宜宾纹绣培训费用最新报

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Science and technology科学技术A mind to walk again一个让残疾人重新站起来的伟大想法A trial of thought-controlled robotic legs is taking its first steps用思想控制的机器人腿已经开始研制ANYONE who saw Claire Lomas complete this years London marathon on May 7th cannot fail to have been impressed by her grit and determination.任何一个目睹Claire Lomas今年5月7日完成伦敦马拉松比赛的人,都无法不被他的勇气和决心所打动。Ms Lomas, once a show jumper, was paralysed from the chest down by a riding accident in 2007, so finishing a marathon, albeit at walking pace, was a dramatic feat.Lomas女士之前是一名障碍赛马运动员,在2007年的一次比赛事故中,造成从胸部以下瘫痪,所以她能完成马拉松比赛,即便是走路那样慢,也是一次惊人壮举。Some of the adulation, however, should be reserved for the technology that helped her do so: a pair of bionic legs.部分荣耀也得归功于一项高科技:两条仿生假腿。Ms Lomass legs were designed by Amit Goffer, an Israeli engineer who is himself paralysed.Lomas女士的假肢是由以色列工程师Amit Goffer设计的,他本人也患有残疾。They have various modes and are controlled by a keypad worn on the wrist.这两条仿生假腿有几种不同的模式,由手腕上的键盘控制。Walking also requires the assistance of a pair of crutches.走路需要一对拐杖。But Dr Goffers legs allowed Ms Lomas to travel the 42.195km of the marathon course in stages, over a period of 16 days.但Goffer士设计的假腿让Lomas女士行走42.195公里,分时段完成马拉松比赛,行程耗时16天。That record may not last long, however.但这个记录可能不会持续太久。Another engineer, José Contreras-Vidal of the University of Houston, in Texas, has what may prove an even better design:另一名工程师,德克萨斯州休斯顿大学的José Contreras-Vidal已被实设计出了更好的假肢:a pair of bionic legs that respond directly to signals from the brain.由大脑信号直接控制的仿生假肢。The idea of controlling machines by thought is not new.由大脑控制机器并不是最新的想法。在对人类与猴子的研究显示,运用软件从植入到人脑的电极采集信号,精确度极高,能够带动机器假肢。Research both on people and on monkeys has shown it is possible for them to move mechanical limbs with great precision, using software which interprets signals collected by electrodes implanted in their brains. The problem with this approach is that implanting electrodes into a brain is a dangerous procedure—and, even if it succeeds and does no damage, the wires leading out of the skull to the computer open a passage into the body which can lead to infection.但这种想法的问题是,将电极植入人脑是一个危险的程序,而且,即便试验成功,并未造成损害,那些连接头盖骨与电脑的电线在身体上的创口也会导致感染。Dr Contreras-Vidals approach gets round these difficulties by employing electroencephalography, which measures those electrical signals from the brain that reach the scalp.Contreras-Vidal士运用脑电图学,测试从脑部到达头皮的各种电子信号,解决了诸多难题。The recording electrodes can be carried by a skull cap, and nothing has to penetrate the skin.这些记录下来的电极存储在一个头盖帽里,并不会渗透到皮肤里。Such second-hand signals are not as precise as ones collected directly from the brain itself, and probably could not control the complex movements required of an arm and a hand.这种二手信号并没有直接从脑部收集的信号准确,可能也无法控制胳膊与手的复杂动作。But experiments using EEG have allowed people to do simple things like pressing buttons on a computer screen by moving a cursor and clicking it, and operating the flippers on a pinball machine.但用脑电图学所做的实验能让人们做一些简单的事情,比如移动光标按动电脑屏幕的按钮,点击它,开启弹珠机器上的弹珠游戏。That got Dr Contreras-Vidal thinking.这让Contreras-Vidal士陷入深深地思考。Despite appearances, walking is harder than playing pinball.除了外观,走路比玩弹珠游戏更难。But it is easier than picking something up.但比捡东西容易。He therefore wondered if he could use EEG-based control to operate a set of mechanical legs.他思考如果能运用脑电图学控制一套假肢。And, to cut a long story short, he probably can.他或许真能做到。Moreover, in the process he has reduced the number of electrodes in an EEG cap from the 30 required for pinball to a mere dozen. This means it will eventually be lighter, and easier to wear.而且,在研发过程中,他将玩弹珠球游戏所需要的头盖帽电极数从30个减少到了仅仅12个。He and a group of colleagues at the University of Maryland were able to do this by analysing what goes on in the brain when someone moves his limbs.他和他马里兰大学的同事通过分析人在移动肢体时脑中思考的情况做到这一点。They used a system of cameras to record the movement patterns of a set of able-bodied volunteers who were walking on a tmill, and then correlated the result with the electrical signals detected simultaneously at their scalps.他们用一套摄像系统记录志愿者们在跑步机上的动作类型,并且把结果和从头皮测试的电子信号连接。Even a simple task, like wiggling a toe, engages many parts of the brain.即便是一个简单的任务,像摆动脚趾,也涉及到人脑好几个部分。These include the frontal cortex, the motor cortex, the somatosensory cortex and the part of the parietal cortex that regulates kinaesthesia.包括额叶皮层、运动皮层、体感皮层和配运动感觉的部分顶叶皮层。By choosing sites carefully, the researchers were able to cover all these areas with as few as 12 electrodes.通过仔细选择测试部位,研究人员能够用仅12个电极覆盖到所有区域。The next step, which they are now working on, is to turn the result into reliable instructions that can operate a set of legs.下一步,也是他们现在正在研究的,就是把结果转变成为可靠媒介,开发一套假肢。These are made by Rex Bionics, a firm based in New Zealand.这个研究是新西兰的Rex生物公司在做。They are a partial exoskeleton that allows a user to stand and walk independently, without crutches, and are normally operated by hand controls.这对假肢是一部分外骨骼,能让患者摆脱拐杖独自站立与行走,之前是用手控制的。To adapt them to thought control, a group of able-bodied people will first don the cap and perambulate in the legs around a laboratory, to refine the process.为了能通过思想控制,研究人员让一组健全的志愿者带着头盖帽,在实验室走动,不断更新过程。Then—with luck, some time this summer—a full-scale trial in collaboration with a group of paralysed volunteers will start.幸运的是,这个夏天将开始对瘫痪志愿者实施。For someone who has been crippled in an accident of the sort suffered by Ms Lomas, Dr Contreras-Vidal thinks it will simply be a matter of remembering how you used to walk, and then doing it. The legs will respond appropriately. For those paralysed from birth that is not possible, of course.对那些在事故中变成残废的人,像Lomas女士,Contreras-Vidal士认为它只是简单的让人记起之前是如何走路的,然后去尝试走路。假肢的反应非常好。But even these unfortunates, he hopes, may be able to benefit.但对那些一出生便是残疾的人,肯定是不可能的。They will understand what walking means and, with a bit of practice, that might be enough to provide the necessary brain activity.虽然也很遗憾,他希望也能有所帮助。他们能明白走路是什么,通过练习,能够激起必要的脑部活动。Nor is mere locomotion the only benefit.这项研究并不光是运动受益。To be able to stand and walk restores a persons independence and dignity, and also helps improve his health.站立与行走能重新给予一个人独立与尊严,让他更健康。Which is why, during the trials, a group of doctors led by Robert Grossman of the Methodist Hospital, Houston, will monitor such things as the participants bone density, respiratory function and cardiovascular systems, all of which are expected to improve when someone is no longer stuck in a wheelchair.这也是为什么在实验中,由休斯顿Methodist 医院的Robert Grossman带领的医生们会监视诸如骨密度、呼吸功能和心血管系统等,这些都能让患者不再一辈子坐轮椅。If the trial works, Dr Contreras-Vidal and his colleagues believe their technique will transform the lives of those with spinal injuries.如果实验成功,Contreras-Vidal士和他的同事们将用之于脊椎受伤的人。It might also act as a form of physiotherapy, to help victims of strokes restore the use of their legs.可能通过物理疗法,帮助中风患者重新站起来,And it will certainly save a lot of money.也能省很多钱。A set of bionic legs can cost as much as 0,000. But the lifetime cost of caring for a 25-year-old with severe spinal injury is around m.一对仿生假肢花费大约15万美元,然而治疗一位25岁的严重脊椎损伤患者的花费大约为300万美元。If he can get up, go shopping and even go to work wearing one of Dr Contreras-Vidals caps, then both he and the taxpayers will be hugely better off.如果他能重新站起来,戴着Contreras-Vidal研制的头盖帽去购物,甚至是去工作,无论是他本人,还是纳税人,都会皆大欢喜的。 /201403/278073But how did one man and a spear produce the huge force behind this blow? The answer lies with small bits of ivory like this. They were once part of an atlatl, or spear thrower. An atlatl acts as a sort of catapult, magnifying the strength of a hunters throw, allowing him to launch a spear up to 200 metres, with enough power to drive the point through a bison skull. Its this kind of sophisticated technology that helped these early North Americans to sp throughout the entire continent. 但是一个人怎么能仅用一矛就产生这么大的力?就藏在这样的小片象牙里。他们是梭标投射器的一部分,梭标投射器是用来投掷矛的,它就像是弹弓一样,可以增加猎人投掷的力量,这使猎人能将矛投掷到200米外,力量强到可以穿过北美野牛的头骨。早期的北美人便是利用这种高端技术在整块大陆上生存繁衍。But what else did they find once they reached Florida? Floridas ice age wildlife was remarkably rich and diverse. There were many familiar animals, normally found further north, but also creatures unique to the tropics. The result was a mixture of species unlike anything we see today and an abundant food source for the human immigrants. 但是当他们来到佛罗里达后还发现了什么?冰河时代的佛罗里达动物物种极其丰富多样。在更北边,生存着许多类似的动物,但是这些动物相对于热带地区也十分独特。结果我们发现了很多如今我们看不到的物种,同时还有对于人类迁徙者来说丰富的食物来源。So what produced ice age Floridas wealth of wildlife? Part of the answer comes from the ice itself. 那么是什么育了冰河时代佛罗里达丰富的物种?一部分原因正是因为那是在冰河时代。At the peak of the last ice age, massive glaciers up to 2 miles thick covered over half the North American continent. The ice destroyed the habitat over which it lay, but it also had a profound impact on regions far away. It created a domino effect that rippled down the continent.在冰河时代的顶峰时期,大面积的冰川厚达2英里,覆盖了北美大陆的一半以上,冰川摧毁了冰下动物们的栖息地,但是对于远距离的地区却产生了深远影响。它产生的多米诺效应蔓延到了整个大陆。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201308/251289

At last, this compromised, sycophantic, creepily self-exonerating historian stands tall, brimful with pride in his Judaism, and says in a phrase I find genuinely moving—We have become the teachers of men in the greatest of things.最后,这一妥协,奉承,令人毛骨悚然,兼具自我责备之心的历史学家最终赢得了胜利,他的犹太教满怀骄傲之情,而说着一句令我真正感动的话,我们成为了男性的榜样,做出了最伟大的事情。Given the hammer blows of the Roman legions, and coming as they did after century upon century of blows from Egyptians, the Syrians and Babylonians, there would have been scant reason to suppose that the Jews would survive as a people. And yet, 2,000 years later, the Jews are still here. How. Well, one answer can be found back at the Arch of Titus, not something thats here, but something thats not.对于罗马军团的打击,就如同他们几个世纪来对埃及人,叙利亚和巴比伦人所做的一模一样,这是我们认为犹太人生存下来的理由。然而,2000年后,犹太人仍在这里。在提图斯的拱门处可以找到,这里没有什么东西留下,但绝不是空无一物。When Josephus describes the procession of loot and prisoners parades through the streets of Rome, he says, and last of all of the spoils was carried, the laws of the Jews. But where are the laws. Where are the Torah scrolls. Conspicuously, tellingly, they are absent.当约瑟夫描述掠夺和囚犯游行的队伍走在罗马的大街上,他表示最后所有的战利品是犹太人的法律。但法律在哪里。律法的卷轴在哪里。明显的是它们已经不在了。What were scrolls of law anyway. Just so many words on parchment, not really worth the time of a sculptor or the cost of the marble. But words copied, memorized, internalized, made unforgettable, will beat swords any time. You cant hold words captive. The Roman Empire has come and gone, but go into a synagogue any Saturday, and youll still hear those words.什么是法律卷轴。只是羊皮纸上的很多单词,不是雕塑家倾注的大把时间或大理石的价值。仅仅是复制,记忆,难忘,会使得剑刃折断的话语。你不能囚禁语言的奴隶。罗马帝国来去匆匆,但只要在任何一个周六进入会堂,你仍然会听到这些话。201404/291908

Russias aid convoy来自俄罗斯的援助Putins PR coup普京的“公关部队”Russia offers to send aid to eastern Ukraine俄罗斯表示愿意为乌克兰东部地区提供援助HELP is on the way. Or so Russian state television declared on August 12th, as nearly 300 lorries with food, medicine and generators set off from a base outside Moscow for the besieged city of Luhansk in eastern Ukraine.俄罗斯国家电视台8月12日宣布对乌的援助已经在路上了,接近300辆满载食物、药品以及发电设备的货运卡车已经从莫斯科外的基地出发,准备开往乌克兰东部去帮助卢甘斯克地区那些被围困的城市。Confusion reigns over what the lorries are carrying, and over how they will cross into Ukraine. As The Economist went to press, the convoy was heading to Rostov, a Russian city close to the border. It is a measure of Ukrainian distrust of Russian machinations that an aid convoy should be widely suspected of being a Trojan horse for invasion.但是人们一直对卡车上到底装载何物表示怀疑,同时也对他们如何穿过俄乌边境到达任务地区表示质疑。按经济学人的推测,护送车队的目的地将在靠近边境的俄罗斯城镇—罗斯托夫。因为乌克兰当局怀疑这是俄罗斯的诡计,并且这批援助车队极可能是为侵略做准备而送来的“特洛伊木马”。In March Vladimir Putin, Russias president, sent columns of troops without insignia into Crimea while claiming only local pro-Russian volunteers were at large. Yet the aid convoy is unlikely to be cover for an invasion. Had Mr Putin decided to invade, he would not have needed a stealth fleet of lorries—he has as many as 45,000 troops on the border. Russia does not have to hide arms in aid lorries to get them to its proxy forces.今年3月,当克里米亚地区公投声称亲俄选民占了大多数时,俄罗斯总统弗拉德·普京向该地区输送了一队没有官方标识的军队。不过,这一批的援助车队看上去不太可能是为了侵略打掩护。即使普京已经决定开始侵略行动,他也没必要将军队藏在货运卡车中——在俄乌边境上,他至少驻守了多达45,000人的军队。俄罗斯没必要使用这种偷偷摸摸的方式来运送它的武装力量。Most likely the offer of Russian aid to Luhansk, a city wracked by fighting and left without water or power, is a clever push by Mr Putin to be seen at home to be doing something to protect civilians in the east. Polling by the Levada Centre, a think-tank, shows public support for Russian military intervention in Ukraine dropping from 40% to 26% between June and July, but support for non-military aid remains high. Either the Russian supplies go through, making Mr Putin look the peacemaker, or they are blocked by Ukrainian forces, allowing Russia to appear the nobler party.在普京看来,俄罗斯向被战乱和激进左翼分子围困的卢甘斯克地区提供援助,是他能够在克林姆林宫为保护俄罗斯身在该地区公民做的明智之举。由智囊团——内华达中心进行的调查显示,6到7月之间,公众们对于俄罗斯军事干预乌克兰事务的持率从40%降低到了26%,但是对于提供非军事援助,人们一如既往地持。不管是最后俄方的援助车队能穿过边境到达目的地,还是说虽然被乌克兰军队阻挡无法进入,但是允许俄方在一些高层聚会中有所作为的行为。Mr Putin has taken advantage of a blind spot within the Ukrainian government and in the West: the mounting civilian death toll of the “anti-terrorist operation” in eastern Ukraine. On August 13th the UN reckoned that 2,086 people had been killed in the fighting, double the number from just two weeks ago. As Ukrainian forces recapture territory from pro-Russian rebels, their shelling often ends up striking civilian areas.现在,普京已经牢牢抓住了乌政府的一项污点:根据8月13日的统计,在乌克兰东部“反恐行动”中死亡的公民数已经达到2086人,相比两周前,这个人数已经翻番了。因为乌克兰军队在从那些亲俄的反政府主义者手中重新夺得一些地区的控制权时,通常以进攻平民居住区收尾。Yet the convoy carries the risk of escalating tensions rather than bringing relief. Any fight at the border over the passage of the lorries into Ukraine could erupt into a wider clash presaging Mr Putin calling in the troops. After months of Russias backing anti-government rebels, suspicions in Kiev are high.然而,援助车队不但不能让形势缓和,反而提高了冲突升级的危机。一旦这一路上发生任何战斗都可能带来更为巨大冲突,那时也预示着普京极有可能会呼唤军队的介入。并且,由于数月来俄罗斯对于反政府势力的暗中持持,基辅当局有理由高度怀疑俄罗斯的用心。More probably, a break in the fighting to let the lorries in is part of a plan to slow down the pace of the Ukrainian advance, helping to turn the war into a frozen conflict. That would suit Mr Putin fine. But, however deft he may be at controlling the pictures on television, the events on the ground are harder to dictate.更可能的是,这种暂停战事以让车队顺利到达卢甘斯克的行为只是拖缓乌克兰前进的计划的一部分,这将有助于将这场战争转入冻结状态。那样正和了普京的如意算盘。不过,无论如何,他可能也只能完全掌控电视画面所呈现的一切,战场上的一切都是未知数。 /201408/322590

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