成都种一个牙齿价格
时间:2018年12月15日 12:49:21

Half an hour later, I walk out of a shop selling “African groceries” carrying a stone that had cost me 99p. I gingerly put a small piece in my mouth. The grit sucks all of the water from my tongue, forming a paste that sticks to the roof of my mouth like peanut butter.果然,半个钟头以后,我怀揣着一块耗资99便士的泥巴,从一家号称售卖“非洲食品杂货”的铺子里迈步走出。随后,我轻手轻脚地掰开一小块放到嘴里。霎时间,土里的沙砾吸干了我舌头上的全部水分,接着就跟块浆糊似的粘在我口腔顶部,那质感有点像花生酱。I briefly entertain the thought that it tasted a little bit like smoked meat, before deciding that no, actually it tasted much more like dirt. 刹那见,我萌生出一个念头,感觉它尝起来有一点儿像烟熏肉。但马上,我就毙了这个想法,说实在的,它尝起来真正就是泥土的味道啊。I wondered what it is that gets so many people hooked.所以,我就纳了闷了,为什么有这么多人吃土吃上瘾。“Everyone has their reasons,” says Monique, another Cameroonian student. “Simple desire is one, or else to treat nausea and stomach pain. The clay calms the pain by acting as a gastric dressing.”莫妮克(Monique)说:“每个人都有自己的原因”,她是另外一名来自喀麦隆的学生,“有些人纯粹是为了满足自己的欲望而吃土,还有些人是为了治疗反胃恶心和胃痛而吃土。黏土到了胃里,会形成一层保护膜,进而缓解胃的疼痛。”Could this be it? Instead of an illness, is geophagy a treatment?果真如此吗?难道食土癖非但不是一种怪病,反而还是一种治病的疗法?In fact, three key explanations have been proposed for why people eat dirt, and Monique’s answer touches on one of them.事实上,对于人们吃土的原因,已有三种主要的解释性论述,而莫妮克的回答便涉及到了其中之一。Not all dirt is created equal. Kaolin belongs to a specific group of clay minerals, and these seem to be the most popular when people crave a mouthful of earth. 不同的泥土生成的方式也有所不同。高岭土从属于一种特别的矿物质黏土类型,而这些矿物质黏土似乎也是最受食土族群喜爱的黏土。Clay is very good at binding to things, so when Monique talks about it calming gastric pains, it could be doing just that by binding with or blocking harmful toxins and pathogens in the digestive system.黏土是非常好的粘合材料。所以,当莫妮克提到吃土缓解胃痛时,它的作用原理应该就是:黏土进入消化系统后吸附有害有毒物质、阻碍病原体入侵。Experiments with rats andobservations of monkeys indicate that other animals may seek non-food substances to combat ingested poisons, and various traditional food preparation practices involve mixing food with clays to extract toxins andmake it palatable. Acorns are generally unpleasant to eat, for example, but the traditional production of acorn b in both California and Sardinia involves grinding the nuts up with clay that seems to reduce the concentration of unpalatable tannic acid they contain.根据小白鼠实验和对猴子的观察,专家发现除了人类,其他动物也会通过摄入非食物类物质来对抗体内的毒素。而在各种传统的食物烹制过程中,都有这么一个步骤:在食物中混合些污泥,进而将食物中的毒素提取出来,同时让食物更加美味可口。比如说,橡子其实是味道极涩的一种坚果,但在美国加州和意大利的撒丁岛,橡子面包是一种传统的食物。为了减少橡子中苦涩的丹宁酸的含量,人们用泥块将橡子的果仁碾碎,从而使橡子面包更可口。The second hypothesis is perhaps more intuitive: clay could provide nutrients that are not present in conventional food items. Anaemia is often associated with geophagy, so perhaps eating iron-rich soil is an instinctive attempt to remedy iron deficiency. 而第二个猜想或许更为直观:黏土可以为我们提供别的传统食物没有的营养物质。贫血症常常和食土癖联系在一起,而对于同时有贫血症和食土癖的人来说,含铁量丰富的泥土或许就是他们福音。There’s also a suggestion that geophagy is a response to extreme hunger, or micronutrient deficiencies that make non-food items attractive. This hypothesis is non-adaptive, meaning it fits with the idea that eating earth is a negative behaviour with no benefits.另外一个意见则认为,食土癖是在极度饥饿时产生的一个反应,又或许是人体微量营养素的缺乏导致人们对非食物类物质产生食欲。这一假设认为吃土是非适应性的行为(即生物体与环境表现不适合)。换言之,这一假设认为吃土是一个负面的行为,并不能给人带来任何好处。The first two hypotheses, on the other hand, suggest adaptive reasons for geophagy, and they go some way to explaining its distribution, too.前两种假设则与之相反,认为食土癖存在适应性原因,而且它们也解释了食土习俗在热带地区相对盛行的原因。“We predicted that it would happen most in the tropics, because that’s where there is the greatest density of pathogens,” says Young. Furthermore, children and pregnant women are two groups that might need extra nutrients or protection against disease, as their immune responses are weaker. 塞拉#8226;杨指出:“我们判断,热带地区是发生最多食土行为的地区,因为那里是病原体最集中的地区”。而且,由于儿童和妇的免疫力相对较弱,他们是最需要营养和保护以抵抗疾病入侵的两大群体。 /201606/451515

High Rents and Low Wages Trap ChineseImmigrants in SROs游客看不到的另一半唐人街,中国移民一家4口蜗居在4平米房间Ming Dang lives in a 7 by 7 foot room in San Francisco#39;sChinatown with her husband, teenage son and daughter. (Melanie Young/KALW)明党(音译)和她的丈夫,带着十几岁的儿子和女儿住在旧金山唐人街的一个7英尺长,7英尺宽的房间里。Editor#39;s Note: Thisstory originally aired on KALW-FM. Listen to the story here.编者按:该故事最初在KALW-FM播出。下面请听:Tenants are facing a tough time in San Francisco. The cityhas some of the nation’s highest rents and laws like the Ellis Act have madeevictions front page news. But there are pockets of affordability, like in Chinatown, where the average rent is one third as much asin other neighborhoods. 旧金山的房客正面临艰难时期。该市有些房租为全国最高,而且诸如埃利斯法案之类的法规同意驱逐房客已成为头条新闻。但还是有考虑到付能力的地区,像在唐人街这些地方,平均房租只有周边地区的三分之一。But the neighborhood is also one of thecountry’s most overcrowded and tenants claim that landlords violate health andsafety codes.该社区也是美国最拥挤的地区之一,二期据房客们声称房东违反了健康安全法规。In response to rising rents and shoddy housing,a group of low-income, mostly elderly Chinatownrenters have crossed language and cultural barriers to change to theirneighborhood.应不断上涨的房价和劣质住房,一群主要由唐人街老年人组成的低收入者跨越了语言和文化障碍,组成一队正努力改变他们的街区面貌。Small rooms, cheap rents房子小,租金少Constant stress over money combined with livingin a cramped space, literally on top of each other, lead to a lot ofconflict. As she opens up about her family, Lee starts to cry. “Whenmy husband gets back from work he’s tired. He yells at my son to get off thestool and sit on the bed instead. I am so sorry. I wish I could helpearn enough to move.”缺钱再加上居住在一个狭窄的空间里,毫不夸张地说就是叠在彼此身上,这样的情形有着源源不断的压力,也会招致很多冲突。当李女士敞开心扉,谈及自己的家庭时,她哭着说“我丈夫下班之后回到家时,他已经很累了,便会吼儿子,让他去床上坐,把凳子让出来。对此我很遗憾,我多希望我能多挣点钱好搬出去住。”Years ago, when immigrants arrived in Chinatown, they’d live in an SRO for a while, save up,then move to a bigger place. But soaring rents and low wages block that pathnow, even for more seasoned immigrants.多年以前,当移民们到达唐人街之后,他们便会在单间租房里小住一段时间,当他们攒到钱后,便会搬到大点的地方住。但如今,一路飙升的租金加上微薄的薪水,即使是已移民多年的人,这条路也行不通了。Wanting a way out寻求出路Lee Ping Yee (no relation to Lee Ming Dang)moved to the USin 2004. She’s lived in her SRO for 5 years. 2004年,李萍叶(音译)(与李明党没有关系)移民到美国,她在单间租房里已居住5年之久。Her daughter’s friends are visiting, leaving Leewith no place to sit. Instead she leans on the doorway of her unit saying helloas neighbors walk by. As we speak, the lights suddenly go out.当她女儿的朋友来访时,李萍叶就没地方可坐了。她只好靠在单元楼门口,在邻居路过时,打个招呼。当我们在进行访谈的时候,路灯突然熄灭了。“There’s always power shortages.” Lee says. “Ihave to wait for the neighbors finish cooking. Then I can have power to cook mydinner.” “总是电力不足”李女士说“我必须得等到邻里们全部做完饭后,我才有电做晚饭。”With no electricity and no place to sit, LeePing Yee paces the hall in frustration. She wantsout. She’s been in the US for 10 years, and she feelsstuck. 没电,没地方坐,李萍叶在走廊里踱步徘徊,十分沮丧。她想摆脱这种状况。她来美国已经10年了,而这让她感到心力交瘁。“I not enough money to buy house.” Lee says it’seven harder with children, “support them and you know, grow up my daughter, youneed money. Always call mommy, I need money buy food. Ah, it’shard.”“我没钱买房子”李萍叶表示,自己甚至感到养育孩子都异常艰难,“你知道的,要供养孩子,把女儿养大,需要钱。女儿常说,妈妈,我需要钱买吃的。啊,没钱真难过。”Fighting for change力图改变Like many in Chinatown,both Lee’s are immigrants with limited english, limited incomes, and limitedprospects. They are not, however, powerless. The women are members of theCommunity Tenants Association or CTA.像许多唐人街的华人一样,两家李姓移民英语水平,收入及发展前景都很有限。然而,她们并不是没有能力。两位女士都是社区租户协会(CAT)的会员。The CTA was founded 26 years ago when one Chinatown building’s tenants got together to fight aneviction. When they won their case they decided to share what they’d learnedwith other residents. Since then they’ve seen each other through rentalproblems and weighed in on San Francisco’s housing policies. 26年前,唐人街一栋出租楼的租户们齐心协力抵抗房东驱赶租客时,成立了社区租户协会。胜诉后,他们决定把学到的东西分享给其他租户。此后,租户们通过租赁问题相互联系拜访,并且还曾参加过旧金山住房政策比赛。Neighborhood resident Leung Wing Ho says CTAsaved his home. “I had just retired when I was evicted from my apartment. I wasreally worried because I was old and only had my retirement income.”社区居民Leung Wing Ho表示社区租户协会保住了他的家。“当我被房东赶出来时,我正好退休。我当时真的很担心,因为我老了,唯一的收入就是退休金了”Leung and his neighbors turned to CTA for help.They pulled together other housing rights groups and elected officials tosupport the tenants. “We held rallies in front of the building with hundreds ofpeople,” Leung recalls. “At a mediation conference the landlord rescinded theeviction notice.”Leung和他的邻居们便向社区租户协会求助。他们联合其他住房维权组织,并选举出相关领导以援租客。“我们一百多人团结起来,围在出租楼的前面”Leung 回忆道“经过调停会议之后,房东取消了驱逐令。”That was six years ago. Today, Leung is CTA’spresident. 那是六年前的事情了。现在,Leung已经当上社区租户协会的主席。That unaffordability is especially stark in Chinatown. The average household income here is only onequarter what it is the rest of San Francisco’s. Despite that inequity, rents are on therise.这种负担不起的现象在唐人街尤其明显。这里的家庭平均收入只有旧金山其他地区收入的四分之一,尽管收入不公平,但租金还是一样在涨。Striking a chord outside of Chinatown 唐人街附近的惊心动魄CTA member Lee Gum Gee rented an apartment onthe border of Chinatown and NobHill for 34 years. When a new landlord invoked the Ellis Act to evict all theresidents, Lee decided to fight.社区租户协会会员李金枝(音译)在唐人街和诺布山交界处的租房内住了34年。当新房东援用艾利斯法案驱赶所有的租户时,李金枝(音译)决定奋起反抗。Chinatown Community Development Corporation’sNorman Fong says it wasn’t just her neighbors who rallied behindher. 唐人街社区发展公司的董事Norman Fong表示,团结在她背后的,不仅仅只有她的邻居。“I think because she was saying I’m not moving,I’m not leaving my daughter here who is mentally challenged. This is my home. Ideserve to have a life here in San Francisco,” Fong says. “Somehow her story resonatedwith hundreds of others.”“我认为,因为她说我不走,我不会带着我智障的女儿离开这里。这是我的家。在旧金山生活是我应得的,”Fong说“不知何故,她的故事激起了成千上万人的共鸣”“On the day of her eviction, CTA were there butcitywide people came from all over.”“她被驱逐出租房的那天,不仅社区租户协会的成员们到了,来自全市各地的人也来了”Dozens of elderly Chinese tenants from CTAstationed themselves in front of the apartment-- holding signs and showingsupport.来自社区租户协会的数十位上了年纪的中国租客在公寓楼前驻扎下来,举起标牌表示持。Lee and her family eventually had to leave theapartment but Norman Fong says the case drew public attention and helped spuraction at City Hall and Sacramento.李和她的家人最终不得不搬出出租房,但Norman Fong说,这件事引起了公众注意,有利于刺激市政厅和萨克拉门托采取应对措施。“This little Chinatown case” Fong says,“with CTA backup, citywide and statewide policies are changing now to helpprotect all San Franciscoso there are homes for middle class folks that are at risk for Ellis act aswell.”“这件看似很小的唐人街事件”Fong解释道,“在社区租户协会的持下,导致全市乃至全州的政策都要做出变化,以保护旧金山所有的人。也就是说因埃利斯法案遭受风险了的中产阶级民众也会受到保护”“We’ve turned fear into action. That’s what CTArepresents to me. They’re fearless.” “我们已经将恐惧转变成了行动。这就是社区租户协会对我的意义。我们的成员无所畏惧”Every Wednesday CTA members meet for workshops,share news updates, and socialize. They launch each session with asing-a-longgt; CTA president Leung Wing Ho says it helps bringthem together.社区租户协会会员每周三都会聚在一起开会,分享最新信息,探讨如何适应社会生活。社区租户协会主席Leung Wing Ho说,每次开会都会先唱一首歌,这有助于使他们团结起来。“Singing makes us happy, gives us courage andthe spirit to fight for our causes,” Leung says.“唱歌使我们感到快乐,还给我们带来勇气,帮我们树立为生活而奋斗的精神。”Leung说道。And that fighting spirit is sping. Onehundred new members join CTA every year.这种奋斗精神还在传播中。每年约有100名新会员加入社区租户协会。 /201606/448734

Do money and language go hand in hand? You might be surprised at the powerful effects bilingualism has on income and employment.语言能力和薪水多少有关系吗?双语能力对收入和就业的重大影响力,也许会让你感到吃惊。Everyone#39;s got their own ideas about how to make a little extra dough, but few people today realize the economic benefits of speaking two languages.对于怎么赚外快,每个人多少都会有点自己的想法,不过很少有人会意识到双语能力给自己带来的经济效益。Skeptical? Let#39;s look at the figures.你不信?让我们看一下数据。Some number crunchers at The Economist have determined that workers with more than one language can earn an extra ,000 over their lifetime. And that#39;s on the low side; according to estimates on the high end, bilinguals can make an extra 8,000 due to their language proficiency.《经济学人》的数据表明:懂一门外语的工人一生可以多赚67000美元,而且这只是一个保守数据;按较高水平估计,拥有双语能力的人可以因为他们的语言能力多获得128000美元。 That means monolinguals (that#39;s people who speak just one language) could be missing out on the equivalent of a new home or luxury car.这意味着单语者(只说一种语言的人)可能会错过相当于一个新房子或豪华车的钱。Let#39;s check out some more intriguing statistics.让我们来看看一些更有趣的数据吧。According to language expert and CEO Ryan McMunn, learning a second language boosts your salary anywhere from 10-15%.根据语言学家和首席执行官瑞.恩克的说法,会两门语言不论在什么地方都能让你的薪水涨10%到15%。How#39;s that for a raise?你觉得这个涨薪水平怎么样呢?In fact, 9 out of 10 European recruiters consider bilingualism critical to hiring new employees.事实上,十分之九的欧洲招聘官将双语能力作为招聘人员的一个重要标准。Similarly, a survey of North American job recruiters found 66% agreed that bilingualism will steadily gain importance in the next 10 years.相似地,一份关于北美招聘官的调查表明,66%的招聘官觉得双语能力在未来十年的重要性会稳步上升。But how does knowing a second language really help you earn more? In addition to jobs like interpreters and translators (two professions, incidentally, which the Bureau of Labor predicts to grow 28.7% over the next 10 years), there are many ways learning a second language immediately boosts a worker#39;s chances at earning more.不过会两门语言会怎么样使你赚的更多呢?除了口译或者翻译这种工作以外(顺便说一句,根据劳动局预测,这两种职业的薪酬在接下来十年会增长28.7%),还有许多方面可以增加双语者的收入。For job seekers looking to stand out from the crowd, hiring managers notice the increased cultural sensitivity and intelligence that come with being able to speak a foreign language.对于想要脱颖而出的求职者来说,招聘经理会注意到那些有外语能力的人,往往在文化敏感度和理解力方面更突出。Similarly, service industry workers see an increased chance at promotion merely by showing that they#39;re in the process of learning a new language.相似地,务业的工作人员如果表现出自己正在学一门外语,则更有机会得到升职。Large or small, companies always need employees to travel to and communicate with foreign markets.不管是大公司还是小公司,他们总是需要员工能够出国沟通并开拓国外市场。Just being able to meet and greet gives you an immense leg up.即使你仅仅能够见面问好,这就足以给你一个巨大的帮助了。For those who run a small business, a second language can prove critical in connecting with your customers and community.对于做小生意的人来说,会一门外语是联系客户和社会的必不可少的纽带。The list of financial benefits to bilingualism is endless.双语者所能得到的经济利益是无穷无尽的。So don#39;t miss out - do yourself a favor and pick up a new language today.所以,不要错过它--为了你自己,从今天开始学一门新的语言吧。 /201609/464675

Profits at the British handbag maker Mulberry have recovered after it cut prices and spruced up its ranges to win back customers.英国玛百莉制造商的手提包利润在降价后及外观焕然一新后,已获得收益利润并赢回顾客。Mulberry#39;s efforts to become a more affordable luxury brand appear to be paying off, following a disastrous move upmarket in recent years. It now intends to open more factories in the UK as revenues rise.随着近几年进军高端商品的惨重代价,玛百莉致力于成为平价奢侈品似乎已经奏效,现在为增加收益打算在英国开设更多的商场。Profits before tax rose to ?6.2m in the year to 31 March, from ?1.9m the previous year. Retail sales climbed 8% to ?118.7m while wholesale revenues dipped slightly to ?37.2m from ?38.8m.税前利润从去年的190万英镑增加到今年3月31号的620万英镑, 零售额1.187亿英镑上升了8个百分点,然而大规模的批发收入从3880万英镑稍稍下降至3720万英镑。Like-for-like sales were up 8% last year but growth has slowed in the 11 weeks to 11 June, to 4%. Many luxury retailers are struggling, such as Burberry, Giorgio Armani and Hugo Boss, as demand has suffered as a result of the economic slowdown in China.同比去年的销售额增加了8%,但截止6月11号的11周内,增幅4%有所缓慢。许多奢侈品牌都在竞争,像柏利、乔治· 阿玛尼、雨果·波士等的需求在中国已经出现了经济衰退。Mulberry said the first collection from its new creative director, Johnny Coca, who was recruited from Céline, at London fashion week in February had been well received by the press and the company#39;s partners. It started arriving in shops in April and the whole collection will be in stores by August.玛百莉说,在二月的伦敦时尚周,从赛琳招募过来的新任创意总监-约翰尼可可,报刊和公司合伙人已经接纳了他的第一个作品集。四月将出现在商店和全部作品集将于8月供应。The Somerset-based firm said 70% of its handbags were priced between ?500 and ?995, compared with less than half in 2014. They include the bestselling Bayswater and the Lily, named after model Lily Cole. Mulberry has brought the style and pricing of shoes and y-to-wear collections into line with bags.萨默塞特公司发言说,70%的手提包都将以500-995英镑的价格出售,低于2014的半价价格。畅销的贝斯沃特和百合(以模特百合-科尔的名字命名)。鞋的样式和价位及成衣系列符合玛百莉包的风格。译文属 /201607/456982


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