时间:2018年10月15日 23:41:51

The machines at Independent Record Pressing whirred and hissed as they stamped out a test record. The business’s owners waited anxiously for Dave Miller, the plant manager, to inspect the still-warm slab of vinyl.“独立唱片压制公司”(Independent Record Pressing)里,机器轰鸣作响,压出一张测试碟。车间主管戴夫·米勒(Dave Miller)检查这张余温犹存的黑胶唱片,老板们在旁边焦急地等待着。“That’s flat, baby!” Mr. Miller said as he held the record, to roars of approval and relief. “That’s the way they should come off, just like that.”“是平的,宝贝!”米勒拿着唱片松了口气,用赞许的口吻大声说,“唱片出来就该是这样的,就是这样。”Independent Record Pressing is an attempt to solve one of the riddles of today’s music industry: how to capitalize on the popularity of vinyl records when the machines that make them are decades old, and often require delicate and expensive maintenance. The six presses at this new 20,000-square-foot plant, for example, date to the 1970s.“独立唱片压制公司”的成立是为了解决当今音乐产业内的一个难解之谜:如今,黑胶唱片重又流行起来,然而压制黑胶的机器却已经走过了几十个年头,经常需要细致昂贵的维护保养,怎样从黑胶的流行中获利就成了问题。这家占地二万平方英尺的厂房里有6台黑胶压制机,都是20世纪70年代出产的。Vinyl, which faded with the arrival of compact discs in the 1980s, is having an unexpected renaissance. Last year more than 13 million LPs were sold in the ed States, according to the Recording Industry Association of America, the highest count in 25 years, making it one of the record business’s few growth areas.20世纪80年代,随着CD技术的出现,黑胶一度销声匿迹,如今却出人意料地出现了复兴。根据美国唱片工业协会统计,去年全美售出了1300万多张LP唱片,达到25年来的最高点,成了唱片工业内为数不多的增长领域之一。But the few dozen plants around the world that press the records have strained to keep up with the exploding demand, resulting in long delays and other production problems, executives and industry observers say. It is now common for plants to take up to six months to turn around a vinyl order — an eternity in an age when listeners are used to getting music online instantly.但是,唱片业的高管和行业观察者们指出,面对突然爆发的需求,全世界少数几个能够压制黑胶唱片的工厂已经疲于奔命,由此导致了漫长的延期和各种生产问题。现在,工厂花费六个月时间完成一份黑胶订单是非常普遍的,对于当今这个听众习惯马上在网络上听到音乐的时代来说,真是一段过于漫长的时间。“The good news is that everyone wants vinyl,” Dave Hansen, one of Independent’s owners and the general manager of the alternative label Epitaph, said on a recent hot afternoon as the plant geared up for production.“好消息是,现在所有人都想要黑胶,”前不久,一个炎热的下午,“独立”的老板之一戴夫·汉森(Dave Hansen)在工厂准备生产的间隙接受了采访,他还是另类唱片厂牌“墓志铭”(Epitaph)的经理。“The bad news is everything you see here today,” he added, noting that the machines had to be shut down that afternoon because of the rising temperature of water used as a coolant. To replace an obsolete screw in one machine, Independent spent ,000 to manufacture and install a new one.“坏消息就是今天你在这儿看到的一切,”他指的是当天下午机器被迫关闭的事,因为用作冷却的水温度升高了。为了替换机器里一个坏掉的螺丝,公司花了5000美元制作安装了一台新机器。The vinyl boom has come as streaming has taken off as a listening format and both CDs and downloads have declined. The reasons cited are usually a fuller, warmer sound from vinyl’s analog grooves and the tactile power of a well-made record at a time when music has become ephemeral.黑胶回潮发生在流媒体播放成为主要聆听方式,CD和下载都出现下降趋势之际。人们青睐黑胶的理由通常是,在这个音乐已经变得短暂易逝的时代,黑胶的模拟方式更加丰满、温暖;精美唱片的手感也带来一种力量。Most surprising is the youth of the market: According to MusicWatch, a consumer research group, some 54 percent of vinyl customers are 35 or younger. Mr. Hansen and Darius Van Arman, a founder of Secretly Group, a consortium of small record companies that is a partner in Independent, said they believed their customers were often discovering new music through streaming and then collecting it on LPs.最让人惊讶的是,这个市场非常年轻:根据消费者调查集团MisicWatch统计,54%的黑胶唱片消费者是35岁至35岁以下的人群。小唱片公司联合团体“秘密集团”(Secretly Group)的创始人德里乌斯·范·阿尔曼(Darius Van Arman)也是“独立”的合伙人之一,他和汉森都说,客户往往是通过流媒体发现新的音乐,然后收藏它们的黑胶唱片。“None of this was supposed to happen, and yet it’s happened,” said Michael Fremer, a senior contributing editor at Stereophile magazine and a longtime champion of vinyl as a superior medium for sound.“这一切都是人们不曾预料到的,然而就这样发生了,”《Stereophile》杂志的资深供稿编辑,迈克尔·弗莱默(Michael Fremer)说,长期以来,他一直主张黑胶是一种高级的声音介质。Independent’s machines tell some of the history of the modern music business. Mr. Miller, 62, helped build them as a young man in the 1970s, and they were used for decades at the Hub-Servall plant in Cranbury, N.J.; Mr. Miller recalled pressing copies of the “Saturday Night Fever” and “Grease” soundtracks there.“独立”的机器可以反映出现代音乐工业的一些历史。米勒先生现年62岁,70年代时,年轻的他曾经参与制造这些机器。它们在新泽西州克兰伯里市的Hub-Servall工厂役几十年,米勒回忆这家工厂曾经压制过《周六夜狂热》(Saturday Night Fever)和《油脂》(Grease)的原声专辑。In 2007, Hub-Servall’s presses were sold to RIP-V, a new plant in Montreal that took on Epitaph as a client. RIP-V shut down last year, and Independent bought six of its 14 machines and brought them back to New Jersey. (The rest went to other plants.) Mr. Hansen said that he and Secretly had invested .5 million in the venture.2007年,Hub-Servall的压制机被蒙特利尔的新厂RIP-V买去,“墓志铭”也是它的客户。RIP-V于去年关门大吉,“独立”买下了它14台机器中的6台,把它们带回新泽西(另外八台机器被其他工厂买去)。汉森说,他和“秘密”为这家工厂投资了150万美元。For the music business over all, vinyl is still a niche product, if an increasingly substantial one. According to Nielsen, LPs now represent about 9 percent of sales in physical formats. But for indies like Epitaph and Secretly, vinyl has become essential: Both now take in nearly as much revenue from LPs as they do from CDs.对于整个音乐行业来说,黑胶唱片的势头虽然愈来愈强劲,但仍然属于小众产品。根据尼尔逊公司统计,黑胶LP唱片占据音乐实体销量的9%。但是对于“墓志铭”和“秘密”这样的独立唱片公司来说,黑胶成了必不可少的东西:两家厂牌目前在黑胶唱片和在CD唱片两部分的收益都是差不多一样多。Mr. Hansen started Independent as a 50-50 partnership with Secretly to serve other independent labels — companies that often find themselves squeezed out of the production line by bigger players.汉森和“秘密”以50-50的分成合作方式开了“独立”,同时也为其他独立厂牌务,这些小公司在生产环节经常受到大公司排挤。“One of the problems that independent labels are facing,” Mr. Van Arman of Secretly said, “is that some of the bigger plants might get an order for an Eagles box set, and everyone else is put on hold.”“独立厂牌经常面临这样的问题,”“秘密”的范·阿尔曼说,“有些大厂可能因为接了‘老鹰’(Eagles)盒装特辑的单,就把别人的单都推到后面去。”Independent’s initial order list includes records by Vampire Weekend, Pavement, the XX and Mac DeMarco, all indie acts that are steady sellers on vinyl. Mr. Hansen’s ownership is separate from his employment at Epitaph, and both he and Mr. Van Arman said that releases on their labels would get no special treatment.“独立”的第一批订单中包括“吸血鬼周末”(Vampire Weekend)、“人行道”(Pavement)、“the XX”和马克·德马科(Mac DeMarco),所有独立艺人和乐队都是黑胶唱片稳定的卖家。汉森对工厂的所有权是同他在“墓志铭”的职位分开的,他和范·阿尔曼都说,来压制黑胶的艺人如果选择在他俩的厂牌发行唱片,并不会得到特别优惠。Independent has taken over a spot in a small industrial park in this town about six miles south of Trenton. The company expects to employ seven full-time workers and a small part-time crew to assemble the finished records and sleeves; some of those part-timers will be moonlighting employees of a Netflix DVD fulfillment center next door where similar work is done, Mr. Hansen said.“独立”坐落在镇上一个小小的工业园区,位于特伦顿以南6英里。汉森说,公司希望雇用7名全职员工,以及一小批兼职人员,帮忙包装唱片和封套;公司打算从隔壁Netflix的DVD压制厂雇用一些工作内容差不多的兼职人员。When it is operating at full capacity, Independent should produce up to 1.5 million records a year, Mr. Hansen and Mr. Van Arman said. But first the machines must be fully restored and tested, and after several months they are still not quite y.一旦满负荷运转起来,“独立”一年可以生产150万张唱片,汉森和范·阿尔曼说。但是,机器首先需要进行全面修复和测试,几个月过去了,他们还没完全准备好。While tweaking two machines, Mr. Miller, the plant manager, showed how many parts of the physical process must be aligned to make a record properly.在修理两台机器过程中,工厂主管米勒展示了要制作一张唱片,需要经过多少程序。Vinyl pellets are poured from a bucket into an extruder, and then formed into a small lump of vinyl that is placed between metal stampers forming the shape of each side of the record. The machine then presses the stampers together with 150 pounds per square inch of pressure. If the temperature, pressure or consistency of the vinyl is off, the result is an imperfect record that is scrapped.用大桶装着的乙烯基颗粒被注入压出机,形成一小团乙烯基块,之后被注入唱片两面的金属母模之间。之后机器用150磅每平方英寸的压力冲压母模。如果温度、压力和乙烯基浓度出现问题,唱片就报废了。“This is the dirty, brutal side of the record business,” Mr. Miller said. “Nobody realizes the work it takes to actually make a record.”“这是唱片行业中最脏、最残忍的一面,”米勒说,“没有人知道制作一张唱片要花多大功夫。”There is now a global rush to set up more plants and find existing presses, but the few that have been tracked down are often in poor shape. This year Chad Kassem of Quality Record Pressings in Salina, Kan., found 13 disused machines in Chicago — “they looked like scrap metal to anybody but me,” he said — and he hopes to restore five of them within six months.目前全球都出现了建立新黑胶厂,寻找现存压制机的风潮,但是能被找到的、仅存的机器通常都是保养状况不佳。今年,堪萨斯州萨莱纳市“优质唱片压制公司”(Quality Record Pressing)的查德·卡塞姆(Chad Kassem)在芝加哥找到了13台报废的机器,“除了我,别人都把它们当成废铜烂铁,”他说。他希望能在6个月内修复其中5台机器。Fat Possum, another indie label, also started a new plant in Memphis this year to meet its own demand, with nine machines. “Now I can go and push my own stuff to the front,” said Matthew Johnson, Fat Possum’s founder, who said that in recent years he had been faced with frustrations like thousands of records held up in customs as they came in from manufacturers in Europe.独立厂牌“胖负鼠”(Fat Possum)为了满足公司自己的需要,今年在孟菲斯开设了一家新厂,他们拥有9台机器。“现在我可以直接推出自己的东西了”,厂牌创始人马修·约翰逊(Matthew Johnson)说,他说,近年来他遇到过很多困难,比如上千张唱片从欧洲的压盘厂回来,结果却被扣在海关。Yet talk of a possible bubble hangs over the vinyl business, and some plants seem to be bracing for a decline even as they expand. ed Record Pressing in Nashville, one of the biggest plants, has 30 presses running 24 hours a day and has acquired 16 more machines. Yet the plant, overwhelmed by demand, has stopped taking orders from new customers.说到这个行业内可能存在的泡沫,不少厂子在扩张的同时,似乎也在为衰退做准备。纳什维尔的“联合唱片压制公司”(ed Record Pressing)是最大的压盘厂之一,拥有30台机器,一天24小时运转,并且新近订购了16台机器。然而该厂的生产能力供不应求,已经不再接新客户的单。“It’s difficult to turn people away, especially when it is maybe an independent artist,” said Jessica Baird, a representative of the company. “But we are trying to do the best we can for people who have been loyal to us for years, and that we hope will stick with us when the ebb and flow comes again.”“要拒绝别人很难,特别是对方可能是独立艺术家,”该公司代表杰西卡·贝尔德(Jessica Baird)说。“但是我们只想为那些多年来的忠实客户做到最好,我们希望他们在行业衰落再次来临之际也能一直跟随我们。”Mr. Hansen, 52, said he wasn’t sure whether the vinyl gold rush would continue, either, but he has staked a considerable personal investment in it and called the plant part of his retirement planning.52岁的汉森说,他也不确定“黑胶淘金潮”是否会一直持续下去,但他个人对工厂进行了相当大的投资,把它当做自己养老计划的一部分。“The dream is to build capacity for our label and provide a service for the indie labels that I love and respect so much,” Mr. Hansen said, “and at the same time, make a few bucks too.”“我的梦想就是让产量能够满足我们的厂牌,以及我喜爱和尊敬的许多其他独立厂牌,同时还能赚几个钱花,”汉森说。 /201509/400632

After the disappearance of five booksellers and other signs of Beijing’s increased meddling, Hong Kong residents are fretting about another threat from the mainland: tree thieves.五名书商失踪事件及其他一些迹象表明,北京方面加强了对香港的干预。如今,香港居民又开始担心另外一个来自内地的威胁——盗树贼。Police and environmental campaigners say Chinese gangs are hacking away at the precious incense trees that gave Hong Kong its name and can be worth nearly their weight in gold.香港警方及环保活动人士称,有内地团伙砍伐使香港得名的沉香树。这种珍贵树种价值非凡,可谓一寸沉香一寸金。The number of reported incidents of theft has jumped from 15 in 2009 to 134 in 2014. Rocketing Chinese demand for the wood, used to make incense and traditional medicines, has been driven by rising wealth and dwindling domestic supply2009年报告的盗砍沉香木事件有15起,2014年升至134起。内地不断增长的财富和本土供应的减少,推动了对沉香木需求的飙升。沉香木被用于制作香料和用作中药材。Tree thefts are just the latest item in a long list of Hong Kong residents’ gripes with China, from the influx of tourists ;to Beijing’s hand in the booksellers’ disappearance. With many of the oldest, most valuable trees in Hong Kong’s country parks aly felled, the thieves have extended their hunt into private gardens.香港居民对内地有诸多不满,从大量内地游客涌入香港,到北京方面插手书商失踪事件,不一而足,盗伐沉香木现象只是最新的一件。鉴于香港郊区最古老、最珍贵的沉香树被砍伐殆尽,盗树贼把目标扩大到了私人花园。Alison Whittle was woken by her dog’s fierce barking one night in December to discover six intruders in her garden in the small village of Big Wave Bay. The fashion consultant’s screams deterred them for a few minutes but as she called the police, they lopped one of the main branches off her incense tree.去年12月的一个夜晚,居住在大浪湾一个小社区的时尚顾问艾莉森惠特尔(Alison Whittle)被自家的狂吠吵醒,然后发现有6个人闯入了她的花园。她的尖叫声暂时阻止了这些闯入者的行动,但是在她打电话报警的时候,这些人砍掉了她家沉香树的一根比较大的树枝。“That’s when I got really scared because I thought that they really wanted whatever they had come for,” said Ms Whittle, who was unaware of the value of the wood.惠特尔称:“我当时真的吓坏了,因为我感觉他们势在必得。”她当时不太知道沉香树的价值。Several other people in her village have reported similar raids, said Ms Whittle, who has increased the security at her home after the police warned the gang might return for the rest of the tree.惠特尔称,她所在社区还有几个人也向警方报告了类似遭遇。在警方警告称该团伙可能会再次返回盗走沉香树剩下的部分后,惠特尔加强了她家的安保。Hong Kong means “fragrant harbour”, a name inspired by the incense trees, which it used to produce and export in great numbers.香港的意思是“散发香气的港湾”,名字就是源于沉香树。过去,香港曾大量加工和出口沉香。The trees are really valuable only if infected with fungus that causes the creation of a resin that produces the sought-after agarwood and its unique, rich fragrance.沉香树在感染真菌后,会生成树脂,最后结成沉香木并散发独特、浓烈的香味。这时的沉香树才有价值。CY Jim, an authority on trees at the University of Hong Kong who advises the government, said the highest quality agarwood could fetch ,000 a kilogramme in China, and the oil distilled from the resin ,000 a kilogramme.香港大学的树木研究专家詹志勇(CY Jim)称,上等沉香木在内地可卖到一公斤一万美元,从树脂中提取的沉香油价格可达一公斤3万美元。Hong Kong’s police have promised to crack down harder on thieves, who face up to 10 years in jail if convicted.香港警方承诺会加大打击盗树贼。盗树贼一旦定罪,最高将面临10年有期徒刑。But Mr Jim said the police must increase patrols substantially. “It’s an open secret that the number of thieves caught and successfully prosecuted is just the tip of the iceberg,” he said.但是,詹志勇称,警方必须大力加强巡逻。“被抓住并被成功起诉的盗树贼数量只是冰山一角,这是公开的秘密,”他称。Ultimately, as with so many other challenges facing the city, he believes the real difficulty is the difference in mindset between Hong Kong and the mainland.归根结底,与香港面临的众多其他挑战一样,他认为真正的困难是香港和内地观念的差异。“The people of Hong Kong have a mentality of conservation rather than exploiting primary products,” said Mr Jim. “These people coming from other side of the border don’t share our values.”“香港人有环境保护的观念,不会想着开采初级产品,”詹志勇称,“而来自边境另一边的这些人与我们的价值观不同。” /201602/427018

Though the trench coat was originally designed to protect military officers against rain and wind, nowadays it is as varied as the diverse cast of characters known to wear it, on screen and off.虽然风衣最初的设计是为了给军官们挡风遮雨,但是如今,它和银幕内外穿着它的各色人物一样多种多样。Think of John Cusack standing on the lawn, forlorn, with a boombox held high above his head in “Say Anything”; or Humphrey Bogart on a tarmac in the final scenes of “Casablanca”; or Prince performing “Purple Rain” in his custom purple trench coat during the climax of the film of the same name; or almost any actor in just about any film noir or television crime drama, from “Out of the Past” to “Law and Order: Special Victims .”在《情到深处》(Say Anything)中,约翰·库萨克(John Cusack)绝望地站在草坪上,把录音机高高举过头顶;在《卡萨布兰卡》(Casablanca)的最后一幕中,汉弗莱·加特(Humphrey Bogart)站在飞机跑道上;在《紫雨》(Purple Rain)的高潮部分,王子(Prince)身穿定制的紫色风衣演唱《紫雨》这首歌;还有黑色电影和犯罪电视剧中的几乎每位男演员,从《漩涡之外》(Out of the Past)到《法律与秩序:特殊受害者》(Law and Order: Special Victims )。Such moments in pop-culture history present us with men who wear this timeless garment when they are faced with difficult tasks or find themselves in a state of emotional turmoil. The trench coat seems to serve as a kind of armor. On the city streets, on any given day in autumn, you can see it on anyone from a Wall Street banker to a Brooklyn artist.在流行文化历史上的这些时刻,当男人们面临艰难任务或者感情波动时,都会穿上这种永不过时的装。风衣似乎是一种盔甲。在秋季的任何一天,在城市的大街上,你都能看到从华尔街的家到布鲁克林的艺术家都穿着它。“I believe the bridge between the downtown, young urban aesthetic and the tailored, business one is our outerwear,” said Ilan Chétrite, the men’s designer for the French brand Sandro, which offers a long trench coat in speckled wool. “I wanted this collection to capture a broad spectrum of the city’s archetypes: the musician, the young businessman, even the chauffeur.”“我认为,我们的外套将市中心年轻人和穿着考究的商务人士的审美联系了起来,”法国品牌桑德罗(Sandro)的男装设计师伊兰·谢特里特(Ilan Chétrite)说。该品牌推出了用杂色羊毛面料做成的长款风衣。“我想让这个系列反映出这座城市各种类型的男人:音乐人、年轻商人,甚至包括专职司机。”The adaptability of a trench coat — which seems appropriate for anyone’s wardrobe — is amplified this season. Like the oversize version from Sandro, others by Salvatore Ferragamo, Hermès and Lemaire offer similarly beautiful, tentlike constructions.风衣似乎适合每个人的衣橱,它的强大适应性在这一季得到突显。和桑德罗的超大款一样,菲拉格慕(Salvatore Ferragamo)、爱马仕(Hermès)和Lemaire也推出了大同小异的、帅气的帐篷状结构风衣。At recent runway shows, Prada, Maison Margiela and Lanvin presented trimmer options, in nylon or leather instead of the traditional gabardine invented by Thomas Burberry in 1879. These trenches have a more tailored look, suggestive of the garment’s military origins.在近期的秀台上,普拉达(Prada)、马丁·马吉拉时装屋(Maison Margiela)和朗万(Lanvin)推出了微调版风衣,用尼龙或皮料代替传统的华达呢,后面这种面料是托马斯·柏利(Thomas Burberry)1879年发明的。这些风衣更加讲究裁剪,充分表现这种装的军装起源。In choosing trousers to go with a trench coat, embrace the play on proportion. You can go big: long billowing pants with an equally exaggerated coat. Or stay fitted: slim trousers with a tailored coat. Or mix it up, as suggested by Mr. Chétrite.在选择跟风衣搭配的裤子时,你可以随意选择比例。你可以选择宽松的:用空荡荡的长裤搭配同样夸张的风衣;也可以选择合身的:用修身的裤子搭配考究的外衣。或者如谢特里特建议的那样,混搭起来。“Pairing a long oversize trench coat with some high-waisted, cropped suit trouser perfectly translates this idea of contrast,” he said. “It helps to express the idea of a nonconformist man.”“把超大长风衣与高腰八分西装裤搭配起来,就能完美表现出对比的概念,”他说,“它有助于传达不墨守成规的男人形象。” /201510/405825

Qing Dynasty清朝General概况The Qing Dynasty (清朝),sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro(爱新觉罗), in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia,清朝由满族部落爱新觉罗氏建立,满族位于今天中国的东北部,establishing the Empire of the Great Qing (大清帝国),which was founded not by the Han Chinese people, but by the Manchus, a semi- nomadic people not even known by that name when they first rose to prominence in what is now northeastern China.它扩张至中国本土以及亚洲内陆的周边地区并建立了大清帝国,清朝不是由汉人而是由满人建立的,满族是版游牧民族,当它刚刚声名鹤起之时还没有知道它。Taking advantage of the political instability and popular rebellions convulsing the Ming dynasty, the highly organized military forces of the Manchus swept into the Ming capital of Beijing,and there remained until the Qing dynasty was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution (辛亥革命)of 1911, with the last emperor abdicating early in 1912.借助明朝时期的政治不稳定和不断的起义,满族极具组织性的军队攻入了明朝的首都北京, 它们也在那里定都直到1911年辛亥革命爆发,1912年最后一任皇帝提前退位。The Qing was the last imperial dynasty of China.清朝是中国最后一个封建王朝。 /201512/412263

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