明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年02月19日 00:56:05
So I guess he#39;s going to be hunting up that hedgerow.我猜他是去那片灌木丛里捕猎What he was doing at the farm,他在农场那到底做了什么of course, we don#39;t know.我们无从得知They were right to suspect hunting that night.他们对他出去捕猎的推测是正确的Billy and Molly#39;s owner比利和茉莉的主人has seen the cats the following morning.在第二天早上见到过他们I think they were out pretty well我猜那天晚上他们大部分时间most of the night, actually.都在外面活动I#39;m pretty certain they went out as soon as we went to bed.我很肯定他们是在我们睡觉以后出门的Billy in particular came in with a very bloated tummy,特别是比利 回家时肚子撑得鼓鼓的so I don#39;t know quite what he#39;s been up to,我不太清楚他在外面干了什么but probably eaten quite a few bits and pieces along the way,但他可能一路上吃了不少东西and he#39;s very sleepy today.而且今天他特别贪睡In fact, both of them are very sleepy,实际上他们两个都很贪睡so I think they#39;ve been hunting a lot last night.所以我猜昨晚他们应该一直在捕猎They start to identify the cats他们开始找出那些that seem to have the strongest indications很显而易见they#39;ve been hunting.会在外捕猎的猫Like Sooty.比如苏提Spends quite a lot of periods of time there.在那里待了很长一段时间Backwards and forwards and backwards and forwards,不停地来回走动suggesting he may be using that as a bit of a hunting ground.说明那里可能是他的狩猎场A lot of time and a lot of movement in that area他在回家前在那个区域待了很久before he comes back down.而且不停地活动重点解释:1.hunt up 猎取例句:He#39;s hunting up details of Elizabethan household expenditure in a document of the time.他正在当年的旧文件中搜寻伊丽莎白时代一般家庭开的细节。2.most of 大多数例句:Most of the rock in this mountain is shale.这座山上大部分的岩石都是页岩。3.seem to 似乎 ...例句:Does that seem to make sense?这讲得通吗? Article/201608/462936TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201611/476028

You work at the college library.你在大学图书馆工作You#39;re in the middle of a quiet afternoon when suddenly a shipment of 1,280 different books arrives.你正在享受在一个静谧的午后这时运过来1280本不同的书The books have been dropped of in one long straight line, but they#39;re all out of order,书被卸下来摆成长长一排而且顺序是混乱的and the automatic sorting system is broken.这时自动排序系统也坏了To make matters worse, classes start tomorrow,更糟糕的是 明天就开学了which means that first thing in the morning, students will show up in droves looking for these books.这就意味着明天一大早学生们将争相来搜寻他们所需要的书How can you get them all sorted in time?你如何及时把它们整理好呢One way would be to start at one end of the line with the first pair of books.一种方法是从排在书列端点的两本书开始If the first two books are in order, then leave them as they are.如果这两本书已经按顺序排好了 那就不要再动它们了Otherwise, swap them.否则 就把它们调换一下Then, look at the second and third books, repeat the process,之后 看看第二本 第三本如此进行下去and continue until you reach the end of the line.直至你摆到最后一本书At some point, you#39;ll come across the book that should be last,有时候 你可能会遇到应该排在最后的那本书and keep swapping it with every subsequent book,这就需要把它和随后的每一本书调换位置moving it down the line until it reaches the end where it belongs.不停地向后调换 直至调到最后它该呆的地方Then, start from the beginning and repeat the process to get the second to last book in its proper place,然后从头开始 重复这一过程把第二本和剩下的书都依次合适地摆放and keep going until all books are sorted.继续下去直到所有的书都被放到正确的位置This approach is called Bubble Sort.这种方法被称为上推分类法It#39;s simple but slow.它很简单但是很耗时You#39;d make 1,279 comparisons in the first round,then 1,278, and so on, adding up to 818,560 comparisons.第一轮下来你一共要进行1279次对比然后是1278次 这样依次下去完成整个过程一共要进行818560次对比If each took just one second, the process would take over nine days.如果每次比较花一秒 完成整个过程需要超过9天的时间A second strategy would be to start by sorting just the first two books.第二种方法是从前两本开始排序Then, take the third book and compare it with the book in the second spot.之后 把第三本和第二本进行对比If it belongs before the second book, swap them,如果它应该排第二本前面 那就把它们调换一下then compare it with the book in the first spot, and swap again if needed.然后再把它和第一本对比如果它应排第一 那就再调换一次Now you#39;ve sorted the first three books.那么现在前三本书就排好了Keep adding one book at a time to the sorted sub-line,每次在排好的书列里加一本书comparing and swapping the new book with the one before it将这本新加入的书与其前一个对比 调换until it#39;s correctly placed among the books sorted so far.直到它被正确地放到已经排好的书列中This is called Insertion Sort.这种方法被称为插入式分类法Unlike Bubble Sort, it usually doesn#39;t require comparing every pair of books.不像上推分类法 这种方法不需要把所有的书两两对比On average, we#39;d expect to only need to compare each book to half of the books that came before it.平均来说 我们估计只需要将每本书与排在前面的一半的书进行对比In that case, the total number of comparisons would be 409,280, taking almost five days.那样对比的总次数就是409,280,花费大约五天的时间You#39;re still doing way too many comparisons.你仍然需要很多次的对比Here#39;s a better idea.这有一个更好的办法First, pick a random book.首先 随机抽取一本书Call it the partition and compare it to every other book.把它作为分隔参照物与其他的书相对比Then, divide the line by placing all the books that come before the partition on its left然后将所有排在其前面的书放在它的左边and all the ones that come after it on its right.把应该排在它右边的书放在它的右边You#39;ve just saved loads of time by not having to compare any of the books on the left to any of the ones on the right ever again.这样你就能节省很多时间 因为左边的书不用再跟其右边的书再进行一一对比了Now, looking only at the books on the left, you can again pick a random partition book现在只看左边的书 然后你从里面再拿出一本书作为分割参照物and separate those books that come before it from those that come after it.然后将排在它后面的排在它前面的书分开You can keep creating sub-partitions like this until you have a bunch of small sub-lines,你可以一直这样创造作为分割线的书直到这排书变成了一群分开的更小排的书each of which you#39;d sort quickly using another strategy, like Insertion Sort.这时你就可以将每个小段的书用其他方法排好了 比如 插入排序法Each round of partitioning requires about 1,280 comparisons.每次划分需要1280次的对比If your partitions are pretty balanced,如果你设置的参照物位置很平均的话dividing the books into 128 sub-lines of ten would take about seven rounds,or 8,960 seconds.把这些书以10本为一段 一共分128段 大概需要7轮能分好也就是8960秒Sorting these sub-lines would add about 22 seconds each.每一小段的排序大概要花22秒钟All in all, this method known as QuickSort could sort the books in under three and a half hours.总而言之 这种方法被叫做快速分类法排好这些书不超过三个半小时But there#39;s a catch.但有一个问题Your partitions could end up lopsided, saving no time at all.如果选取的参照物非常不对称 则根本无法节约时间Luckily, this rarely happens.幸运的是 这种情况很少发生That#39;s why QuickSort is one of the most efficient strategies used by programmers today.这就是为何快速分类法是如今程序员使用的最高效的方法之一They use it for things like sorting items in an online store by price,他们用这种方法将网店里需要以价格分类的商品进行归类or creating a list of all the gas stations close to a given location sorted by distance.将某个位置附近的加油站以距离远近的顺序列一个表In your case, you#39;re done quick sorting with time to spare.至于你 你已经快速分好类而且还有剩余时间Just another high-stakes day in the library.在图书馆等待另一个高强度的一天吧 Article/201706/512664

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201607/452248

  He had to drop out of the race because his leg was injured.因为他的脚受伤了,他不得不退出比赛。drop out有退出和退学的意思。He dropped out of school when he was fifteen.他15岁时退学了。如果drop out连成一个单词,写成dropout或drop-out,就变成一个名词,意思是退学生。His mother doesn't want him to be friends with those dropouts.他的妈妈不想他和那些退学生交朋友。 /200803/28579

  节目情况:  1.中国首部三维动画英语口语普及电视大片,总投资1000万,为上海文广集团2003年重点节目之一。  2.纯现代口语:精选最新的高频词、高频句,专业英语培训学校英语教学专家领衔,汇聚现实场景地道实用口语,  3.制作阵容精良:  技 术:拥有良好的三维制作软硬件设施,优秀的制作团队  作品《醉花缘》、《色拉英语100句》受到了海内外同行的交口称道;  配 音:来自英语国家的美语老师忘情“声演”  运用先期录音,后期数码立体声合成国际手法;  4.节目概念时尚化:  演绎手法:采用国际流行的三维电脑动画制作,运用夸张精辟的情景对话  节目宗旨:倡导寓教于乐的英语学习法则,顺应现代观众的收视口味  教学方式:采用当今流行的最实用有效的高频词、高频句的学习方式;   4.故事梗概:  故事发生在一个人和动物友好相处的现代都市里。在那个世界里有着和我们现实生活完全一样的场景。所有发生的故事围绕我们日常生活的场景展开。包括出租车,饭店家庭聊天,医院,商店等等。还有可怜的Mr.B先生,总是个倒霉的家伙,被困在小岛上多日,每次求生的努力总是失败。另外还有一心想得到新式捕虫武器的青蛙,狡猾的商人,多情的公鸡,忠厚而失败的老牛等,许多许多有趣的人物演绎出一场一场好戏,同样折射出我们忙乱而精的都市生活。也许通过这么多细致的描写,你也可以发现你自己身边的青蛙,公鸡……   主要人物及人物性格:  女孩: 一个前卫的女孩,家庭情况不详 ,喜欢梦幻,爱打扮,和一切“眩”的东西  男孩: 爱打电脑游戏。调皮,一个永不安宁的角色。  Mr B: 胖子,时常以多嘴的路人,狡猾的同伴等面目出现。  Mr G: 瘦子,老实人,但爱唠叨,对生活随波逐流。什么荒岛求生者,倒霉的原始猎手,失败的运动员之类人物都可以归他。  公鸡: 怕老婆,又贪心。爱占小便宜。当然总失败,所以常常醉在酒吧,胡乱说话总叫其他人退避三舍。  花头草头: 花头草头是在一个花盆里的两花,品种不明。但显然花头,花容月貌叫人生爱怜,当然她的世界观很不同于瘦小枯干的草头,花头乐观,爱炫耀,而草头整个是个失败的典型。   奶牛: 牢骚狂,总是看到它愁眉苦脸的样子。对现代生活很不适应。所以也常到酒吧里解闷,但对自己牛的身份非常自豪。  胖青蛙:一个总在寻找新的捕虫工具的猎手,但总是被人认为是个乡巴老。这是它最不能忍受的。 /200711/21278。


  【视频讲解】Super Bowl Sunday is almost here and there#39;s one question on everyone#39;s mind: How can I tackle a plate of chicken wings without adding yardage to my end zone?超级碗星期天马上就要到了,所有人都在想这样一个问题:我怎么能吃掉一盘鸡翅而又不会增加体重呢?Tackle1. 处理 gt; 抢断The first reason to tackle these problems is to save children#39;s lives.解决这些问题的首要原因是为了挽救孩子们的生命。2. 坦率地与某人交谈I tackled him about how anyone could live amidst so much poverty.我坦率地与他谈论哪有人能在如此的极度贫困中生活。Yardage 〔美式橄榄球中〕将球向前推进的码数End zone 〔美式橄榄球的〕球门区Well, Charles Platkin is the director of the New York City Food Policy Center at Hunter College. And he thinks that to make smarter, more splurge-worthy snacking choices we should consider what it would take to burn off the calories we take in.查尔斯#8226;普拉特金是亨特学院纽约市粮食政策中心的负责人。他认为,为了在选择零食时做出更明智、更超值的决定,我们应该考虑一下我们要怎样消耗掉所摄入的卡路里。Splurge 挥霍We splurged on Bohemian glass for gifts, and for ourselves.我们花了很多钱买了波希米亚玻璃制品,用来送人和给自己用。splurge-worthy 超值For most people, the prices are still splurge-worthy, with, for example, a 0 purse running for 0对于大多数人来说,这个网站提供的价格简直是超值。 比如,600美元的钱包只卖200美元。To that end, Platkin has come up exercise equivalents for some of our favorite couch-side canapes and other nibbles.为了这个目标,普拉特金提出了等量运动的概念,即消耗掉我们喜爱的开胃点心和其他小吃所需要的运动。to that end 为了那个目的Canape 开胃小菜Nibble1. 名词,小吃2. 动词,小口地吃Linda lay face down on a living room couch, nibbling popcorn. 琳达趴在客厅的一张沙发上,小口吃着爆米花。3. 消耗:一点点地耗尽或减少:“If you start compromising too early . . . they nibble you to death”(People)“如果你过早妥协,他们会一点一点地把你吞噬”(民族)Let#39;s kick things off with a foot-long meatball sub. This marinara-soaked monster, which weighs in at around 900 calories, would take more than an hour-and-a-half of running up and down the stadium steps to work off.我们先从一英尺长的肉丸三明治开始说起吧。这种“大型”食物含有大量番茄酱,其热量值约为900卡路里,在体育馆的台阶上来回跑一个多小时才能消耗掉这些热量。Kick off 开球gt; 开始The concert was to kick off a nationwide voter registration drive.这场音乐会旨在开始全国性的选民登记运动。Marinara (意大利烹饪用的含西红柿、大蒜、洋葱等调制成的)海员式沙司Soak 浸泡Soak the beans for 2 hours. 把豆子泡上两个小时。And three pieces of KFC at 740 calories would take some 680 touchdown dances. Almost certainly leading to a celebration penalty. A single tortilla chip, a mere 20 calories, with a scoop of seven-layer dip, another 70 calories, would require a solid 25 minutes of boogying down to Lady Gaga!三块肯德基炸鸡的热量值为740卡路里,需要做680个触地得分后的庆祝动作才能消耗掉,这就是“冲动的惩罚”!吃一片只有20卡路里的墨西哥玉米片,加上一勺70卡路里的7层蘸酱,消耗这些热量需要坚持跳25分钟的Lady Gaga舞蹈!Penalty 罚球Referee Michael Reed had no hesitation in awarding a penalty.裁判迈克尔#8226;里德毫不犹豫地判了罚球。Tortilla 玉米粉薄烙饼Boogie (合着摇滚乐)跳舞 》 boogyingAt night, a good place to boogie through till sunrise is the Pink Panther Bar.到了晚上,一个快舞到天明的好去处是粉红豹酒吧。Even two handfuls of Chex Mix, which racks up a surprising 280 calories, calls for 30 minutes of jumping up and down after your team scores. And a 450-calorie slice of pizza? Do the wave 2,194 times. But you could get called for interference—by others trying to see the TV.甚至两把Chex Mix饼干的热量都有惊人的280卡路里,要消耗这些热量,需要在你持的球队得分后,上下跳30分钟。那一片450卡路里的批萨呢?要做2194次人浪。但是,其他人可能会觉得受到了干扰而要求你停下,因为他们要看电视。rack up 大量获得 (利润); 严重遭受 (损失); (体育中) 多次赢得 (比赛)Lower rates mean that firms are more likely to rack up profits in the coming months.更低的费率意味着各公司更有可能在未来的几个月里获得大量利润。calls for 需要To be a nurse calls for endurance and patience. 作一名护士需要有毅力和耐心。Now, if you#39;re still thinking about piling on those wings, each one weighs in at a hefty 95 calories. Add blue cheese dip and 10 wings can hit 1,400 calories. Which would take 149 trips up and down the field to run off.现在,如果你还想吃一堆鸡翅,你要知道,每个鸡翅的热量值高达95卡路里。加上蓝纹奶酪蘸酱,10个鸡翅可达到1400卡路里。这些热量要绕赛场跑149圈才能消耗掉。Pile on 把…堆上;成群地挤上:Pile more coal on the fire; it is going out.在火上多添点煤,它要灭了。Hefty 庞大的; 沉重的She was quite a hefty woman. 她是个相当高大的女人。up and down上上下下;到处;前前后后;来来往往But before conceding defeat, Platkin does offer some pointers to help you beat the Super Bowl sp. Stock up on popcorn, and skip the butter. Drizzle hot sauce on the wings instead of dollops of dip.但是,在承认失败之前,普拉特金提供了一些帮助大家对付超级碗小吃的建议。准备一些爆米花,但是不要加黄油。在鸡翅上放一点儿辣椒酱,而不是涂抹厚厚的一层蘸酱。stock up on 大量贮备;囤积;The authorities have urged people to stock up on fuel.当局已经敦促人们储备燃料。Drizzle 毛毛雨 》 蘸一点The drizzle had now stopped and the sun was breaking through.细雨已经停了,太阳露出了脸。Dollop 一大勺的量 ...a dollop of cream. ...一大勺奶油。And do not huddle with your snacks—keep them far enough away so that getting at them makes you put your backfield in motion.不要把零食放在身边,把它们放得远一些,远到你想拿点零食吃就得起来活动一下。Huddle1. 挤在一起的一群人或东西We lay there: a huddle of bodies, gasping for air. 我们躺在那儿,挤作一团,大口地喘着2, (悄悄地或秘密地) 凑在一起商讨The president has been huddling with his most senior aides.总统一直在和他的顶级高级助理们秘密地聚到一起进行商谈。Backfield 后卫区 Article/201706/515763

  零起点英语口语 第21讲:How..句型 相关专题推荐:从零开始学口语英语口语999句疯狂英语现场教学新英语900句视频色拉英语乐园视频 /200810/53879

  TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201609/463946

  It was an afternoon in the fall of 2005. I was working at the ACLU as the organization#39;s science advisor.那是2005年秋日的一个下午。我时任ACLU(美国公民自由联盟)的科学顾问。I really, really loved my job, but I was having one of those days where I was feeling just a little bit discouraged.我真的非常喜欢我的工作,但是那段时间我时常感到有一点点受挫。So I wandered down the hallway to my colleague Chris Hansen#39;s office.于是我经过走廊晃荡到同事克里斯·汉森的办公室。Chris had been at the ACLU for more than 30 years, so he had deep institutional knowledge and insights.克里斯在ACLU供职三十多年了,他对机构有深刻的了解和想法。I explained to Chris that I was feeling a little bit stuck.我向克里斯解释我为什么觉得有些举步维艰。I had been investigating a number of issues at the intersection of science and civil liberties -- super interesting.我当时在调查一系列处在科学和公民自由十字路口的问题--非常有意思。But I wanted the ACLU to engage these issues in a much bigger way, in a way that could really make a difference.但是我希望ACLU能够在更高的层面参与这些问题。以一种能真正做出改变的方式。So Chris cut right to the chase, and he says, ;Well, of all the issues you#39;ve been looking at, what are the top five?;克里斯开门见山地说,“那好,所有你正在考虑的问题里面,排前五位的是什么?”;Well, there#39;s genetic discrimination, and reproductive technologies, and biobanking, and ...“我想应该是遗传歧视,生育技术,生物样本库,还有……oh, there#39;s this really cool issue, functional MRI and using it for lie detection,哦,这个真的很酷,功能性MRI(核磁共振成像),用它来测谎,and ... oh, and of course, there#39;s gene patents.;还有……哦,当然,还有基因专利。”;Gene patents?; ;Yes, you know, patents on human genes.;“基因专利?”“是的,你知道的,授予人类基因专利。”;No! You#39;re telling me that the US government has been issuing patents on part of the human body? That can#39;t be right.;“不可能!你是说,美国政府正在对人身体的部分授予专利?这怎么可能嘛。”I went back to my office and sent Chris three articles.我回到我的办公室,给克里斯发了三篇文章。And 20 minutes later, he came bursting in my office.20分钟以后,他冲进我的办公室。;Oh my god! You#39;re right! Who can we sue?;“天哪!你说中了!我们可以起诉谁?”Now Chris is a really brilliant lawyer,克里斯是一名杰出的律师,but he knew almost nothing about patent law and certainly nothing about genetics.但是他几乎完全不懂专利法,而且肯定不懂遗传学。I knew something about genetics, but I wasn#39;t even a lawyer, let alone a patent lawyer.我懂一点遗传学,但我连律师都不是,更别说专利律师了。So clearly we had a lot to learn before we could file a lawsuit.所以很显然,在打官司之前,我们需要学很多东西。First, we needed to understand exactly what was patented when someone patented a gene.首先,我们需要搞清楚当有人为基因申请专利时,究竟是什么被授予了专利。Gene patents typically contain dozens of claims, but the most controversial of these are to so-called ;isolated DNA;基因专利通常包含几十条要求,但是最矛盾的是所谓的“离体DNA”namely, a piece of DNA that has been removed from a cell.也就是从细胞中移出的DNA片段。Gene patent proponents say, ;See? We didn#39;t patent the gene in your body, we patented an isolated gene.;基因专利的持者称,“看见了吗?我们没有对你身体中的基因申请专利,我们是为离体的基因申请专利。”And that#39;s true, but the problem is that any use of the gene requires that it be isolated.这话是没错,但问题在于,无论如何,要使用基因,就必须先进行分离。And the patents weren#39;t just to a particular gene that they isolated, but on every possible version of that gene.而被授予专利的,并非他们分离的某个特定的基因,而是那个基因每一种可能的版本。So what does that mean?那么这意味着什么呢?That means that you can#39;t give your gene to your doctor and ask him or her to look at it, say,这意味着你不能把你的基因给医生,然后请他/她检查,比如说,to see if it has any mutations, without permission of the patent holder.检查是否有变异,如果你没有专利持有者的授权。It also means that the patent holder has the right to stop anyone from using that gene in research or clinical testing.这也意味着专利持有者有权阻止任何人使用该基因从事研究或临床试验。Allowing patent holders, often private companies, to lock up stretches of the human genome was harming patients.允许专利持有者,通常是私有企业,关起开发人类基因组的大门,会损害患者的利益。Consider Abigail, a 10-year-old with long QT syndrome,比如,阿比盖尔,一个10岁的孩子,患有长QT综合症,a serious heart condition that, if left untreated, can result in sudden death.这是一种严重的心脏疾病,如果不治疗,可能引发猝死。The company that obtained a patent on two genes associated with this condition developed a test to diagnose the syndrome.有个公司拥有与这种疾病有关的两个基因的专利,他们开发了一种针对此病症的检验方法。But then they went bankrupt and they never offered it. So another lab tried to offer the test,但随后公司倒闭了,还没来得及推出这项检测务。but the company that held the patents threatened to sue the lab for patent infringement.于是另一个实验室尝试提供这种检测,但是这家持有专利的公司起诉那个了实验室专利侵权。So as a result, for 2 years, no test was available.所以,结果是,两年内,没有人提供这种检测务。During that time, Abigail died of undiagnosed long QT.在此期间,阿比盖尔因未诊断出长QT症去世。Gene patents clearly were a problem and were harming patients.基因专利明显是个问题,并且在损害患者的利益。But was there a way we could challenge them?但是我们有没有办法挑战他们呢?Turns out that the Supreme Court has made clear through a long line of cases,其实,最高法院通过一系列的判例已经清楚地表明,that certain things are not patent eligible.有些东西是不能申请专利的。You can#39;t patent products of nature -- the air, the water, minerals, elements of the periodic table.你不能为自然界的产物申请专利--空气、水、矿产、周期表里的元素。And you can#39;t patent laws of nature -- the law of gravity, E mc2.你也不能为自然规律申请专利--引力定律,Emc2(质能方程),These things are just too fundamental and must remain free to all and reserved exclusively to none.这些东西太基础了,必须对所有人免费开放,不该被任何人独自占有。It seemed to us that DNA, the most fundamental structure of life,对我们来说,似乎DNA,生命最本质的结构,that codes for the production of all of our proteins, is both a product of nature and a law of nature,掌控所有蛋白质生产的编码,既是自然界的产物,也是自然规律,regardless of whether it#39;s in our bodies or sitting in the bottom of a test tube.无论它是在我们的体内,还是沉在一根试管底部。As we delved into this issue, we traveled all over the country to speak with many different experts我们不断深入这个问题,在国内四处奔波,和许多专家交流scientists, medical professionals, lawyers, patent lawyers.科学家、医疗专家、律师、专利律师。Most of them agreed that we were right as a matter of policy, and, at least in theory, as a matter of law.绝大多数都同意,在政策层面我们是正确的,并且在法律层面,至少在理论上是正确的。All of them thought our chances of winning a gene-patent challenge were about zero.但他们全都认为我们挑战基因专利授权的成功概率几乎为零。Why is that? Well, the patent office had been issuing these patents for more than 20 years.为什么呢?因为专利局签发这些专利已经超过20年了。There were literally thousands of patents on human genes.毫不夸张地说,现在已经有上千个人类基因专利。The patent bar was deeply entrenched in the status quo,专利律师已经深陷其中,the biotech industry had grown up around this practice,生物技术产业已经通过这个司法实践壮大,and legislation to ban gene patents had been introduced year after year in Congress, and had gone absolutely nowhere.禁止基因专利的立法提案年年在国会被提出,但很显然根本没出国会的门。So the bottom line: courts just weren#39;t going to be willing to overturn these patents.所以归根结底:法院就是不愿意去推翻这些专利。Now, neither Chris nor I were the type to shy away from a challenge,只不过,我和克里斯都不是那种遇到挑战就退缩的人,and hearing, ;Being right just isn#39;t enough,; seemed all the more reason to take on this fight.听到“站在正义一边还不够,”这就更值得我们去为此战斗。So we set out to build our case.所以我们着手准备自己的案件。Now, patent cases tend to be: Company A sues Company B over some really narrow, obscure technical issue.现在,专利案通常是:公司A起诉公司B,只针对一些非常局限、隐晦的技术问题。We weren#39;t really interested in that kind of case, and we thought this case was much bigger than that.我们对那种案件并不十分感兴趣,我们认为这个案件要比那些重大得多。This was about scientific freedom, medical progress, the rights of patients.这个案件关乎科学自由,医疗进步,患者权利。So we decided we were going to develop a case that was not like your typical patent case -- more like a civil rights case.所以我们决定要做和你们通常看到的专利案不同的事情--它更像是针对公民权利的申诉。We set out to identify a gene-patent holder that was vigorously enforcing its patents我们着手寻找这样一个基因专利持有者:他要非常强硬地推行专利;and then to organize a broad coalition of plaintiffs and experts然后组织一个广泛的原告和专家联盟that could tell the court about all the ways that these patents were harming patients and innovation.来告诉法庭这些专利侵害病人、阻碍创新的种种劣迹。We found the prime candidate to sue in Myriad Genetics, a company that#39;s based in Salt Lake City, Utah.我们发现Myriad Genetics可以作为起诉的主要目标。这是一家总部设在犹他州盐湖城的公司。Myriad held patents on two genes, the BRCA1 and the BRCA2 genes.Myriad持有两个基因的专利,BRCA1和BRCA2基因。Women with certain mutations along these genes携带有这两个基因某些变异的女性are considered to be at a significantly increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.罹患乳腺癌和卵巢癌的风险会显著升高。Myriad had used its patents to maintain a complete monopoly on BRCA testing in the ed States.Myriad公司使用他们的专利来维持美国境内化验BRCA的全面垄断地位。It had forced multiple labs that were offering BRCA testing to stop.他们强行叫停了数个提供BRCA化验的实验室。It charged a lot of money for its test -- over 3,000 dollars.他们对化验收取高额费用--超过三千美元。It had stopped sharing its clinical data with the international scientific community.他们停止向国际科学界共享临床数据。And perhaps worst of all, for a period of several years,还有可能最糟糕的,曾经有几年,Myriad refused to update its test to include additional mutations that had been identified by a team of researchers in France.Myriad拒绝在他们的化验中增加由法国的一个研究团队鉴别出来的新变异类型。It has been estimated that during that period, for several years,据估计,在此期间,数年间,as many as 12 percent of women undergoing testing received the wrong answer有近12%接受化验的女性得到了错误的结果a negative test result that should have been positive.也就是本应该是阳性的阴性结果。This is Kathleen Maxian. Kathleen#39;s sister Eileen developed breast cancer at age 40 and she was tested by Myriad.这是卡瑟琳·马克西安。卡瑟琳的艾琳40岁得了乳腺癌。The test was negative. The family was relieved.她曾做过Myriad的化验,结果是阴性。这家人松了口气。That meant that Eileen#39;s cancer most likely didn#39;t run in the family,这说明艾琳的癌症很可能不会在家族中重现。and that other members of her family didn#39;t need to be tested.她的家人也不需要再接受化验。But two years later, Kathleen was diagnosed with advanced-stage ovarian cancer.但是两年后,卡瑟琳被诊断出晚期卵巢癌。It turned out that Kathleen#39;s sister was among the 12 percent who received a false-negative test result.原来卡瑟琳的就是那12%得到了假阴性结果的病人之一。Had Eileen received the proper result, Kathleen would have then been tested,如果艾琳得到了正确的化验结果,卡瑟琳就也会去做化验,and her ovarian cancer could have been prevented.她的卵巢癌就可能得到预防。Once we settled on Myriad, we then had to form a coalition of plaintiffs and experts that could illuminate these problems.我们确定目标为Myriad后,就需要组建一个能够陈述这些问题的原告和专家团。We ended up with 20 highly committed plaintiffs: genetic counselors,我们找到了20位非常积极的原告:遗传学咨询顾问,geneticists who had received cease and desist letters, advocacy organizations,收到叫停信件的遗传学家:持我们的组织,four major scientific organizations that collectively represented more than 150,000 scientists and medical professionals,四个主要科学组织,集中代表了超过15万名科学工作者和医疗专家,and individual women who either couldn#39;t afford Myriad#39;s test,以及无力付Myriad的检测or who wanted to obtain a second opinion but could not, as a result of the patents.或者希望有其他选择,但因为专利原因无法实现的女性个体。One of the major challenges we had in preparing the case was figuring out how best to communicate the science.我们在准备案件期间遇到的主要挑战是,搞清楚如何最有效地阐述科学观点。So in order to argue that what Myriad did was not an invention, and that isolated BRCA genes were products of nature,所以,为了辩明Myriad的成果并不属于创新,以及离体的BRCA基因是自然界的产物,we had to explain a couple of basic concepts, like: What#39;s a gene? What#39;s DNA?我们必须解释一些基本概念,比如:基因是什么?DNA是什么?How is DNA isolated, and why isn#39;t that an invention?如何分离DNA,以及为什么这不是创新?We spent hours and hours with our plaintiffs and experts,我们和原告以及专家团花费了无数日夜,trying to come up with ways of explaining these concepts simply yet accurately.努力寻找能够简洁又不失准确地解释这些概念的方式。And we ended up relying heavily on the use of metaphors, like gold.我们最终非常依赖比喻,比如说黄金。So isolating DNA -- it#39;s like extracting gold from a mountain or taking it out of a stream bed.因此,分离DNA--就像从大山中挖出黄金,或者从溪流河床里淘出黄金。You might be able to patent the process for mining the gold, but you can#39;t patent the gold itself.你或许可以为采集黄金的流程申请专利,但你不能为黄金本身申请专利。It might#39;ve taken a lot of hard work and effort to dig the gold out of the mountain; you still can#39;t patent it, it#39;s still gold.你可能要靠无数艰辛努力才能从山中挖到黄金;但你仍旧不能为它申请专利,黄金还是黄金。And the gold, once it#39;s extracted, can clearly be used for all sorts of things that it couldn#39;t be used for when it was in the mountain;而黄金,一旦被挖掘出来,显然可以被用于各种它藏在山中时不能实现的用途;you can make jewelry out of it for example -- still can#39;t patent the gold, it#39;s still gold.比如,你可以把它做成珠宝--但仍然不能为金子申请专利,金子还是金子。So now it#39;s 2009, and we#39;re y to file our case.然后就到了2009年,我们准备起诉了。We filed in federal court in the Southern District of New York, and the case was randomly assigned to Judge Robert Sweet.我们向纽约南区的联邦法庭递交了诉讼,然后案子被随机分配给了法官罗伯特·斯威特。In March 2010, Judge Sweet issued his opinion -- 152 pages -- and a complete victory for our side.2010年3月,斯威特法官宣布了他的判决意见。152页。我方完胜。In ing the opinion, we could not get over how eloquently he described the science in the case.在判决意见里,我们对他在案子中如此雄辩地陈述科学事实激动不已。I mean, our brief -- it was pretty good, but not this good.我是说,我们的简述--挺不错的,但没有这么出。How did he develop such a deep understanding of this issue in such a short time?他是如何在这么短的时间内做出如此深刻的理解?We just could not comprehend how this had happened.我们真的无法想象一切是怎么发生的。So it turned out, Judge Sweet#39;s clerk working for him at the time, was not just a lawyer -- he was a scientist.后来我们才发现,当时斯威特法官手下的助手不仅仅是一个律师--他还是个科学家。He was not just a scientist -- he had a PhD in molecular biology.他又不仅仅是个科学家--他是分子生物学士。What an incredible stroke of luck!我们真是太走运了!Myriad then appealed to the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. And here things got really interesting.Myriad随后向美国联邦巡回上诉法庭上诉。然后事情就变得非常有意思了。First, in a pivotal moment of this case, the US government switched sides.首先,本案中的一个关键时刻,美国政府倒戈了。So in the district court the government submitted a brief on Myriad#39;s side.在地区法庭上,政府递交了一份简述持Myriad。But now in direct opposition to its own patent office,但是这回美国政府直接反对了它自己的专利局,the US government files a brief that states that is has reconsidered this issue in light of the district court#39;s opinion,政府递交了一份摘要声明,他们基于地区法庭的判决,重新考虑了问题,and has concluded that isolated DNA is not patent eligible. This was a really big deal, totally unexpected.并认定离体DNA不具备申请专利的条件。这件事意义非凡,完全出人意料。The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit hears all patent cases,联邦巡回上诉法庭受理过所有的专利案例,and it has a reputation for being very, very pro-patent.对专利持坚决持态度也是众所周知。So even with this remarkable development, we expected to lose.所以即使取得了如此长足的进步,我们仍然觉得会败诉。And we did. Sort of. Ends up split decision, 2 to 1.我们是败诉了。差不多吧。结果是2比1的意见。But the two judges who ruled against us, did so for completely different reasons.但是两位反对我们的法官选择了完全不同的理由。The first one, Judge Lourie, made up his own novel, biological theory -- totally wrong.第一位,法官洛里,胡编乱造了他自己的生物理论--完全是胡说八道。He decided Myriad had created a new chemical -- made absolutely no sense.他觉得Myriad制造了一种新化学物质--驴唇不对马嘴。Myriad didn#39;t even argue this, so it came out of the blue.Myriad竟然对这一点没有争议,真是令人大跌眼镜。The other, Judge Moore, said she basically agreed with us that isolated DNA is a product of nature.另一位,法官莫尔,说她基本同意我们说的离体DNA是自然界的产物。But she#39;s like, ;I don#39;t want to shake up the biotech industry.;但是她声称“我不想动摇生物技术产业的根基”,等等。The third, Judge Bryson, agreed with us. So now we sought review by the Supreme Court.第三位,法官布里森,同意我们。于是我们申请最高法院复审。And when you petition the Supreme Court, you have to present a question that you want the Court to answer.当你向最高法院情愿时,你需要提出一个希望法院回应的问题。Usually these questions take the form of a super-long paragraph,通常这些问题都是长长的一段话,like a whole page long with lots and lots of clauses, ;wherein this; and ;therefore that.;从句套从句,可以写满一页,“其中包括”、“由此得知”,等等。We submitted perhaps the shortest question presented ever. Four words: Are human genes patentable?我们提交了可能是有史以来最短的问题。四个词:能否授予人类基因专利?Now when Chris first asked me what I thought of these words, I said,克里斯第一次问我觉得这个问题靠不靠谱时,我说,;Well, I don#39;t know. I think you have to say, #39;Is isolated DNA patentable?#39;;“我不知道。我想你可能得说,‘能否授予离体DNA专利?’”;Nope. I want the justices to have the very same reaction that I had when you brought this issue to me seven years ago.;“非也。我希望大法官的反应能和我在七年前你跟我提这个问题时一模一样。”Well, I certainly couldn#39;t argue with that.好吧,我当然没理由反驳。The Supreme Court only hears about one percent of the cases that it receives, and it agreed to hear ours.最高法院只受理大约1%收到的案件,他们接受了我们的。The day of the oral argument arrives, and it was really, really exciting -- long line of people outside,口头辩论那天到来时,真的是太激动人心了--法庭外排起了长队,people had been standing in line since 2:30 in the morning to try to get into the courthouse.人们从凌晨2:30起就开始排队,希望能挤进法庭。Two breast cancer organizations, Breast Cancer Action and FORCE, had organized a demonstration on the courthouse steps.两个乳腺癌的组织,乳腺癌行动组织和FORCE,在法庭台阶上组织声援。Chris and I sat quietly in the hallway, moments before he was to walk in and argue the most important case of his career.克里斯和我坐在走廊里一声不响,随后他走进法庭,为他职业生涯中最重要的案件辩护。I was clearly more nervous than he was.我显然比他更紧张。But any remaining panic subsided as I walked into the courtroom and looked around at a sea of friendly faces:但是当我走进法庭时,所有的慌张都不见了。我看到周围都是熟悉的面孔:our individual women clients who had shared their deeply personal stories,我们的一位位女性客户,她们毫无保留地分享了自己的亲身经历;the geneticists who had taken huge chunks of time out of their busy careers to dedicate themselves to this fight有在百忙之中抽出大量时间投身于这场斗争的遗传学家,and representatives from a diverse array of medical, patient advocacy, environmental and religious organizations,还有来自许多不同领域的代表:医疗、患者救助、环保和宗教组织,who had submitted friend of the court briefs in the case.以及本案中向法院递交摘要的朋友。Also in the room were three leaders of the Human Genome Project, including the co-discoverer of DNA himself, James Watson,同时在场的还有三位人类基因组计划的先驱者,包括DNA的发现者之一,詹姆斯·沃森。who had submitted a brief to the court, where he referred to gene patenting as ;lunacy.;他也向法庭递交了简述,其中他指出基因专利是“疯子行为”。The diversity of the communities represented in this room出席法庭的群体背景之广,and the contributions each had made to make this day a reality spoke volumes to what was at stake.以及他们中每一位为实现这一天而做出的贡献,都为我们岌岌可危的局势打了一剂了强心针。The argument itself was riveting. Chris argued brilliantly.辩论本身非常有说力。克里斯出色地完成了辩论。But for me, the most thrilling aspect was watching the Supreme Court justices grapple with isolated DNA,但是对我而言,最激动人心的一刻是看着最高法院的大法官为离体DNA激烈争论,through a series of colorful analogies and feisty exchanges,换着花样打比方,激烈地交换意见,very much the same way as our legal team had done for the past seven years.就和我们的法律团队过去七年中所做的一样。Justice Kagan likened isolating DNA to extracting a medicinal plant from the Amazon.大法官卡根把离体DNA比作从亚马孙雨林中提取医疗植物。Justice Roberts distinguished it from carving a baseball bat from a tree.大法官罗伯茨把它比作把树木雕成棒球棒。And in one of my absolutely favorite moments, Justice Sotomayor proclaimed isolated DNA to be ;just nature sitting there.;以及绝对是我最喜欢的一个瞬间,大法官索托马约尔宣称离体DNA“就是自然存在的”。We felt pretty confident leaving the courtroom that day,我们那天离开法庭时信心满满,but I could never have anticipated the outcome: nine to zero.但我从未奢望这样的结局:九比零。;A naturally occurring DNA segment is a product of nature,“一段自然形成的DNA片段是自然界的产物,and not patent-eligible merely because it has been isolated. And furthermore, Myriad did not create anything.;并不因为它被分离出体外就可以被授予专利。另外,Myriad并没有创造任何东西。”Within 24 hours of the decision, five labs had announced that they would begin to offer testing for the BRCA genes.判决生效后24小时内,就有五个实验室宣布他们将开始提供BRCA基因的检测务。Some of them promised to offer the tests at a lower price than Myriad#39;s.他们有些承诺检测的价格将比Myriad的要低。Some promised to provide a more comprehensive test than the one Myriad was offering.有些承诺将提供更全面的检测,比Myriad提供的更多。But of course the decision goes far beyond Myriad.不过显然,这个决定远远不止影响Myriad。It ends a 25-year practice of allowing patents on human genes in the ed States.它终结了美国境内25年来允许授予人类基因专利的行为。It clears a significant barrier to biomedical discovery and innovation.它为生物医疗领域的发现和创新扫除了一个重要的障碍。And it helps to ensure that patients like Abigail, Kathleen and Eileen have access to the tests that they need.它也有助于保像阿比盖尔、卡瑟琳和艾琳这样的患者能够获得她们所需要的检测。A few weeks after the court issued its decision, I received a small package in the mail.最高法院宣判几周之后,我收到了一个邮件小包。It was from Bob Cook-Deegan, a professor at Duke University是鲍勃·库克-德根寄来的,他是杜克大学的教授,and one the very first people Chris and I went to visit when we started to consider whether to bring this case.是我和克里斯开始考虑是否要开始准备此案时最先拜访的人之一。I opened it up to find a small stuffed animal.我打开包裹,里面是一个小小的毛绒玩具。We took a big risk in taking this case.为了这个案件,我们冒了很大的风险。Part of what gave us the courage to take that risk was knowing that we were doing the right thing.给予我们勇气面对风险的部分原因是我们知道我们在做正确的事。The process took nearly eight years from the start to finish, with many twists and turns along the way.从开始到结束,整个过程将近八年,经历了许多曲折和反复。A little luck certainly helped, but it was the communities that we bridged,当然还借助了一点点运气,但正是我们牵线拉到一起的群体,the alliances that we created, that made pigs fly. Thank you.正是我们创造的同盟,让不可能变成了可能。谢谢。 Article/201707/515955。

  Bath was not the only place where Romano-Britons could wallow in the well-being of the province.巴斯并非唯一罗马-不列颠紧密融合之地In Dover,the Romans built this 96-bedroom hotel,在多佛 罗马人修建了座有九十六间卧室的宾馆now 20 feet below street level but the last word in luxury for any VIP disembarking from Gaul.这间深埋地下二十英尺却极尽奢华房间 供以来自高卢的贵宾居住By the fourth century, however, Rome was in deep trouble,但在公元四世纪时 罗马深陷泥沼attacked by barbarians and undermined by political turmoil.蛮族入侵与国内阴谋策反内外受敌Britannia couldn#39;t remain detached from the fate of the rest of the empire forever.不列颠尼亚迟早也难免于 与帝国一样受敌的命运At some point, Dover#39;s significance for Britannia changed from a port of entry to a defensive stronghold.某种意义上 多佛之于不列颠尼亚 已不再是入港口 而成为了御敌大本营The ;Welcome; mat gave way to the ;Keep Out; sign,从敞开迎宾的大门成为了抵御外敌的城墙in the shape of massive walls, built through the Grand Hotel#39;s lobby.由巨石堆砌而成 横穿宾馆大厅而建This is the sort of wall the Romans built at Dover.这便是罗马人在多佛所筑的城墙This is Portchester, a Roman shore fort,a truly colossal structure that makes all too clear这是切斯特港 罗马海滨堡垒 这庞然巨物使得罗马人对the scale of threat the Romans felt the barbarians posed.蛮族入侵的惧怕 不言自明Inside it lies a Norman castle, built 1,000 years later and now completely dwarfed by it.内部构造与一千年后的诺曼第城堡相似 而与外城相比 却如此矮小It was one of several forts strung out along the south and east coasts.这是并肩严守着东南海岸的堡垒之一But not even fortifications like those of Portchester or Hadrian#39;s Wall in the north,但即使像切斯特港这样的防御工事 或北部横亘的哈德良长城could work without adequate troops.若无与之匹配的军队 都难以发挥作用As more and more legionaries were sucked back to fight on the continent,由于大批罗马兵团被召回欧洲大陆作战and as Picts and Saxons, spotting weakness,started their own raids from the north and east,而皮克特人与撒克逊人趁其羸弱之时 开始分别从东北方向刺探敌情Britannia couldn#39;t help but feel the chill of vulnerability.不列颠尼亚自知危若累卵 /201607/453018

  栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201606/449607

  栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201606/451645

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