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2018年10月22日 15:42:07 | 作者:58门户 | 来源:新华社
Curators in other countries are alarmed at what they see as growing aggression. A leading museum director even described the campaign as “blackmail”. So what chance has Turkey of winning this new culture war?其他国家的馆长将这些日益增长的挑衅行为感到震惊。一个重要的物馆馆长甚至说这场运动是敲诈行为。如此一来土耳其会有什么样的机会来赢得这场文化战争呢?At the crossroads of the ancient world, drawing Roman armies from the west and Persian conquerors from the east, Turkey—especially the region of Anatolia—has long been a rich seam of knowledge and treasure from antiquity. In the 19th century teams of European scholars travelled there in search of archaeological remains. Among the most successful was a German unit led by Carl Humann. Armed with a firman, or Ottoman permit, and financed by a group of rich backers in Berlin, Humann and his team, in 1878, began excavating a site in Bergama, near the modern city of Izmir on the Aegean coast of western Turkey.处在古代世界的十字路口,土耳其吸引了西方的罗马军队和东方的波斯征者,土耳其,尤其是安那托利亚地区,长期以来被人们视为知识繁荣文物丰富的宝地。19世纪欧洲学者为了搜寻考古遗迹来到这里。其中最成功的要数卡尔·休曼领导的德国考古队。有了苏丹的敕令(奥斯曼帝国的许可),得到了大批柏林富翁的资助,休曼和他的同事从1878年开始挖掘在土耳其西部其爱琴海岸贝尔加马(现代城市伊兹密尔附近)的一处遗址。Humann’s most important discovery was the altar of Zeus, which dates from the second century . Its dramatic frieze depicting the battle between the giants and the Olympian gods makes it one of the most distinctive works from the classical world. With the sultan’s permission, the altar was sent to Germany and became the centrepiece of the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Meanwhile, German archaeologists continued to work on the site; today, the ancient city of Pergamon is the second oldest ongoing archaeological dig in the world. German excavations are still the most important of the foreign digs in Turkey, and for decades Turkish archaeologists have been educated in Berlin and other German cities, their studies subsidised by German government grants.休曼最重要的发现是公元前二世纪的宙斯祭坛。它的浮雕生动地描绘了巨人和奥林匹亚众神作战的情景,这座祭坛也因此跻身古代最杰出的艺术品行列。获得苏丹的允许后,祭坛被送到德国,成为柏林佩加蒙物馆的镇馆之宝。与此同时,考古学家在遗址上继续工作。今天佩加蒙古城是世界上第二个持续进行的考古发掘。现在,在土耳其的外国发掘中,德国独占鳌头,数十年来,土耳其考古学家在柏林和其他德国城市接受教育,他们的学习得到了德国政府拨款资助。Archaeological teams like Humann’s were soon followed by scholars from Britain and France, and into the 20th century from Italy, Japan and America. Some paid for their projects by selling a portion of their finds to Western collectors who were becoming increasingly enamoured of all things à la Turque. Others removed treasures they believed might be at risk from war and insurrection, and gave them to the new European museums. Foreign scholars saved a considerable number of Turkish artefacts from being commercially looted or destroyed by invading armies. This is rarely mentioned in Turkey’s discussions about its archaeological past.类似休曼考古队的行动很快被来自英国和法国的学者效仿,到了20世纪,意大利、日本和美国的学者也加入到这个行列。有人为了付工程款项就向西方收藏家出售了发掘到的部分物品,那些收藏家对土耳其所有的东西越发倾心。其他人因为害怕战争和动乱带来风险就转移了文物并把他们送到了欧洲物馆。他们的行动使文物免于被低价掠夺或者侵略军的毁坏。土耳其讨论过去的考古工作时,对这段历史几乎只字不提。The precise way in which objects were acquired has kept on changing. Some scholars had formal permission from the Ottoman authorities to take their treasures back to Europe; others were motivated by a wish to preserve and protect and did not bother with obtaining proper permissions or establishing a full and accurate provenance for an object. Looters robbed graves and helped themselves.取得文物的正确方法一直在变化。有些学者到得到奥斯曼帝国当局的正式批准后将文物带回欧洲。有的学者出于保存和保护文物的目的,没有费尽心机的征得适当的许可或者建立完整准确的文物档案。掠夺墓地的抢劫者只拿他们想要的东西。Use of force使用强力Western museums house tens of thousands of objects from Turkey. Most of these were given or acquired without full documentation. Though Turkey passed a law in 1884 (updated in 1906) stating that all antiquities were the property of the state and could not be taken out of the country, this was only loosely enforced.西方物馆里来自土耳其的文物成千上万。物馆获赠或获取的这些艺术品没有完整档案。虽然1884年土耳其通过一部法律(1906年更新)规定所有的文物属于国家财产并且不能带到国外,这部法律的约束力不大。201206/184935Youve never guessed the dangers on the ground from orbit except maybe from this massive double burrow storms hovering above the poles. 你从来没有猜到地面上的危险,也许除了在极点的轨道上巨大的风暴盘旋。This ,what we called dipoles features trolling around. 这就是我们所说的极子特征。We dont know really what they are but the whole features self in thousand or two climax cross that very big but is has figured a type look to it .我们真的不知道它们是什么,但整个有几千或者两个很大的高潮,但也已经有了一种类型。Believed to be created by wind that whorl around equator speeds up to 230 miles per hour. 这被认为是风在赤道形成高达每小时230英里的螺旋。These hurricanes can split into three and even four.这些飓风可以分为三个,甚至四个高峰。And the wild weather does not end there because the hottest planet in the solar system even has snow but not as we know it. 而恶劣的天气并没有到此为止,因为最热的行星在太阳系里甚至有雪,但不像我们所了解的那样。All of sudden in the radar images all the mountains go white.突然在雷达上显示众山变成了白色。Now thats because there are some kind of highly reflected coating would look like white to your eyes.现在因为有某种高度反射看起来就像你的眼睛里充满了白色。If you could actually land on the Venus it might look shining.如果你可以到达金星,它可能看起来会闪闪发光。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/176022Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;New British fiction;新英国小说;The writer and the spy;作家和间谍;A clever book that leaves you cold;打不动人心的一本智慧书;Sweet Tooth. By Ian McEwan.《甜蜜牙齿》作者:Ian McEwan. At 64, with a Hollywood film, a Man Booker prize and a gong from the queen, Ian McEwan has become a grand old man of British letters. Publication of his latest novel, “Sweet Tooth”, was announced on the evening news. A ing at the Edinburgh book festival was introduced by none other than the first minister, Alex Salmond.64岁那年,带着被改编成的好莱坞电影,伊恩.麦克万从女王的手里接过了布克奖和奖章。成为英国的最年长的作者。晚间新闻报道了他最新出版的小说《甜蜜的牙齿》。在爱丁堡图书节的一次读书会上,竟然是首席部长阿列克斯.萨尔蒙德推荐了这本小说。For all the attendant publicity, “Sweet Tooth” is not Mr McEwans finest book. It has neither the darkness of “The Comfort of Strangers” nor the passion of “Enduring Love”, nor even the forensic observation that made “On Chesil Beach” such an uncomfortable and memorable . It is a clever book—ostensibly about spying, yet really about writers and the alchemy of fiction. But it is also curiously forgettable. What it lacks is not so much an animating spirit, as a heart.对于所有的参赛作品来说,《甜蜜的牙齿》并不是麦克万最棒的书。它既没有《舒适的陌生人》的那种阴郁,也没有《永恒的爱》那么的,甚至没有那种使《在Chesil的海滩》成为令人忐忑,却难以忘却的书的法医的观察。这是一本智慧的书——表面看似是关于谍报活动的,其实它是讲作者和小说的魔力。但是,说来奇怪,它也容易被忘掉。它缺少的是没有令人心跳般地虎虎生机。The novel is set in 1972, a pivotal year in post-war British history, when a series of bloody IRA bombings and debilitating miners strikes seemed to presage the political and economic chaos that would mark the rest of the decade. Farther afield, the cold war stumbled on, as East and West battled for cultural influence.小说的故事设定在1972年,英国历史上战后的最关键的一年,一连串的北爱尔兰共和军的流血爆炸,虚弱矿工的罢工似乎预示着政治和经济的大乱,那混乱也许充斥那个年代的剩下的整个时间。远方,冷战磕磕碰碰地继续着,就像东西方为了文化影响战斗一样。In her final year at Cambridge—nest of an earlier generation of spies—Serena Frome (rhymes with “plume”, the er is swiftly told, for no discernible reason) has an affair with an older man, who helps recruit her to become a junior spy. At the time the West was spending millions sping anti-Soviet propaganda, and America was bankrolling newspapers and broadcasters like Radio Free Europe. Serena, a compulsive er of fiction, is sent on a secret mission to convert a promising young novelist, Tom Haley, to the cause.剑桥是这个早先一代间谍的的老窝。Serena Frome (与”plume”押韵,给读者一带而过,没有别的意思。)在剑桥的最后一年,和一个老头之间有段韵事,老头协助招募她,使她成了一位初级间谍。那时,西方花费数百万用于反苏宣传,美国资助着报纸和广播,如自由欧洲电台等。一位痴迷小说的读者,Serena身负着神秘使命,被送去策反年轻有为的小说家 Tom Haley到这事业来。The two become lovers. Their hedonistic affair is full of Chablis and long discussions about famous writers and publishers of the time (Martin Amis, Tom Maschler). The book chugs along this way until the end, when Mr McEwan delivers an unwieldy denouement and some unearned sadness. By then it is hard to feel much of anything for these heroes, who are all notions and no depth.这两个成了恋人,他们享受着花天酒地,久久地讨论着当时知名的作家和出版商(如Martin Amis, Tom Maschler)。这本书遵循着这条线索,跌宕起伏,一直到结束,这时麦克万写出了繁琐的结尾和一些顺理成章的伤感。直到此刻我们也很难感受到这些英雄的什么事迹,虽然他们一直贯穿始终,但没有深度。 /201209/199430

Now from the Boston Museum of Science Sci-Tech Today on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。Youve likely heard of drug-sniffing dogs. Today we learn about the next wave of cargo screening. Researchers at the University of Sheffield are developing cargo screening ferrets to aid in the search of cargo for illegal substances. And joining us now from the Museum of Science Boston is Joanna Bunn. Thanks for joining us this morning, Joanna.我们都知道缉毒犬,但现在海关检查又有了新方法。来自英国谢菲尔德大学的研究人员正在研究利用新的探测器(robotic ferrets)帮助海关检验非法进出境物品。让我们欢迎来自波士顿科学院的Joanna Bunn。你好,Joanna。Good morning Lutoya.早上好,Lutoya。So what exactly are robotic ferrets?这款探测器究竟怎么样呢?Yes, these arent the cute and cuddly kinds that you wanna bring home. These robotic ferrets are being developed in the ed Kingdom currently. They are gonna be about 30 centimeters to a little under a foot long and are gonna be used to search cargo containers that we have at seaports and airports such as in Boston, Massachusetts.这些探测器并不是可爱的让人想要抱回家的小物件。它们正由英国相关部门研制,全长30厘米到1英尺,用于检测波士顿,马赛出塞州等地的海运空运集装箱。Ok, how will they work exactly?那么这些探测器效果如何呢?Well, the standard cargo container is 48-feet long and about 8-feet tall. It is stuffed full of boxes and cargo. Oftentimes theres just a little bit of room near the top which is where our robotic ferret comes in. The robotic ferret will be attached to the top of the cargo container and there will move around, using sensors that take advantage of laser and fiber optic technologies to look for particles of contraband such as nuclear weapons, biotoxins, drugs and even carbon dioxide.标准的集装箱长48英尺,高8英尺,里面堆满了盒子或箱子。通常只有集装箱的上面留有少量空间,这正是探测器要安置的地方。探测器附在集装箱的上方,并四处移动,利用激光和光纤技术探寻禁运物品的分子,例如核武器,生物毒素,毒品,甚至是二氧化碳。Wow! So what exactly are the benefits of using this type of robot?哇!那么使用这种仪器的好处是什么呢?Well, first we wanna reduce the number of time that Security and Customs Officials need to physically go inside these cargo containers and remove the items form inside. This is time-consuming and can potentially expose them to harmful materials that are within the containers.首先,我们希望利用这项技术能够减少海关人员进入集装箱的次数,以往,工作人员必须搬动货物并进入集装箱才能检验集装箱内的所有物品。这样做费力不讨好,还有可能使检验人员受到箱内物品的伤害。So briefly Joanna, when will the robot ferrets be available?那么,Joanna,这种仪器什么时候投入使用呢?Oh well, the researchers are hoping to have a prototype in about two years with possible deployment in about five years.研究人员计划在两年内制造出产品模型,可能的话在五年内投入使用。Joanna Bunn, thank you so much for educating us this morning. Join us every morning every Thursday morning at this time for Sci-Tech Today or log on to Museum of Science website mos.org.Jonna Bunn,谢谢你的介绍。观众们,欢迎您每周四早上同一时间关注我们的节目,或登录我们的网站www.mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/180695

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