且他们基本上没有什么防御力。When Sauroposeidon reaches full size at around 25 years old, nothing can compete. But this Goliath starts out about the size of a house cat. When these eggs hatch, the young grow fast, but not fast enough. They won’t even reach a ton in weight for at least three years, giving the raptor Dinosaurs plenty of time to attack. 当波塞东龙在出生的25后,生长到最大体型时,没有任何恐龙的防御力能和它们媲美。但是这种“巨人”最开始的体型就和家猫差不多大。当它们的蛋孵化后,幼崽的生长速度很快,但是还不够快到能逃避被捕食的命运。至少3年内,它们的体重都不会超过1吨,这给了迅猛龙扑杀它们的机会。There’s good evidence that Deinonychus killed animals that weighed 10 times as much as it. 一些发现可以很充分明,恐爪龙可以捕杀比他们体型大10倍的恐龙。And 10 times Deinonychus’ weight in raw meat is a very big meal. 而10倍于恐爪龙体型的恐龙绝对可以称得上是大餐了。They could probably feast for a while on, say, a three-year-old Sauroposeidon, an animal the size of a hippo.他们可能会尽情享受一只三岁大的波塞东龙作为食物,而三岁大的波塞东龙体型相当于一头河马。Bringing down an animal 10 times your size takes more than just brains. It requires highly advanced senses. 放倒一只体型大于你10倍的动物,需要的不仅仅是大脑。还需要高度发达的感觉系统。We can tell that it had a good sense of vision, good hearing, and a pretty good sense of smell.我们可以判断,恐爪龙的视觉,听觉以及嗅觉都十分灵敏。In fact, like few carnivores of its day, Deinonychus has a sense of smell so acute, it can track prey in the dead of night. 事实上,和当今的大多数肉食动物不同,恐爪龙的嗅觉极度灵敏,它可以在夜间捕捉到猎物的气味。Inside the snout are two nasal passages. Like an air filter, sheets of sensory tissue are folded to maximize surface area. This tissue contains millions of chemoreceptors, nerves that capture odor molecules. So Deinonychus can sniff out prey from miles away. 它们的鼻子里面有两条鼻腔。就像是空气过滤器,多层的感官组织折叠在一起以便最大面积接收信息。这个器官包含数百万个化学感受器,以及可以捕获气味分子运动的神经。因此,恐爪龙可以闻到几英里外的猎物的气味。The sense of smell in Deinonychus could alert…恐爪龙的嗅觉系统可以警戒...英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201403/279816

Business商业报道Internet access互联网接入Congestion on the line网上的拥堵Internet-service providers clamour for a fairer contribution from content firms互联网务提供商要求内容商的付出更加公平THE raid by the European Commissions antitrust gumshoes this month on Orange,Deutsche Telekom and Telefónica of Spain seemed to come out of the blue.欧盟委员会反托拉斯调查人员本月对Orange电信、德国电信和西班牙电信的突击调查事先显得毫无征兆。The companies professed a surprise verging on stupefaction.这些公司莫名惊诧,全然不知所措。Even some Brussels insiders were caught on the hop.即使布鲁塞尔的一些内部人士也是措手不及。Naming no names, the commission said the inquiry involved internet connectivity.委员会表示这次调查与互联网连接有关,但没有具体指名。The question is whether entrenched telecoms firms are abusing their strength in the market for internet traffic to deny -streaming websites and other content providers full access to their networks to reach consumers.调查的问题是:强势的电信公司有没有滥用它们在互联网传输市场上的优势地位,拒绝给视频流网站和其他内容提供商到达消费者所需要的完全的网络接入。Besides the content providers themselves, the other potential plaintiffs are the wholesalers that the content providers use to ship their data across borders.除了内容提供商,其他可能的原告方是中间人。内容提供商利用中间人跨界传输数据。These rely on incumbent internet-service providers such as Orange to take the data the last bit of the way to subscribers screens and mobiles.这要靠占据主导地位的互联网务提供商,比如Orange,来完成数据传输到用户电脑屏幕和手机的最后一段路。All eyes turned to Cogent Communications, an American wholesaler which handles data for the likes of YouTube.所有人的眼光都转向了一家美国中间人公司:Cogent通信公司。这家公司处理YouTube以及类似网站的数据。Cogent has complained, fruitlessly, to French and German regulators that their former monopolies were asking too much to handle data, and throttling the flow to consumers when bigger fees were not forthcoming.Cogent曾徒劳地向法国和德国监管者抱怨它们以前的垄断者对处理数据要价太高,如果不能带来更高的收费,就限制传输给消费者的流量。It is appealing against the French decision.Cogent正在对法国判决提出上诉。In theory Orange and the other network providers might simply pass on to their customers the cost of all their streaming and downloading of funny cat s and porn.理论上,Orange和其他网络提供商可以很简单地将它们传输和下载搞笑猫咪和色情视频的所有成本转嫁给它们的客户。But Europes market is fiercely competitive; and regulators place all sorts of constraints on how networks can charge for their services, while haranguing them to invest in new technology and new capacity to keep up with rising traffic.但欧洲的市场竞争非常激烈,监管者对网络为它们的务收费的方式设置了各种限制,同时喋喋不休地劝它们投资于新技术和新能力,以跟上流量不断增长的步伐。Though there are similar spats in America, it looks to some Europeans like another example of the rape of the old continent by Americas data-mining, tax-avoiding internet giants.尽管在美国也有类似的争端,但在某些欧洲人看来,这只是旧大陆又一次被美国从事数据挖掘和避税的互联网巨头欺凌。The broader issue—and the reason, perhaps, why the antitrust watchdogs chose to weigh in—is that Europe is on the brink of big regulatory change.一个更大的问题是:欧洲正处于一场管制大变革的边缘,也许这也是反托拉斯监察机构选择介入的原因。A draft law to be published in September will subtly alter the principle of net neutrality,the idea that companies which own the infrastructure cannot give priority to some traffic over that of others.9月份即将公布的一项法律草案将对网络中立原则带来微妙的改变。这一原则要求拥有基础设施的公司不能偏向特定的流量,不利于其他流量。This rule has fostered competition and kept prices down in Europe but has discouraged networks from investing.这一规则在欧洲培育了竞争,压低了价格,但打消了这些公司进行投资的积极性。The draft law will ban incumbents from blocking data from some sources,这一法律草案将禁止占主导地位的运营商阻塞特定来源的数据,but it will let them impose varying charges for different qualities of service for data sent through wholesalers.但允许它们对通过中间人发送的数据务的不同质量收取不同费用。Together with other provisions in the package, this should encourage Europes telecoms firms to invest in upgrading their networks, its authors hope.制定者希望,这一规定和该法律草案的其他一些规定将鼓励欧洲的电信公司投资于网络升级。But the commissions antitrust watchdogs are bound to be on guard against any moves that might reduce competition.但委员会的反托拉斯监察机构下定决心,时刻提防任何可能削弱竞争的举动。 /201308/253266


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