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成飞医院看洗牙要多少钱

2018年11月15日 14:02:48 | 作者:城市助手 | 来源:新华社
One of the really exciting and high level scientific interests is whether Venus geological active today. 一个真正令人兴奋及科学现在所关注的是现今金星地质是否活跃。Because there are reasons to think the clouds on Venus only exist because theres ongoing geological activity.因为我们有理由认为在金星的云层之所以存在是因为有正在进行的地质活动。So this is one of big secrets in Venus something we want to find out.所以这是一些我们想要知道的一个金星的大秘密。In recent years finding the source of Venus thick atmosphere has become surprisingly relevant for all of us down here on earth.近年来发现金星厚厚的大气层的来源已经成为令人惊讶的和我们所有人都在这个地球上有关。Half million of ton sulfur dioxide spilt into the atomsphere every year.每年超过半吨的二氧化硫泄入到大气中。The whole green house effect was not really recognized as a significant effect to influence planetary climate until we went to Venus and found that said to be night high with 9 high, whats wrong is this learned about this? 整个温室效应不是所认知的对气候有显著的影响,直到我们去金星才发现与所说的截然不同,这与我们所认知的不一样吗?About greenhouse effect. 关于温室效应。Ever wonder how alien a planet could be? How bad climate can get? 想知道一个外星星球会怎样吗?恶劣的气候因何而来?Try the planet next door, the best way to experience Venus is to to hitch an imaginary dirve on the Soviet Union Probe.试试隔壁的星球吧,检验金星的最好方法是在苏联探测器上安装一种虚拟的驱动。Well it would be a wild drive. 这将是一种非常狂野的驱动。The clouds started about 40 miles up , some 5 times higher than the earth.云开始上升约40英里,约地球上的5倍高。注:听力文本来源于普特 201203/175434

Science and technology.科技。Animal testing.动物实验。Be nice to mice.善待小鼠。and they may return the favour.它们可能会知恩图报。Home, sweet home.家,舒适的家。ONLY one drug of every ten successfully tested in laboratory animals ends up working in people. One reason, of course, is that mice are not men. Another, though, might have to do with the fact that whereas human patients are afforded all manner of creature comforts, their animal proxies are not.用实验动物试验成功的药物最终只有十分之一对人体起效。原因之一当然是:老鼠毕竟不是人。但另一个原因可能是,患病的实验动物无法像人类患者一样能够得到方方面面的呵护。Although medical sciences favourite critters relish temperatures of a little over 30°C, laboratories routinely keep them at five or ten degrees below that. This is not in order to torture the beasts but, rather, because when kept warm they are unmanageably aggressive. The downside is that they have to eat more than they otherwise would, in order to keep their bodies warm. That changes their physiology. And that in turn alters the way they metabolise drugs, with possibly confusing results.虽然老鼠这种医学实验最喜欢使用的啮齿动物偏爱呆在稍高于30摄氏度的环境里,但实验室却常被控制在比这低5到10摄氏度的温度上。这并不是要存心虐待这些动物,而是因为当环境暖和了,它们会变得十分好斗,很难应付。而这样做的弊端是动物们为了保持体温,要比平常吃得更多。这样动物的生理机能就会有所改变,因此会影响到药物在动物体内的代谢,出来的实验结果也可能会很费解。Joseph Garner, of Stanford University, thinks the answer is to keep the labs cool, but let mice cope with the low temperatures as they do in their natural habitat: not by eating more but by building nests. So far, though, no one has a clear idea of how much nesting material is needed to keep mice happy. Dr Garner and his colleagues therefore decided to find out. They have just reported their results in the Public Library of Science.斯坦福大学的约瑟?加纳(Joseph Garner)认为,解决办法就是令实验室保持低温,但让老鼠们像在自然环境中一样通过筑巢(而非吃得更多)来自行应对低温。不过至今都没有人清楚到底需要多少材料才能让老鼠们筑一个舒适的窝。于是约瑟?加纳士及其同事决定要弄清这点,他们的实验结果刚刚发表在《公共科学图书馆》上。Dr Garner and his team let each of their mice, 36 males and as many females from three strains commonly used in trials, roam free in two cages connected by a narrow tube. One cage was kept constant at one of six temperatures between 20°C and 35°C. The other was maintained at 20°C but was stocked with up to ten grams of finely shredded paper, which the mice could use to weave a nest. The idea was to check whether the animals would rather build a nest in the cooler cage or move to the warmer one, possibly tugging nesting material along with them strand by strand.约瑟?加纳士及其实验小组让所有老鼠(公鼠、母鼠各36只,属于三个常用于实验的品系)在两个由一条窄通道相连的笼子里自由活动。其中一个笼子的温度保持在20-35摄氏度之间(总共有六档温度)。另一个温度保持在20摄氏度,但里面储有多达十克撕得很碎的纸条,以供老鼠们用来筑窝。实验目的是看看老鼠们是会在更冷的笼子里筑巢还是会移居到更暖的笼子里(可能还会将筑巢用的纸条一条条拖过去)。The researchers found that the rodents preferences varied slightly between strains, as well as between sexes (with females partial to higher temperatures, possibly because of their thinner protective layer of fat), confirming that there is no single set of conditions in which all mice feel cosy. In general, though, with little nesting material around, the animals laboriously carried strands of paper over to the warmer spot, one or two at a time. But leave at least six grams of paper in the chilly cage, and many mice will prefer instead to brave the cold and build a nest there. That seems a small price to pay for better drug trials.研究者发现,老鼠们的偏好稍有差别,与性别和品系都有关(母鼠偏爱较暖和的环境,可能是由于其脂肪保护层比较薄),这就明没有一个温度能让所有老鼠都感觉舒适。但通常在周围没什么筑窝的材料时,老鼠们会费力地将纸条拖至更暖的地方,每次一到两条。不过如果在温度较低的笼子里放至少六克纸条,那么会有很多老鼠宁愿忍受寒冷,在那里筑窝。用六克纸条就能让药物试验有更好的效果,这个代价看来微不足道。 /201209/199823

Shiny and safe, the goal of New York itself.又闪亮又安全,这也是纽约本身的目标。Three decades ago, both the city and the subway shared the bad reputation: dirty, unsafe and no place to be.三十多年前,城市和地铁都享有着坏名声:肮脏、不安全、无人问津的地方。New York cleaned up its image partly by cleaning up the subway.通过清理地铁,纽约重新清理了它的形象。At the Coney Island Yard, they do more than keep the trains running, they keep the Big Apple polished.在康尼岛,他们不只是让火车运营,他们还给大苹果抛光。No job too small, no job too big, lifetime guarantee, how can you beat it? Send us these troubles.没有太小的工作,没有太大的工作,寿命保,你怎么还在犹豫?告诉我们你的麻烦吧。On the subway, keeping car safe is only half the equation.在地铁上,保持车辆只是工作的一半。The system has more than 2600 switches to move trains from one track to another and more than 11,000 signals to control train traffic.该系统具有2600多个开关使列车移动到另一轨道,超过11000个信号来控制列车交通。The equipment is older than most New Yorkers.该设备的岁数比大多数纽约人还老。Much of it was installed before 1940. All together, more than 13,000 chances for something to go fatally wrong. New York cant take that chance.很多都是安装于1940年以前。合在一起, 对于致命错误有超过13000次机会解决。但纽约不能抓住这个机遇。To sidetrack catastrophe, maintenance workers go looking for trouble every day.对于侧线的灾难,维修人员每一天都在寻找麻烦。To find it, the crew themselves must venture into harms way.为了发现它,小组人员必须自己冒着受到伤害的危险。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174328

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