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宜昌男健有什么项目宜昌三峡大学仁和医院男科咨询Science and technology.科技。Malaria,Not swatted yet.消灭疟疾任重道远。A new vaccine is one step towards a distant goal.一种新疫苗让人类离消灭疟疾更近了一步。MAN has vanquished only one disease, smallpox. In 2007 Bill Gates set out to eradicate another, malaria. The World Health Organisation (WHO) was soon rallying its troops to the cause and a flood of money followed. 2m went to research in alone. This week the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation trumpeted another announcement: results from a phase III trial (the more extensive process of testing drugs in people) of a malaria vaccine called RTS,S. This is the worlds most advanced vaccine for malaria and the results, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, were encouraging.到目前为止人类只消灭了天花这一种疾病。2007年,比尔?盖茨宣布开始着手消灭另一种疾病即疟疾。世界卫生组织迅速召集队伍致力于这项事业,并在随后投入大量资金,年仅在研究上就投入了6.12亿美元。本周,;比尔和梅琳达?盖茨基金会;发表了另一个声明,内容是世界上对抗疟疾最先进的疫苗RTS,S的第三试验阶段(在人群中广泛使用药物并测量反应)的结果,发表于《新英格兰医学杂志》上的结果振奋人心。It is an important step in combating a disease that still kills more than 700,000 people a year and debilitates millions more. But it is also a reminder of how much work remains to be done.每年因疟疾致死的人有700000人,致残的有 数百万人,这个试验结果是战胜这一疾病的重大进步。但是它也提醒人们还有多少任务尚未完成。Mr Gates is only malarias latest adversary. The parasite has plagued man for millennia. Chinese texts from 2700 describe plants to treat its fevers. More recently, in 1955, the WHO embarked on its first malaria-eradication effort. But transmission rates in Africa seemed intractable. After 14 years the WHO gave up. The last time the world tried to eliminate malaria, some scientists lament, the world eliminated malariologists.疟疾祸害人类千年,盖茨先生最近一个反抗它的对手。公元前2700年中国的文字资料就记载着一些植物能治疗由疟疾引起的发烧的。再往离现在近的时间看,世界卫生组织在1955年展开首次消灭疟疾的行动。但是在非洲,遏制疟疾的传播率似乎非常棘手。14年之后,世卫放弃了。有些科学家慨叹,上一次世界本来试图消灭疟疾,结果被消灭的是疟疾学家。The new wave of enthusiasm came with the founding of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership in 1998 (to co-ordinate planning), the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative in 1999 (with money from the Gates Foundation) and the ed Nations Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in 2002. This culminated in Mr Gatess call to arms four years ago and has helped to lower the number of malaria deaths by 20% over the past decade.随着1998年;遏制疟疾伙伴关系;(共同测绘)、1999年;疟疾疫苗开发计划;(资金来自盖茨基金会)和2002年联合国全球治疗艾滋病肺结核和疟疾基金的建立,对抗疟疾的新一轮热潮出现了。四年后盖茨振臂一呼,在十年里疟疾死亡率降低了20%,推动抗疟疾的热潮达到顶峰。More progress will be difficult. The existing tools of insecticide-treated bed nets and treatment drugs require careful co-ordination and good health systems. Eliminating malaria in a stable country is dramatically easier than doing so in a turbulent one. Worryingly, these tools may become less effective. Parasites in South-East Asia, for example, seem to be developing resistance to artemisinin-based treatments. To achieve eradication-or anything close to it-new weapons are needed.要想获得更多进展非常困难。现有的带有杀虫剂蚊帐和药物治疗要求配合细致和良好的医疗系统。在一个政局稳定的国家消灭疟疾比在政局动荡的国家更容易。比如,东南亚的寄生虫似乎对基于青蒿素的治疗起了抗药性。要想消灭疟疾——或是向这个目标再迈进一大步—就得发展新武器。RTS,S, developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), a British pharmaceutical company, will help. The vaccine tries to stop one type of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, before it has a chance to wreak havoc. A mosquitos bite delivers malaria to the body. Travelling swiftly to the liver, the parasites hide, mature and multiply before staging a grand second act in the bloodstream, where they invade red blood cells, multiply again, and invade more cells. RTS,S combines a circumsporozoite protein, which exists on the parasites surface, with a protein from a hepatitis B vaccine. Together, these trigger an immune response which can fight off invading parasites before the second act.这个新武器就是由英国制药公司葛兰素史克公司(GlaxoSmithKline研制的RTS,S。该疫苗能停止疟疾寄生虫恶性疟原虫的活性,使它不能为非作歹。蚊子叮一口就会把疟疾传到人身上。它传播敏捷,在寄主身上隐藏起来、成熟、繁殖,然后在血液里进行第二个大的行动,入侵红细胞后再次繁殖,接着侵占更多细胞。RTS,S把存在于寄生虫表面的环子孢子蛋白和肝炎B型疫苗里的一种蛋白结合在一起。它们共同作用引发一种免疫反应,在第二次活动前就击退入侵的寄生虫。GSK tested the vaccine in 6,000 infants across sub-Saharan Africa. It reduced the risk of clinical malaria by 56% and severe malaria by 47%. This efficacy was ;on the positive side of what we were expecting,; says Christian Loucq of the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, GSKs partner on RTS,S.葛兰素史克公司在撒哈拉以南非洲的6000名婴儿身上测试了这种疫苗。患临床疟疾的风险减少了56%,患严重疟疾的风险减少了47%。葛兰素史克公司在研制RTS.S的搭档;疟疾疫苗开发计划;的Christian Loucq说这种效力;是我们曾期待的积极一面;。However, more is to come. The trial examined children aged 5-17 months. Results for younger babies will follow. Still uncertain is how long the vaccines protection lasts. The first year that the vaccine might be used would be 2015, and that is if everything goes as planned. Even then, it is unclear how RTS,S might be deployed. Its price is uncertain and its power limited. ;We realise that RTS,S is not the ultimate malaria vaccine,; says David Brandling-Bennett of the Gates Foundation. ;But it will have some role. The challenge is figuring out what that role is.;然而,更多的试验紧随其后。上面提到的试验测试对象是5-17个月大的婴儿。随后会出炉年龄更小婴儿的结果。这种疫苗的保护能持续多久还不清楚。疫苗投入使用可能会从2015年开始,前提是如果一切按计划进行的话。即使到那时候,还不清楚RTS.S会怎样投放。价格不定,效力也是有限的。;我们认识到RTS.S并非是最好的疟疾疫苗,;盖茨基金会的大卫?布兰丁-内特这样说,;但是它会起到一些作用。我们的挑战是研究出这种作用是什么。;Researchers are aly working on the next generation of vaccines. GSK hopes to induce a stronger immune response by combining RTS,S with a vaccine from Crucell, another drug firm. Scientists are also keen to develop vaccines that target different kinds of malaria parasites and in different ways-for example, in mosquitoes guts. All of this work requires further investment at a time when global health programmes must compete fiercely for cash. Mr Gates has helped to spur progress. Sustaining it is the next challenge.研究者已经开始从事下一代疫苗的开发。葛兰素史克公司希望使用RTS,S和另一家制药公司Crucell的一种疫苗的结合体来引起更强烈的免疫反应。科学家也努力研制针对不同种类疟疾寄生虫和不同感染途径——比如,在蚊子的内脏里——的疫苗。这些工作都需要继续投入资金,而现在正是全球医疗项目必须为资金激烈竞争的时候。盖茨先生已经为推动研究进步做出贡献。如何保持这种势头是下一个挑战。 /201208/196129宜昌治疗慢性前列腺囊肿医院 Got a job in your searching for another one? You are not alone. A new study from career builder found that 69% of full-time workers regularly search for a new job and 30% say they shop around every week. So why the constant job hunt? Well, there’s easy access online posting other resources. We spoke to Caroline, she’s a career coach with six figure start. Caroline suggests subtly pushing your online profile, put your Linkedin page in your email signature that way youre effectively sending out your resume without the actual attachment. Also doing online search for yourself. You need to be aware what employers can and cant see about you. And if facebook once being the first thing that pops up, you may wanna think about adjusting your privacy settings. Also go ahead and set up an alert that way when your name is mentioned, youll be the first to know it. And finally check out the job boards but look beyond those postings even if a posting is out of date, it can great for research, use requirements listed to tweet your resume and write a stronger cover letter. For top tips, Im Alison Kosik in New York.已经有一份工作,你还在找一个更逞心如意的工作?你并不孤单,有许多人在此行列。一个职业构建组织的新的研究表明,69%的全职工作的工人都在定期寻找新工作,并且30%的人称他们每周也都会在人才市场转一圈。那么为什么要不停地四处奔波找工作呢?网上求职比其他方式都更加简单方便。让我们和卡洛琳来沟通一下,她是一名职业教练,起薪6位数字。她的建议是,有技巧地提高你的网络形象,将Linkedin网页放在你的邮件签名中,这样,你将有效地发送你的邮件,而不需要任何实际的附件。同时,你自己也可以做网上调查。你需要知道,什么样的老板会看或者不会看你的邮件。如果你的Facebook马上就火了起来,你可能得考虑调整一下私人设置。同样,你得进一步注意网民是如何、何时提到你的,你应该是第一个知道这些反馈信息的人。最后你不要检查一下工作公告信息,但是还要看一下过期的公告,也很有必要研究一下,利用其中的要求完善你的简历,并附上一封更有说力的附信,以上便是一些诀窍。我是纽约的Alison Kosik。 201211/208877The Taipei City Zoo in Muzha won the bid to house a pair of giant pandas from China, and people will be able to see the endangered animals at the end of this year at the earliest.台北木栅动物园已获得从中国引进一对大熊猫的资格。台湾的人们最早可在今年年底一睹这种濒危动物的芳容。A screening committee organized by the Forestry Bureau under the Council of Agriculture (COA) chose the Muzha zoo in Taipei to eventually house the pandas, over the private Leofoo Safari Park in northern Hsinchu county.;农业委员会;下属的;林业局;所组织的一个审查委员会最终确定,台北木栅动物园击败了新竹县北部的六福村野生动物园,获得了安置这一对大熊猫的资格。COA officials said in a statement that the Muzha zoo won the bid because the Leofoo park had failed to develop the necessary educational and research programs to go along with the pandas arrival. In addition, the veterinary service at the Leofoo park is not good enough to handle emergency medical treatment demand.;农委会;的官员在一份声明中称,由于六福村野生动物园未能完成迎接熊猫到来所必需的教育和研究的各个项目,因此接纳大熊猫的资格最终花落木栅动物园。此外,六福村野生动物园的兽医务也不尽人意,无法满足动物紧急救治的需求。Meanwhile, Taipeis city government says it has invested about NT0 million to build a panda house, while Leofoo says it spent about a third of that sum on the project.同时,台北市政府称,他们已投入约2.5元新台币用于兴建熊猫馆。而六福村用于该项目的款项仅为台北市的三分之一。;Taipei has prepared for many years to receive the pandas; we will consider them as our own children and provide them with the best care,; Taipei Mayor Hau Lung-bin was ed as saying by Taipei city government spokesman Yang Hsiao-tung.;台北多年以前就准备迎接大熊猫了。我们会像照顾我们的孩子一样照顾他们。;台北市政府发言人杨效东(Yang Hsiao-tung)引用台北市市长郝龙斌的话说。Due to the import procedures and quarantine measures, the two pandas might not arrive in Taiwan before the end of the year, according to the Taipei city government.台北市政府称,由于还要完成引进手续和检疫措施方面的程序,这两只大熊猫可能无法在今年年底之前到达台湾。201202/172708宜昌猇亭区包皮手术多少钱

宜昌人民医院生殖科哪个医生好宜昌男科检查哪个医院最好 Cancer genetics癌症遗传学Gene therapy基因疗法Genetic mutations predict which cancers will respond to treatment基因突变将预测某种治疗会对哪些癌症起作用THE International Cancer Genome Consortium, an alliance of laboratories that is trying to produce a definitive list of the genetic mutations that cause cancer, is accumulating data at an astonishing rate. About 3,000 individual breast tumours, for example, have now had their genotypes published. But these data will not, by themselves, help patients. For that, they have to be collected in the context of a drug trial. And this is just what Matthew Ellis and his colleagues at Washington University in St Louis have done for women suffering from breast cancer. Their methods, if they prove to work for other cancers too, may revolutionise treatment.国际癌症基因组协作组(THE International Cancer Genome Consortium)是试图建立一份会引起癌症的基因突变完整清单的实验室联盟,它积累数据的速度让人吃惊。例如,它已经发表了大约3000种不同的乳房肿瘤的基因型。但光凭这些数据本身无法帮助患者。要医治病人,人们必须结合药物试验采集数据。而这正是在圣路易斯市的华盛顿大学(Washington University in St Louis)工作的马修?埃利斯(Matthew Ellis)及其同事们为罹患乳腺癌的妇女们所作的工作。如果事实明他们的方法对其他癌症也有用的话,这可能会是癌症治疗的一次革命。Dr Ellis and his team sequenced the whole genomes of both cancerous and normal tissue from 46 women with tumours of a type called oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. They also sequenced just the gene-containing regions of the genome-about 1% of total DNA-from an additional 31 women, and parts of the sequences of 240 more. They then compared the healthy and tumorous genomes of each patient, in order to discover which genes had mutated in the cancer.埃利斯士及其团队对46名身患雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌的妇女的癌组织和正常组织进行了全基因组测序。他们也对另外31名病人的基因组中含有基因的那些区域(约占整个DNA的1%)进行了测序,并对其他240名病人的这些部分做了部分测序。此后,为找出癌细胞中哪些基因发生了突变,他们比较了每个病人的健康和癌变基因组。In this, they were following the normal protocol of the cancer genome consortium. The novelty of their approach was that the women in question had each been involved in one of two clinical trials of a drug called letrozole. These trials established letrozole as a standard treatment for people with this type of breast cancer, but not all patients benefit equally from the drug. Dr Ellis hoped to find out why.他们在这一工作中是按癌症基因组协作组的标准程序操作的,但其方法的新颖之处是,他们还同时进行一种名为来曲唑的药物的临床试验。该试验有两种,每个病人都接受其中的一种。这些试验实来曲唑是这类乳腺癌的标准治疗方法,但它对每个病人的疗效并不一样。埃利斯士希望找出其原因。As they report in Nature, he and his team discovered 18 genes that were often mutated. Some were the usual suspects of cancer genetics. These included p53, a gene that, when working properly, suppresses cancer by regulating DNA repair, cell division and cellular suicide, and MAP3K1 and MAP2K4, which both promote cell growth. Others, though, were a surprise. At the top of that list were five which had previously been linked to leukaemia, but were not thought to affect solid tumours.正如他们在《自然》杂志中所报告的那样,埃利斯和他的团队发现了18种经常发生突变的基因,其中有些是癌症遗传学通常怀疑的对象。这中间包括p53,这种基因在正常工作时通过调节DNA对的修复、细胞分裂和细胞自杀来抑制癌症;还有MAP3K1和MAP2K4,它们都能促进细胞生长。但也有些令人吃惊的其他结果。高踞名单前列的5种基因是人们过去认为与白血病有关的,没想到它们也会影响实体瘤。By combining their newly acquired genetic data with clinical data from the participants, Dr Ellis and his colleagues showed that those whose tumours carried mutations in p53 (16% of the total) were less likely to have responded to letrozole than women whose tumours had normal p53. Conversely, those whose tumours had changes in either MAP3K1 or MAP2K4 (another 16%) had better than average responses to the drug.将他们新得到的基因数据与参与试验者的临床数据结合,埃利斯士等人明了,来曲唑对肿瘤中有p53基因突变的病人(占总数的16%)的疗效不如对肿瘤中p53基因正常的病人那样显著。与此相反,这一药物对肿瘤中MAP3K1或MAP2K4有变化的病人(也占总数的16%)的疗效高于平均水平。This sort of information has obvious implications for treatment. And the cheapness of modern gene-sequencing methods, particularly those that are looking for specific mutations suspected in advance, means that a tumours mutational complement can be worked out easily in an appropriately equipped pathology laboratory. In the case of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, the genetic analysis has not yet gone so far as to be able to say with certainty which drug will produce the best result for a given individual, but Dr Elliss result lays a foundation on which such an edifice might be built for breast cancer and perhaps for other types of tumour, too.这种信息对治疗的含义是明显的。而且,现代基因测序法价格低廉,寻找预先已有怀疑的某些特别的基因突变尤为便宜;这意味着,在拥有合适装备的病理实验室里,人们可以很容易地找出肿瘤基因突变的补体。就雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌来说,基因分析还无法肯定地告诉我们,哪种药物对某个病人疗效最佳;但埃利斯士的结果打下了一个基础,或许可以在此之上为乳腺癌——甚至其他种类的癌症——的治疗建立有效的预测方法。 201207/192630宜昌包茎治疗价格

猇亭区泌尿科咨询Thirty-two billion, thats how much News Corp, the Murdoch media empire, is worth. And this tiny fraction, .6 billion, is from News International, Murdochs British subsidiary of newspaper, including the Sun--the most popular paper in the country, more than 7 million ers every day.320亿,这就是默多克的传媒帝国——新闻集团的总产值。而其中很小的一个部分——16亿美元,则是新闻国际——默多克旗下分英国报业(包括英国最受欢迎的报纸,每天有700万人订阅的《太阳报》)的总产值。But the Sun and News International are under close scrutiny. 300 million emails, thats what News Corps internal investigation has given to police, in an effort to clean up the ongoing phone-hacking scandal that shut down Britains oldest newspaper: News of the World.但目前《太阳报》和新闻国际正在接受严格审查。新闻集团内部调查小组交移警方3亿封电子邮件,致力于清除还在持续的窃听丑闻。窃听门导致英国历史最悠久的报纸《世界新闻报》关闭。So far, over the course, the investigation was started last year, more than 30 have been arrested from News International, including top executives, among them, 9 former and current staff from the Sun arrested in recent weeks, amid allegations of bribing public officials for information. All have been released on bail, none charged and few have spoken publicly about their arrest, but those who have maintained their innocence. Nearly 200 million and counting, that how much the phone-hacking scandal has cost News International from legal fees to settlements with victims.目前为止,在这期间,调查自去年年底开始,大概30名新闻国际高管、记者被捕,其中《太阳报》9名前任和现任记者近期被捕,陷身于贿赂政府官员的指控。被捕人员全部获得保释,没有人上诉,极少有人公开回应被捕事件,除了那些坚称自身清白的人。新闻国际为窃听门付出大约2亿代价,包括律师费及与窃听事件受害者和解费用。News Corp is now facing three ongoing police investigations: one parliamentary inquiry, and one judicial inquiry as well as a number of civil law suits. It all adds up to one big headache for Rupert Murdoch.新闻集团目前正面临着警方的调查:一次议会调查,一次司法调查以及一系列的民事诉讼。这都让鲁伯特·默多克头疼不已。So will he rid himself of his prized British paper--the Sun, to save the rest of his empire? Answers perhaps when Murdoch arrives in London this week.因此他会为了成全自己的媒体帝国而舍弃《太阳报》吗?也许在默多克这周抵达伦敦时才能揭晓。Atika Shubert, CNN, London.阿蒂卡·舒伯特,CNN,伦敦。本文译文属201206/187392 宜都市治疗阳痿哪家医院最好猇亭区人民中妇幼保健医院看男科好吗

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