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2018年12月16日 07:13:16来源:兰州晨报


  • The world of online dating has something for everyone. Sites are dedicated to picking partners based on religion, dining preferences, pure physical attraction and the good, old-fashioned values of cowboy life (at Farmersonly.com, of course). So it was only a matter of time before a website took the next step beyond shared interests and tapped into genetic profiling.如今的婚恋交友网站五花八门,总有一款适合你。这些网站通过宗教背景、饮食偏好、外貌身材等各种标准来为你筛选伴侣,有的甚至专门务于拥有传统观念的乡村居民,比如Farmersonly.com。照这样发展下去,总有一天择偶标准将不再限于共同的兴趣爱好,而开始涉及到个人基因信息。SINGLDOUT, a San Diego-based start up, has devised a proprietary algorithm that matches singles based partly on DNA compatibility and partly on the results from a psychological questionnaire.SINGLDOUT是一家圣地亚哥的初创企业,他们推出的新交友网站就设计出一种专属的计算方法,通过DNA分析和心理测试来为单身人士配对。In a rare twist for the dating website industry, which is dominated by male company founders, SINGLDOUT was started by CEO Jana Bayad and chief marketing officer Elle France, who hatched the idea based on their own dating experiences.目前市面上的婚恋网站大多由男性创建,因此,由两位女性创建的SINGLDOUT倒有些物以稀为贵。亚娜o巴亚德担任首席执行官,艾丽o弗兰斯则是销售总监,二人建立婚恋网站的想法来源于自己的择偶经历。“SINGLDOUT is the first online dating website that is going to bridge the gap between the biological and digital worlds of love,” says Bayad. “It is the evolution of online dating.”“在择偶问题上,生物界和数字世界之间存在着差异,SINGLDOUT是第一家弥合这种差异的婚恋网站。”巴亚德说,“这是婚恋交友网站的进步。”The website is aimed at time-crunched professionals who want to know from the outset that they will click with the person who looks good in a profile. “When we looked at it from a DNA viewpoint, we realize you could actually determine chemistry between two people based on their genes,” says Bayad, who has an online sales background. Plus, DNA doesn’t lie, unlike so many dating profiles.这家网站主要面向闲暇时间不多的白领人士,让他们能在第一时间就找到自己感兴趣的个人资料。拥有电商背景的巴亚德说:“从DNA的角度来看,我们发现可以通过基因比对结果来确定两个人是否来电。”而且,网上个人资料可以造假,DNA却不能。SINGLDOUT works with Instant Chemistry, a Toronto-based lab services company that administers the DNA testing and determines the basic genetic profiles of members. For the member, this part is as easy as opening a prepaid envelope, providing a saliva sample in the DNA kit and sending it back to Instant Chemistry. It’s a clinical way to start a budding romance, but no more so than relying on big data to set up a date.与SINGLDOUT合作的Instant Chemistry是一家位于多伦多的实验务公司,负责进行DNA测试,并确定会员的基本基因属性。采集DNA的过程非常简单:会员打开已预付邮资的信封,在采集盒中提供唾液样本,然后寄往Instant Chemistry。这只是找到缘分的第一步,要确定约会对象还需要进行大数据分析。The research hones in on two specific results. The first is the length of the serotonin transporter gene, which influences emotion. Research has suggested that those who have the shorter gene tend to be more emotionally sensitive while those with the longer gene tend to be more emotionally stable. Based on the results of their proprietary algorithm, SINGLDOUT sends the two potential partners a compatibility percentage with a broad explanation of how they might interact in real life.分析主要针对两项特定的DNA数据。其一是血清素传输基因的长度,它可以决定人的情绪性格。研究表明,血清素传输基因较短的人大多比较感性,而基因较长的人则比较沉稳。凭借其独家运算技术,SINGLDOUT向两位可能有缘的会员发送基因比对结果,并且详细介绍两人如何在实际生活中产生交集。The second DNA test looks to determine physical attraction based on the human leukocyte antigen system, which regulates the immune system. SINGLDOUT points to a few pieces of research to make the argument that opposites attract here. (One piece of evidence is a 2006 study published in Psychological Science that found as the proportion of these genes couples shared increased, women’s sexual responsiveness to their partners decreased and their attraction to men other than their primary partners increased.)另一个数据是关于调节人体免疫功能的白细胞抗原系统。通过对这项指标的分析,可以确定两人在生理上是否互相吸引。SINGLDOUT引用了多项研究结果来持其“异类相吸”理念。【其中之一是2006年发表于《精神科学》(Psychological Science)的一项研究结果。该项研究发现,男女双方的基因匹配比例越高,女方对男方的性敏感程度就越低,对男性的吸引力也越低,而比例较低的男女反而越高】。The final component is a 15-minute psychological questionnaire that looks to determine emotional capability. The questions assess human behavior based on social characteristics, such as outgoing or autonomous, dominant or submissive, and comfort level with intimacy. “As a professional matchmaker, I don’t know how many times people tried online dating before they came to me, only to find they didn’t have chemistry with that person,” says France. “This will tell you if you have chemistry offline.”最后一步是一个15分钟的心理问卷调查,用于确定情感能力。问题会通过人们的行为来评估一个人的社会性格,比如开朗或内敛、喜欢配还是从、可以接受的亲密程度等。“作为一名职业红娘,我不知道在他们来见我之前有过多少次见光死的约会。”弗兰斯表示,“我们的方法可以让你在见面之前就知道两人是否来电。”Maybe. As SINGLDOUT admits, this is not a guarantee of dating success, but more like a head start into a relationship.或许吧。不过SINGLDOUT也承认不能保约会成功,他们做的更像是为一段关系事先做好铺垫。Subscriptions cost 9 for three months and 9 for six months of the dating service, but both Bayad and France envision SINGLDOUT as more than a relationship aid. In the increasingly-crowded billion online dating market, Bayad and France see an opening to apply their compatibility algorithm to businesses. They talk about companies using genetic profiling for everything from putting together work teams to creating the office seating chart.该网站三个月的会费为149美元,六个月则是199美元。而根据巴亚德和弗兰斯的设想,SINGLDOUT不止是个交友网站。20亿美元规模的在线交友市场竞争日趋激烈,巴亚德和弗兰斯认为,DNA配对蕴藏着更广泛的商机。他们表示,公司可以利用基因图谱做任何事情,包括从构建团队到安排办公室座位。First though, they need to hire a few more people. SINGLDOUT currently has five employees, including Jayad and France. On Tuesday, the eight-month-old start up announced that it had successfully secured 0,000 in seed funding. (It said it couldn’t name the investors due to a confidentiality agreement.) SINGLDOUT plans to hire more employees in January 2015 once it gets a better sense of its member growth.但是,现在的首要任务是增加人手。包括巴亚德和弗兰斯在内,SINGLDOUT现在只有五名员工。本周二,这家八个月前成立的新公司宣布获得50万美元的种子基金。(该公司表示,基于保密协议他们不方便透露投资者姓名。)一旦掌握了更清晰的会员增长情况,SINGLDOUT计划在2015年1月招聘新员工。France and Jayad, who gave their ages as “35 to 40,” met last winter at a coffeehouse in San Diego. France, a professional white-glove matchmaker, was shopping for her clients and thought Jayad might be a good fit for one of them. Jayad, who had tried and grew tried of online dating, took her up on the meeting. However, they quickly fell into a conversation about the pitfalls of online dating. “We found that people belong to all of these different sites, and, while it opens up the pool for them, it wasn’t really solving anything,” says France. They saw an opportunity to incorporate science to increase the odds for couples before they even decided to go on a date and SINGLDOUT was born. However, they have yet to take SINGLDOUT’s tests to see if they really are strong prospects for a successful long-term business partnership.据巴亚德和弗兰斯介绍,二人年龄都在35到40岁之间。去年冬天,两人结识于圣地亚哥(San Diego)的一家咖啡店。弗兰斯是一名务周到的红娘,当时正在为客户寻觅合适人选。她觉得巴亚德和自己的某位顾客很般配,但是巴亚德却对在线交友深感厌倦,拒绝了弗兰斯的好意。不过,两人随后谈起了网络交友的陷阱问题。“我们发现有些人同时使用几个不同的交友网站,虽然网站提供了交友平台,却并没有真正地解决任何问题,”弗兰斯说。于是他们发现了一个商机:在会员决定是否约会前,先通过科技手段来提高配对概率。于是,SINGLDOUT应运而生。不过,他们还要对SINGLDOUT进行测试,看它是否有足够的长期发展潜力。“We just have great chemistry,” says France.“在这一点上,我们俩倒是天作之合。”弗兰斯说。 /201411/341212
  • Any dog owner would testify that dogs are just as prone to jealousy as humans.任何主人都能作,简直和人一样容易嫉妒。But can one really compare Othello’s agony to Roscoe’s pique?但真的有人能把罗斯科(Roscoe)的愤懑与奥赛罗(Othello)的痛苦相提并论吗?The answer, according to Christine Harris, a psychologist at the University of California, San Diego, is that if you are petting another dog, Roscoe is going to show something that Dr. Harris thinks is a form of jealousy, even if not as complex and twisted as the adult human form.加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California, San Diego)的心理学家克里斯蒂娜·哈里斯(Christine Harris)表示,是,如果你抚摸另一只,罗斯科会有某种表现。哈里斯士认为,这种表现是嫉妒的一种形式,尽管这种形式不像成年人类的嫉妒形式那么复杂、扭曲。Other scientists agree there is something going on, but not all are convinced it is jealousy. And Roscoe and the rest of his tribe were, without exception, unavailable for comment.其他一些科学家也认同这种情形下会出现某种情况,但并不都相信那是嫉妒。而罗斯科和他的同类,无一例外均不便发表。Dr. Harris had been studying human jealousy for years when she took this question on, inspired partly by the antics of her parents’ Border collies. When she petted them, “one would take his head and knock the other’s head away,” she said. It certainly looked like jealousy.在遇到这个问题时,哈里斯士已经对人类的嫉妒情绪进行了多年研究。当时,她部分是受了父母的边境牧羊犬表现出的怪异行为的启发。她说,当她抚摸他们时,“其中一只会用头把另外一只的头挤开”。这种情形看上去当然像嫉妒了。But having studied humans, she was aware of different schools of thought about jealousy. Some scientists argue that jealousy requires complex thinking about self and others, which seems beyond dogs’ abilities. Others think that although our descriptions of jealousy are complex, the emotion itself may not be that complex.但因为已经对人类进行了研究,她了解有关嫉妒的不同思想流派。一些科学家认为,嫉妒要求有能力对自身和他人进行复杂思考,这似乎超出了的能力。其他一些人则认为,尽管我们对嫉妒的描述颇为复杂,但这种情感本身或许并不复杂。Dog emotions, as owners perceive them, have been studied before. In one case, Alexandra Horowitz, a cognitive scientist who is an adjunct associate professor at Barnard College and the author of “Inside of a Dog,” found that the so-called guilty look that dogs exhibit seemed to be more related to fear of punishment.以前就有人研究过主人眼中的情感。在其中一项研究中,著有《一只的内心》(Inside of a Dog)的认知科学家、巴纳德学院(Barnard College)客座副教授亚历山德拉·霍罗威茨(Alexandra Horowitz)发现,表现出来的所谓的内疚表情似乎与害怕受到惩罚更相关。Dr. Harris ventured into the tricky turf of dog emotion by devising a test based on work done with infants.哈里斯士以针对孩子的研究工作为基础,设计了一个试验,大胆进入了的情感这个棘手领域。When dog owners petted and talked to a realistic stuffed dog that barked and whined, the people’s own dogs came over, pushed the person or the stuffed dog, and sometimes barked. After the experiment, many of the dogs sniffed the rear end of the stuffed dog, suggesting, Dr. Harris said, that the dogs thought it might be real.当主人抚摸一只逼真的、能吠叫并发出呜呜声的填充玩具,并与其说话时,他们自己的会走过来,推自己的主人或那只玩具,有时还会大叫。试验结束后,许多会嗅那只填充玩具的臀部。哈里斯士称,这表明,那些以为玩具可能是一只真。Dr. Harris also recorded what happened as the owners petted and talked to a jack-o’-lantern and a children’s book aloud, to see if any old distraction would provoke a reaction. The dogs paid little attention to the jack-o’-lantern and very little to the book.为了看看随便什么通常分散注意力的事情会不会让它们有所反应,哈里斯还记录了主人在抚摸南瓜灯笼并和它说话,以及大声朗读儿童读物时发生的情况。那些少有注意灯笼的,对那本书,的关注度则更小。Dr. Harris concluded, in a paper in PLoS One written with Caroline Prouvost, also at the University of California, San Diego, that the dogs showed a “primordial” form of jealousy, not as complex as the human emotion, but similar in that there is a social triangle and the dog is trying to make sure it, not the rival, receives the attention.在与同在加州大学圣迭戈分校任职的卡罗琳·普鲁沃(Caroline Prouvost)共同撰写,并发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》(PLOS One)的一篇文章中,哈里斯得出结论称,那些表现出了一种“原始”形式的嫉妒,不像人类的嫉妒那么复杂。但它也是发生在一种社会三角关系之中,会尝试确定获得关注的是自己,而不是对手,因此这种情感与人类的嫉妒类似。Other scientists had mixed reactions to the work. Dr. Horowitz said she admired the goal but thought the researchers had not shown that the behaviors observed actually indicated jealousy.其他科研人员对这项研究的反响各异。霍罗威茨士说,她很欣赏该研究的目标,但她认为,研究者没能明,被观察到的行为真的代表嫉妒。“What can be shown is that dogs seem to want an owner’s attention when there is attention being given out,” she said. “This study confirms that.”“可以被明的是,当主人向外界给予关注的时候,似乎想要得到这种关注,”她说,“这项研究实了这一点。”Sybil Hart, at Texas Tech, who has studied jealousy in infants, said she thought the research was “very well done and makes a very compelling argument.”德克萨斯理工大学的西比尔·哈特(Sybil Hart)曾经研究过婴儿的嫉妒心理。哈特说,她认为这项研究“做得很出色,观点令人信”。If one sees jealousy in babies and dogs, she said, “to some degree, it’s innate,” which would be important to know for attempts to manage human jealousy.哈特说,如果人们发现了婴儿和的嫉妒之心,“在一定程度上,这是天生的”。了解这一点对于管理成人的嫉妒情绪十分重要。“Over all, trying to make it go away has not been very successful,” Dr. Hart said. “We are trying to eliminate jealousy, and scientists are saying maybe we should try to understand it better.”“总的来说,消除嫉妒心理的努力并不是非常成功,”哈特士说。“我们正努力消除嫉妒情绪,而科学家告诉我们,或许我们应该试着更好地理解它。”Jealousy, Dr. Harris wrote in the study, is “the third leading cause of nonaccidental homicide across cultures.”哈里斯在研究中写道,嫉妒“在许多文化中都是故意杀人案的第三大诱因”。Whatever the dogs’ behavior is called, said Brian Hare, a director of the Duke Canine Cognition Center at Duke University, there are practical implications for their owners.杜克大学杜克犬科动物认知研究中心(Duke Canine Cognition Center at Duke University)的主任布赖恩·黑尔(Brian Hare)说,无论犬类的这种行为被称作什么,对他们的主人而言,都会存在一些实实在在的影响。“Attention seeking can lead to jealousylike behavior in dogs that includes aggression in some cases,” he said. “So for dogs with suspected aggression problems, it may be important to avoid situations where they feel ignored.”“寻求关注可以引发类似于嫉妒的表现,比如有时候出现攻击性,”他说。“因此,对于可能有攻击性问题的来说,避免让他们感到被忽略也许十分重要。” /201410/335023
  • It only took until lunchtime on China’s main shopping holiday for consumers there to click their way to a new record for ecommerce sales in a single day.才到午餐时分,中国面向消费者的主要购物节就刷新了单日电子商务销售的纪录。Yesterday in China was Singles’ day, a day that ecommerce companies have turned into the world’s biggest for online shopping by offering a stream of promotions and discounts.昨日是中国的“光棍节”,各大电商企业拿出各种促销和折扣,使其成为全球最大的在线购物节日。By 1:04pm, sales on Alibaba, the nation’s largest ecommerce group, reached Rmb19.1bn (.1bn), equivalent to all it sold on last year’s Singles’ day and about double what was sold last year on the US “Cyber Monday” following Thanksgiving.到了下午1时04分,中国最大电子商务集团阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的销售额就达到191亿元人民币(合31亿美元),相当于它在去年“光棍节”全天的销售额,而且差不多两倍于去年美国感恩节之后的“网购星期一”(Cyber Monday)的销售额。At midnight, this figure had almost doubled to Rmb35bn (.7bn) – the surest sign yet that China’s affinity with online shopping shows no sign of abating, with the country on track to overtake the US as the largest market for ecommerce.截至午夜,当日销售额几乎翻了一倍,至350亿元人民币(合57亿美元),这是一个最确凿无疑的信号,显示中国人的网购热情没有减弱迹象。目前中国有望超越美国,成为全球最大电子商务市场。“Crazy”, wrote the People’s Daily, the official newspaper of the ruling Communist party, on its Weibo microblog account.中共机关报《人民日报》在其新浪微账户上写道,“双十一,你疯狂了吗?”The day has drawn the approval of China’s leaders as the nation seeks to rebalance its economy from one driven by investment to consumption. Premier Li Keqiang recently praised Alibaba’s founder, Jack Ma, for creating a day for consumption, according to state media.“光棍节”得到了中国领导人的赞许,目前中国正寻求推动经济再平衡,从投资驱动型转向消费拉动型。据官方媒体报道,中国总理李克强最近表扬阿里巴巴创始人马云(Jack Ma)搞出一个消费节。“11.11 isn’t about numbers, it’s about fostering a healthier consumer environment,” Mr Ma said yesterday, according to the company’s Twitter feed.根据阿里巴巴公司的Twitter帖子,马云昨日表示,双十一不是关乎数字,而是关乎营造一个更健康的消费环境。The rapid growth of ecommerce in China contrasts with slowing online sales growth across much of western Europe and the US. Last year, revenue from online sales in China was between 0bn-0bn, a close second to the US market, worth 0bn-0bn, according to research by McKinsey, and China’s market is growing much faster.中国电子商务的快速增长,与西欧很多国家以及美国的在线销售增长放缓形成反差。麦肯锡(McKinsey)研究显示,去年中国在线销售的营收总额介于1900亿至2100亿美元之间,仅次于美国(2200亿至2300亿美元),而且相差不大,同时中国市场的增速快得多。Part of the reason China’s ecommerce market is growing so quickly, analysts say, is that internet access still has room to grow. Only 31 per cent of households now have broadband, and 21 per cent have mobile broadband, says Paul McKenzie of brokerage CLSA. With the recent growth in affordable smartphones, that percentage is poised to grow.分析师们表示,中国电子商务市场增长如此迅速的部分原因是,中国的互联网接入仍有增长空间。里昂券(CLSA)的保罗?麦肯齐(Paul McKenzie)表示,中国只有31%的家庭具备宽带上网条件,21%具备移动上网条件。随着近期价格适中的智能手机快速增长,这个百分比有望大幅提高。Consumers in China’s vast number of small cities also have a limited array of goods on sale in shops in their hometowns, particularly when it comes to foreign brands.在中国的广大中小城市,消费者从当地商店得到的商品选择也比较有限,尤其是外国品牌的商品。 /201311/264429
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