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Xu Guangqi (1562~1633), styled Zixian, literary name Xuanhu, was a native of Songjiang (now Shanghai City).徐光启(1526~1633 ) ,字子先,号玄扈,松江上海县(今属上海市)人。He was the first one who introduced European natural science to China and translated geometry into Chinese (six volumes of Geometry Original).徐光启是把欧洲自然科学介绍到中国的第一人,最早翻译了几何学著作《几何原本》。He introduced the European clock and the telescope invented by Galileo, with which he drew up a map called ;All Planets in the Celestial Sphere;.引进了欧洲的时钟和伽利略发明的望远镜,绘制了一幅《全天球恒星图》。He took charge of the revision of the calendar and translated and edited Chongzhen Almanac by means of Tycho system. 徐光启还主持历法的修订,采用第谷体系编译《崇祯历书》。His most influential work on science and technology was the immense book entitled Complete Treatise on Agriculture, consisting of 12 phyla, 60 volumes, and altogether over 700 000 words.徐光启的最大成就是著有农业科学巨著《农政全书》,此书分为十二门,60卷,70余万字。In this monumental work he merged the advanced European scientific knowledge into the findings of his continuous research work. It still serves as a valuable reference for the agricultural production of China.在这部不朽的巨著里,他把先进的欧洲科学融入自己长年的研究成果,至今仍然为中国的农业生产起着可贵的参考作用。He strived to develop agricultural production in the north by reclaiming wasteland and developing water conservancy. He advocated steps taken by the government to relieve famine such as preparing against natural disasters and providing help to tide over a crop failure.徐光启力图用垦荒和开发水利的方法来发展北方的农业生产,主张实行备荒、救荒等荒政。His contributions in agricultural technology included exploding the theory of the unique importance of climate in ancient agriculture, further improving the technology of dry farming in the south, popularizing the planting of sweet potato and summing up the regularity of the plague of locusts and the ways to wipe out locusts.在农业技术上,徐光启破除了古代农学中“唯风土论”思想,进一步提高了南方的旱作技术,推广甘薯的种植,总结了蝗虫虫灾发生的规律和治蝗方法。该书将欧洲先进科学知识和他长期研究的成果融合在一起,至今对中国农业生产的发展仍有参考价值。Xu Guangqi held that agriculture was the foundation to make the country rich and military strength was fundamental to make the country powerful. Therefore, he attached importance to the study of military science and technology. He was concerned about the manufacture of arms, especially that of firearms.徐光启以农业为富国之本,以正兵为强国之本,重视军事科学技术的研究。徐光启关心武器制造,尤其是火器制造。He was the first in China to put forward the theory of applying artillery in warfare.他是中国军事技术史上提出火炮在战争中应用理论的第一人。 /201604/437299

We all have long-forgotten clothes gathering dust at the back of the wardrobe. 我们的衣柜里总有一堆被遗忘的旧衣在积灰。But new technology could see the end of that, with the garments themselves giving owners a gentle reminder of their existence. 但是新科技可以改变这种现象——衣们能温柔地提醒主人它们的存在。#39;Smart clothes#39; could help us clear out our drawers by sending messages or tweeting us if they haven#39;t been worn in a while. 被长久搁置的“智能衣”能给我们发短信或推特信息,提醒我们去清理衣柜。If these alerts are ignored, the garments will get in touch with a clothing charity and ask to be recycled, with an organisation automatically sending out donation information. They could also be programmed to put themselves up for auction on eBay. 如果人们忽略了它们的信息,那“衣们”将自行联系衣物慈善机构,要求被回收,慈善机构会自动给“衣们”发送捐赠信息。“衣们”也可能按照预设程序,被送到eBay上拍卖。As a society, we own four times as many clothes as we did 20 years ago, but regularly only wear about 20 percent of them. 现代人的衣数量是20年前的4倍,但是其中仅有20%的衣是常穿的。Academics at Birmingham City University are developing the #39;connected wardrobe#39; to encourage more ethical clothes consumption. 伯明翰城市大学的学者们正在研发“智能衣柜”以鼓励更合理的时装消费。The concept sees garments tagged using washable contactless technology, known as radio-frequency identification. “智能衣柜”中的衣物上会被贴上可清洗无接触式标签,此种技术也被称为无线射频识别技术。Mark Brill, senior lecturer at Birmingham City, said: #39;Think of the surprise when an owner suddenly receives bids for items they didn#39;t know were in their wardrobe. 伯明翰城市大学的高级讲师马克#8226;布瑞尔表示:“当主人突然收到闲置衣的拍卖通知时,想想看他们会有多惊讶吧。”#39;The connected wardrobe is a practical, engaging concept to encourage people to think about their clothing consumption. Ultimately, I hope it will encourage more ethical fashion consumption.#39;“‘智能衣柜’是一个很有吸引力的实用型产品,鼓励人们合理消费衣物。我希望它最终能引导人们建立正确的时尚消费观。He added: #39;Perhaps we can even move away from the idea of #39;ownership#39; of clothing. When we#39;ve worn them enough, the items will pass themselves on to their next keeper to wear.#39; 他补充道:“或许我们可以消除衣物的‘个人所属’概念。当人们穿腻了这件衣时,它将主动将自己传递到下一位主人手里。”It follows in the footsteps of the #39;Internet of Things#39; – a concept that sees ordinary household items connecting to the internet in order to share information. 这项创意紧跟“物联网”的潮流,“物联网”概念提出将家用物品连接到网络平台上,以共享信息。From adjusting your alarm clock to monitoring the temperature of your home, the internet is changing the way we live. 从调整闹钟到监控室内温度,网络改变了我们生活的方方面面。Now, the #39;Internet of Clothes#39; will see that neglected garments will tweet and text the owners #39;asking#39; to be worn depending on the weather and frequency of wear. 现在“衣联网”会根据天气状况和衣物的使用频率,让久被搁置的衣物主动发推特或短信给主人,“请求重见天日”。Clothes will keep track of other information such as who owned it previously, as well as how much it originally cost, who made it and how much the worker was paid for it.智能衣也会记录其他的信息,例如前任主人是谁、衣的原始价格、生产者以及制作衣物的工人所得的报酬等等。British shoppers buy 2.15 million tonnes of clothing and shoes annually, yet UK citizens have an estimated £30 billion worth of unused clothing sitting in their wardrobes. 英国人每年购买215万吨衣和鞋子,而据估计英国人有价值高达300亿英镑的衣物未被使用,在衣柜角落里积灰。 /201608/460549


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