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2018年12月12日 20:52:27来源:中华常识

  • Syria is a long way from Australia and the 12,000 refugees who will make their way south over the next 12 months will be likely to measure the distance in more than kilometres.叙利亚距离澳大利亚很远,1.2万难民将在未来一年南下,这段路程可不止数公里。In a surprising policy change, the Australian government recently said it would accept 12,000 Syrian refugees from camps in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.澳大利亚政策出现意外转变,澳政府近期宣布,澳大利亚将从约旦、黎巴嫩和土耳其的难民营接收1.2万名叙利亚难民。In what will be Australias biggest refugee intake in decades, the government is rushing to find accommodation and extra services to help resettle people fleeing trauma and persecution in their home country.这将是十年来澳大利亚接收难民最多的一年,政府正紧锣密鼓地为难民安排住宿,提供额外务,帮助安置这些逃离在家乡遭受的痛苦和迫害的难民。It wont be easy moving to a strange, new country but the government has a helpful explainer for new arrivals.到一个陌生的国度定居并不是件容易的事,不过,澳大利亚政府已经为这些新来的难民准备了有用的生活指南。The ;Life in Australia; booklet, published by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship, offers handy tips and explanations about the ways down under.澳洲移民与公民事务局出版了这本名为《澳大利亚生活》(Life in Australia)的小册子,为在澳生活的难民提供有用的提示和说明。There are facts and figures about the country, an explanation of national symbols and a potted history of this ;wide, brown land;.小册子介绍了澳大利亚的相关信息和数据,阐释了这片“广袤棕土地”的民族象征和国家简史。More intriguingly, the faceless bureaucrats have offered a cultural snapshot that may bemuse rather than reassure new arrivals, complete with definitions for time-honoured phrases such as ;drop by this arvo for a cuppa; (please visit this afternoon for a cup of tea or coffee) and ;no worries;, which of course means ;the task or request will be carried out without fuss or bother;.更有趣的是,千人一面的政府官员却提供了不少文化背景介绍。但对这些初来乍到的难民而言,有些内容不仅不能让他们消除疑虑,反而更加困惑。小册子中阐释了一些历史悠久的澳式短语的定义,;drop by this arvo for a cuppa;(意为“今天下午请过来喝杯茶或咖啡”)和“no worries”(意为“这项工作或请求可以不受干扰或影响地开展”)等。The booklet also points out that although locals may often strip off on hot days at the beach, that does not mean wearing little clothing translates to having ;low moral standards;.小册子还指出,尽管当地人天热的时候在海滩会脱光衣,但这并不意味着穿很少的衣就是“道德败坏”。It describes the concepts of ;mateship; (a friend but also a total stranger), a ;fair go;, and the much-loved ritual of having a ;barbie;.小册子还描述了“同伴关系”(是朋友,同时也是完全的陌生人)、“公平对待”的概念和澳大利亚人喜欢“烧烤”的传统。It claims another defining feature of Australian society is its egalitarian nature and Australians informal relationship with work colleagues.小册子还点出了澳大利亚社会另一个典型特征——本质上的平等主义,同事间的关系比较随便,不那么正式;However, this informality does not extend to physical contact. When meeting someone for the first time, it is usual to shake the persons right hand with your right hand. People who do not know each other generally do not kiss or hug when meeting.;“但是,这种不正式并不适用于肢体接触。初次见面时,通常是用右手去握对方的右手。不熟悉的人见面通常不会亲吻或拥抱。”The importance of good manners and good hygiene are also explained. Not blowing your nose on the street gets a mention, as does washing your hands before eating and after going to the toilet, and saying ;thank you; or ;please; when dealing with others.小册子也阐明了举止得体和 良好卫生习惯的重要性。比如,不要在街上擤鼻涕,饭前便后要洗手,跟人打交道时要说“谢谢”和“请”;Australians also queue or line up when waiting to be served in a shop, a bank, a government department, a cinema or anywhere a number of people are all seeking a service at the same time.;“澳大利亚人去商店、、政府部门、电影院或任何同时有多人寻求务的场所时,都会排队等候。”The peak eating times of the day are spelt out:进餐时间也有详细解释;The midday meal is called lunch, and the evening meal is usually called dinner. Some Australians also refer to the evening meal as tea and can use the term to mean either dinner or, literally, a cup of tea or cuppa. If invited for tea, the time of the event is a good sign of whether your host means dinner or just a cup of tea. An invitation to tea, any time after 6 pm (1800 hours) usually means dinner.;“中午那顿饭叫‘午餐’,晚上那顿饭通常叫‘晚餐’。有些澳大利亚人也把晚餐叫做‘茶’,这个词可以指晚餐,也可以指字面意义上的茶。如果被人邀请喝茶,可以通过时间来确定主人是请吃晚饭还是只请喝茶。一般来说,邀请在下午6点之后喝茶,意味着是请吃晚饭。”Is there a typical Australian, asks the booklet?小册子中提出一个问题:有没有典型的澳大利亚人呢?Well, what with the ocker, the digger and his mate, it can all be a bit confusing.嗯,粗鲁的澳大利亚人、澳大利亚士兵和他的同伴,这些都让人有点困惑。Just remember:只要记住;Australians are egalitarian, irreverent people with a deep suspicion of authority - yet they are mostly law-abiding and conformist.;“澳大利亚人信奉平等、不畏权贵,对当局深怀疑虑,但他们大都遵纪守法,尊奉习俗。”Oh, and we all love the bush but most of us live in cities on the coast.哦,我们都热爱丛林,但大部分人都住在沿海的城市里。Bonza!太棒了! /201510/404402。
  • You thought the eurozone crisis was bad. Today, Europe faces no greater challenge than the mass exodus of refugees seeking a haven from the carnage in Syria and the turmoil in north Africa and the Sahel. It is equally clear that both the EU’s response and its institutions have proved woefully inadequate.你或许认为欧元区危机很严重。如今,欧洲面临的最严峻挑战莫过于大批难民的涌入,他们是为了逃离叙利亚的大屠杀,北非和萨赫勒地区的动乱。同样清楚的是,事实明,欧盟的反应及其收容机构都严重不足。The question of immigration, a visceral issue in the way the single currency is not, is driving a wedge between EU populations and their governments, between member states and indeed between the EU itself and the values on which it was founded.移民问题——不同于单一货币,这是一个触动人心的问题——正在欧盟各国民众与本国政府之间造成隔阂、破坏成员国之间的关系,实际上也使欧盟自身偏离其所植根的价值观。France a country at the same time Mediterranean, Atlantic and continental is at the heart of this new storm. It has a xenophobic and illiberal force all too keen to take advantage of popular fears about the impact of migration in the shape of the National Front, Europe’s largest extreme rightwing party, with a base representing some 25 per cent of the electorate. But, until now, Paris has not indicated that it has any clue how to cope.作为一个毗邻地中海、大西洋的欧洲大陆国家,法国正处于这场新风暴的中心。法国存在一股排外、狭隘的势力,他们极其热衷于利用民众对移民所造成影响的恐惧,那就是欧洲最大极右翼政党,法国国民阵National Front),该党获得了法国全体选民5%的选票。但法国政府迟迟未表明如何应对难民问题。The current scale of Europe’s refugee problem is daunting. More than 100,000 boat-people arrived in the EU just in the month of July alone. The bloc’s leaders have agreed no coherent response. A recent meeting in Berlin between President Hollande of France and Angela Merkel, German chancellor, proved particularly bereft of content. The divisions between member states are growing unsustainable, with Germany, taking on board some 40 per cent of the EU’s new asylum seekers, while Britain only takes 4 per cent and France a scarcely less dismal 8 per cent.当前欧洲难民问题的严重程度令人震惊。仅月,就有超过10万难民乘船抵达欧盟。欧盟领导人并未就此达成一致的应对措施。法国总统弗朗索瓦攠朗Hollande)与德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)最近在柏林的会谈尤其空洞。欧盟成员国之间的分歧愈发不可调和,德国要接纳约40%新到欧盟的寻求避难者,而英国仅接纳4%,法国也才接%。Meanwhile pleas by Brussels and Berlin for the EU to share out asylum seekers equitably between member states have fallen on barren ground. Each country is preoccupied with its own story as Britain is, for example, with the rise of net migration to all-time highs. Beggar-my-neighbour stances by established parties and outright xenophobia by their insurgent challengers are on the rise.与此同时,布鲁塞尔与柏林方面关于欧盟成员国合理摊派接收避难者的呼吁也如同泥牛入海。每个国家都在忙于应对自己的问题——例如,英国的净移民数量已升至历史最高位。老牌政党以邻为壑的立场以及反对派挑战者彻底的仇外情绪都在上升。The recent attack aboard a Thalys high-speed train between the Netherlands and France has further stoked fears of cross-border terrorism and mutterings about the Schengen area of passport-free travel. The deliberate conflation by demagogues of immigration, the refugee exodus, the sp of Islam and jihadi terrorism is as emotionally powerful as it is factually spurious.最近发生在一趟往返荷兰与法国的大力士(Thalys)高铁列车上的袭击事件,进一步引发了对跨境恐怖主义的担忧以及对申根区(Schengen area)免签旅行安排的不满。煽动民心的政客故意将移民、难民外逃以及伊斯兰教和圣战恐怖主义的传播混淆到一起,虽然事实并非如此,但其在情感上的影响是巨大的。This is a backdrop against which a noxious force such as the National Front can prosper. It is France’s good fortune that the far-right group has largely sabotaged itself through the spat between Marine Le Pen, its leader, and Jean-Marie Le Pen, her father and the party’s founder. But Ms Le Pen and her forces have time to retrieve their position before 2017’s presidential elections, and are aly dragging French politics towards the anti-liberal, anti-European right.正是在这种背景下,法国国民阵线等邪恶势力得以崛起。法国很幸运,这个极右政党因其领导人马琳勒庞(Marine Le Pen)与自己的父亲、该党创始人马里勒庞(Jean-Marie Le Pen)之间的争执已经在很大程度上削弱了自身实力。但马琳勒庞及其势力017年的总统选举之前还有时间来恢复自己的地位,他们已经在将法国政治拖向反自由主义、反欧洲的右倾路线。France needs a principled and more coherent alternative to the National Front; the EU needs a response to the immigration crisis that lives up to rather than falls short of its values. At present, most EU member states, France included, are not providing the systematic right of asylum to which war-refugees are entitled under international humanitarian law or by common decency.法国需要一个有原则、更加团结的政党来代替国民阵线;欧盟应该拿出符合其价值观的应对移民危机的措施。目前,大多数欧盟成员国(包括法国)都未向难民们提供国际人道主义法或人类共有的道德行为准则赋予战争难民的系统性庇护权。This may not matter to the National Front’s core electorate, but it does mean that mainstream policy has largely conceded defeat when it comes to values. Europe is better than this; so is France. Europe’s leaders need to live up to our responsibilities as humans and as neighbours, assume part of the burden, and talk straight to the electorate. Continued European and French fecklessness will only improve the far-right’s prospects of success, and deepen what is aly an unprecedented crisis.这对于国民阵线的核心持者来说或许并不重要,但它的确意味着,主流政策在价值观方面已大体承认是失败的。欧洲的情况要好一些;法国也是如此。欧洲领导人需要履行我们作为人类和邻居的责任,承担部分重担,并向选民坦率直言。欧洲与法国持续的不作为只会提高极右翼势力未来成功的可能性,使这场本已空前的危机愈演愈烈。来 /201509/399113。
  • A Moscow court on Sunday charged two men with alleged involvement in the murder of opposition politician Boris Nemtsov and confirmed the arrest of three other suspects.周日,莫斯科一家法庭指控两名男子涉嫌参与谋杀俄罗斯反对派政治人物鲍里#8226;涅姆佐夫(Boris Nemtsov),并实还逮捕了另外三名嫌疑人。Zaur Dadayev, deputy commander of the “NorthBattalion, a unit of the Chechen security services under the patronage of the Caucasus republic’s leader Ramzan Kadyrov, had admitted his involvement in the crime, said Judge Natalia Mushnikova.法官纳塔利娅#8226;穆什尼科Natalia Mushnikova)表示,绍#8226;达达耶夫(Zaur Dadayev)已承认参与了这一犯罪活动。达达耶夫是“北”营(;North; Battalion)的副指挥官。“北”营是俄罗斯车臣共和国领导人拉姆#8226;卡德罗夫(Ramzan Kadyrov)持的车臣安全部门旗下的一个小分队。Anzor Gubashev, a cousin of Mr Dadayev, was also indicted but said he was not guilty.达达耶夫的表兄弟安佐#8226;古巴舍夫(Anzor Gubashev)也受到了指控,不过他声称自己无罪。The court said Mr Dadayev was to remain in custody until at least April 28. It also extended the detention of Mr Gubashev’s brother Shagit Gubashev, Khamzat Bakhayev and Tamerlan Eskerkhanov until early May. All three men said they were innocent.法庭表示,达达耶夫将至少被羁押8日。法庭还将沙吉特#8226;古巴舍夫(Shagit Gubashev)、哈姆扎#8226;巴哈耶夫(Khamzat Bakhayev)和塔梅尔#8226;埃斯克尔哈诺Tamerlan Eskerkhanov)三人的羁押期延长月初。这三人均声称自己无罪。沙吉特#8226;古巴舍夫是安佐尔#8226;古巴舍夫的兄弟。The rapid presentation of suspects, all apparently from the North Caucasus, and an alleged confession especially after police initially struggled to find even the getaway car stirred new debate among government critics.几名嫌疑人似乎都来自北高加索。鉴于警方最初连逃跑的汽车都很难找到,如今却这么快就揪出了嫌疑人、而且据传已有嫌疑人招认,这在俄罗斯政府的批评者中引发了新的争论。来 /201503/363056。
  • Malaysian officials expressed confidence that a piece of aircraft debris washed up on a beach on the Indian Ocean island of La Réunion is from a Boeing 777 jet, increasing the likelihood it comes from flight MH370, the Malaysia Airlines aircraft that disappeared 17 months ago without a trace.马来西亚官员表示相信,被冲上印度洋法属留尼汪La Réunion)的一块飞机碎片来自一架波77(Boeing 777)飞机,这意味着这块碎片很有可能来自17个月以前消失得无影无踪的马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines) MH370航班。Malaysia’s prime minister, Najib Razak, confirmed earlier comments by one of his ministers that the piece of wreckage was almost certainly from a Boeing 777 aircraft. “Reports suggest that the debris is very likely to be from a Boeing 777, but we need to verify whether it is from flight MH370. At this stage it is too early to speculate,Mr Najib wrote on his official blog.马来西亚总理纳吉布拉扎克(Najib Razak)实了他手下一名部长稍早前的言论,即这块残骸几乎肯定来自一架波77飞机。“相关报道似乎表明,这块碎片很可能来自一架波77,但我们需要验它是否来自MH370航班。目前阶段要作出推测还为时过早,”纳吉布在自己的官方客上写道。If the part is from a 777 twin-engined jet, it is highly likely to be from MH370, since other known losses of the aircraft type including last year’s shooting down of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 over Ukraine occurred over land.如果飞机碎片来自一77双发喷气客机,那么它极有可能来自MH370,因为这种机型的其它已知坠毁事件——包括去年马航MH17航班在乌克兰上空被击落——都发生在陆地上空。Mr Najib said the piece of debris would be sent to a laboratory in Toulouse, France, for inspection by investigators from the Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses. La Réunion is a French territory east of Madagascar, which under international law makes the BEA the lead investigative body.纳吉布表示,这块碎片将被送到法国图卢兹的一个实验室,由法国航空事故调查Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses, BEA)的专家进行检验。位于马达加斯加以东的留尼汪岛是法国领土,按照国际法,这使法国航空事故调查处成为牵头调查机构。The Malaysians, Australians and Chinese have been conducting an extensive search for the aircraft off the west coast of Australia since it disappeared on March 8 2014. The jet was carrying 239 people on a flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing.自这架飞机在2014日失联以来,马来西亚、澳大利亚和中国一直在澳大利亚西海岸外的大片海域进行搜寻。该机载39人,当时在执行从吉隆坡飞往北京的航班。Warren Truss, Australia’s deputy prime minister, described the discovery of the debris as a significant development. “It’s the first real evidence that there’s a possibility that part of the aircraft may have been found,he said. But he cautioned: “It’s too early to make that judgment, but clearly we’re treating this as a major lead.”澳大利亚副总理沃伦礠拉Warren Truss)将发现这块碎片形容为一个重大发展。“这是第一个实实在在的据,明这架飞机的一部分有可能已被找到,”他说。但他告诫称:“现在要作出那样的判断还为时过早,但显然我们把它当作一个重大线索。”There were also unconfirmed reports that a badly damaged piece of luggage has been found close to where the debris washed up on La Réunion. Journalist Julien Delarue, who works for a local newspaper, posted a photograph of the suitcase on Twitter. It is not known whether the luggage came from MH370.此外,还有未经实的报道称,一件严重受损的行李也被冲上留尼汪岛,其发现地点靠近飞机碎片。为当地一家报社工作的记者朱利安德拉Julien Delarue)在Twitter上贴出了这个行李箱的一张照片。尚不清楚这件行李是否来自MH370航班。The Australian Transport Safety Bureau said yesterday that the discovery of the wreckage on the island was “not inconsistent with the current search locationwhich is 4,200km east of La Réunion. The search teams are working on the theory that MH370 crashed within a 120,000 sq km area of the southern Indian Ocean, 1,800km south-west of Australia.澳大利亚交通安全局(Australian Transport Safety Bureau)昨日表示,在留尼汪岛发现飞机残骸“与当前的搜索位置并不矛盾”;当前搜索位置在留尼汪岛以200公里。搜索团队依据的理论是,MH370航班在南印度洋一2万平方公里的区域内坠毁,大致位于澳大利亚西南方向1800公里。If the part is from the missing flight, it could provide critical clues to the fate of MH370: radar tracking showed the aircraft changed course to the west after heading north-east from Kuala Lumpur en route to Beijing without any further communication from the pilots. Later analysis of satellite signals suggested the aircraft had then turned south and headed out over the Indian Ocean.如果发现的残骸被确认来自失联航班,它有望提供关于MH370失事真相的关键线索:雷达跟踪数据显示,该机从吉隆坡起飞后,最初朝东北方向、即目的地北京飞行,后来改变航向向西飞行,而且没有再接到机长或副驾驶的进一步呼叫。事发后对卫星信号的分析似乎表明,该机后来又朝着浩瀚的印度洋向南飞行。Assumptions were made about the aircraft speed and height and it was decided it was likely to have ditched in the sea somewhere off Australia’s west coast when it ran out of fuel.专家们对飞机速度和高度作出了一些假设,最后得出结论认为,它很可能在耗尽燃油后,在澳大利亚西海岸外的海上某处坠落。A multinational force of ships and aircraft have spent months searching a large area of the Indian Ocean without success. Experts said the discovery of the wreckage so far from the theoretical crash zone was consistent with the direction of the ocean currents.多国派遣船舶和飞机,花了好几个月在印度洋的一大片海域进行搜寻,但一直查无下萀?专家们表示,在距离理论推定的坠机海域那么远的地方发现飞机碎片,与洋流方向是吻合的。The undersea search for Flight MH370 is one of the most complex and expensive in aviation history, costing about 0m to date.海底搜索MH370航班是航空史上最复杂和最昂贵的搜寻行动之一,迄今已耗资.5亿美元。来 /201507/389609。
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