明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年02月19日 00:09:22
Americans studying and working in China have welcomed the announcement that, starting Wednesday, both China and the ed States will begin offering each other’s citizens multiple-entry visas of up to 10 years.在中国学习和工作的美国人对一则通告表示了欢迎。通告中称,从周三开始,中国和美国将开始向对方的公民发放有效期最长可达十年的多次入境签。President Obama announced the agreement in a speech Monday evening at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit meeting, saying that students could receive five-year visas, while tourists and business travelers could be granted 10-year visas.奥巴马周一傍晚在亚太经济合作组织(Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)的峰会上发表讲话时宣布了这一协议,称学生将获得有效期为五年的签,而以旅游和商务出行为目的的人,则可以获得十年期签。“I’m happy for it because I definitely plan on being here for longer than one year,” said Kyle Obermann, 22, from Austin, Tex., who is studying Chinese at Peking University in Beijing. “It’ll be nice to not worry about the housing permit and red tape and paying fees in just a one-year limit.”“我对这个消息感到很开心,因为我打算待在这里的时间肯定不止一年,”来自德克萨斯州奥斯汀的凯尔·奥伯曼(Kyle Obermann)说。“太好了,不用担心刚过一年就又要办居留、走繁琐的程序、交钱了。”奥伯曼今年22岁,正在北京大学学习汉语。The visa agreement represents an attempt by the ed States and China to advance cultural exchanges and to benefit both of their economies by easing the flow of trade and investment. Previously, Chinese and American travelers usually were limited to one-year visas.这项签协议是美国和中国通过为贸易和投资流动提供便利,来推动文化交流、促进两国经济发展的一次尝试。之前,申请前往对方国家的中国人和美国人通常只能获得一年期签。In his speech, Mr. Obama cited the 1.8 million Chinese who visited the ed States last year and contributed billion and 100,000 jobs to the American economy.在讲话中,奥巴马称去年有180万中国人前往美国,为美国经济贡献了210亿美元(约合1290亿元人民币)和10万个工作岗位。“This agreement could help us more than quadruple those numbers,” Mr. Obama said, shortly before the White House released a statement forecasting that by 2021, Chinese travelers to the ed States will bring in an estimated billion a year.“这项协议可以帮助我们把这些数字翻两番,”奥巴马说。随后不久,白宫发表的一份声明预测称,到2021年,赴美的中国人每年预计会带来850亿美元。The announcement came as Chinese interest in traveling to the ed States is at an all-time high. Chinese tourists contributed .8 billion in 2013 to the ed States economy, according to Brand USA, an initiative established under the 2009 Trade Promotion Act to promote tourism to the ed States. The primary reasons for Chinese travel are holidays or to visit a relative or friend, and the leading destinations are California and New York.这份通告发布之际,中国人对前往美国的兴趣也空前高涨。“品牌美国”(Brand USA)的数据显示,2013年,中国游客为美国经济贡献了98亿美元。“品牌美国”是依据2009年《贸易促进法案》(Trade Promotion Act)启动的一个项目,目的是促进赴美旅游。中国人赴美的主要原因是度假或探亲访友,主要目的地是加利福尼亚和纽约。Forecasts for tourism to China are less rosy. Last year, overall visits by foreign tourists to China were down by 3.3 percent from 2012, a decline attributed to a stagnant global economy, the rising value of the renminbi and reports of environmental pollution in China. According to a study published by Travel China Guide, a leading online tour operations company in China, there were 3.1 million visits by Americans to China last year on tourist visas, making up 11.8 percent of tourists. That ranked them third after visitors from Asia and Europe.对来华旅游的预测则没有那么乐观。去年,来华旅游的外国游客人次同比下降3.3%。造成游客人次减少的原因包括全球经济停滞不前、人民币升值,以及有关中国环境污染的报道。中国领先的在线旅行社“旅游中国指南”发布的一项研究表明,去年有310万美国人持旅游签前往中国,占全部外国游客人数的11.8%。Still, the new visa regulations have the potential of attracting more Americans to China.然而,新的签规定可能会吸引更多美国人前往中国。“The new policy will make a lot of things easier, and help people avoid some troublesome aspects of getting a work permit,” said Amber James, 24, from West Palm Beach, Fla., who is a counselor at Elite Scholars China, an organization in Beijing that prepares Chinese high school students for admission to American colleges. “If I’m going to be in China long term, this is an avenue I’d definitely go.”“新政策会让很多事变得更容易,帮人避免了在获取工作许可时,可能遇到的一些麻烦,”24岁的安贝尔·詹姆斯(Amber James)说。她来自佛罗里达州西棕榈滩,目前在北京名为“中国精英学者”(Elite Scholars China)的一家机构担任顾问。该机构的业务是指导中国高中生申请美国大学。“我会长期待在中国,我肯定会申请这种签。” /201411/342286

  While vacationing in the Bahamas earlier this year, Zac Posen posted a couple of sunset snaps to his Instagram account — and each one drew more than 6,000 “likes.”今年早些时候,扎克·珀森于巴哈马度假期间,在Instagram上贴了几张落日的快照,每张都收到了6000多个“赞”。“Immediately my followers were asking to see a print in those hues,” the designer said. “So I worked with my team to digitalize the print and blow it up on a crepe de Chine.” The resulting cerulean and pink silk became a maxi dress in the ZAC Zac Posen spring 2015 collection.“后来很快就有关注我的人想看用这些色印成的图案,”这位设计师说。“所以我和团队就把图案数码化,并且放大印刷在双绉纱上。”最后他们用这款天蓝与粉红的丝绸制成了扎克·扎克·珀森(ZAC Zac Posen)2015年春夏时装系列中的一件长裙。Mr. Posen, who has more than 640,000 Instagram followers, describes the online feedback from fans and customers as essential to his design process. “Through the comments and pictures, we get a new perspective about our creations,” he said.珀森在Instagram上有64万个关注者,他说粉丝和客户在网络上的反馈对于自己的设计来说非常重要。“通过和图片,我们可以用新的视角去审视作品,”他说。There was a time when a fashion designer’s inspiration came from a journey to Rajasthan, the Serengeti or perhaps the Russian steppes, along with feedback from buyers and the occasional client. Now, it’s more likely to be a speedy trip through some online sites, with followers as traveling companions. As Clare Waight Keller of Chloé observed: “A mood board that would have taken a few weeks of solid research now can be assembled in an afternoon on Instagram.”曾几何时,装设计师们到拉贾斯坦邦、塞伦盖蒂平原或俄罗斯大草原之类地方旅行,以图寻找灵感,并从买手或偶尔从客户那里求得反馈。如今浏览几个网站就像是做了一次快速旅行,而关注者们就像是旅伴。正如蔻依(Chloé)的克莱尔·维特·凯勒(Clare Waight Keller)所说,“过去做时装设计的情绪板(mood board)需要几个星期的切实调研,如今花一下午从Instagram上搜罗素材就可以了。”The fashion industry’s pace today has made it hard to find time for travel beyond the virtual kind, Ms. Waight Keller said, with exploratory trips and gallery visits increasingly difficult to squeeze into the dizzying demand for collections. For example, as creative director at Chloé and See By Chloé, she oversees the creation of eight collections a year, including resort and prefall.维特·凯勒说,如今时装界的步调令设计师们很难有时间去进行真实的旅行,系列设计的需求让人晕头转向,想挤出时间做探索和考察、逛美术馆变得愈来愈困难。就拿她本人来说,身为蔻依和丝蔻(See By Chloe,蔻依的副牌——编注)的创意总监,她每年要监制八个系列,包括一个度假系列和一个早秋系列。“When I started out, being a great researcher was part of your arsenal as a designer. You had to be resourceful and to have knowledge, you had to visit libraries, meet with textile dealers and actually discover stuff,” said Ms. Waight Keller, who describes her own method as a mix of “digital and pre-Internet approaches.”维特·凯勒表示: “我刚起步的时候,做一个出色的调研者也是设计师的重要方法之一。你得拥有很多资源和知识,得去图书馆、会见面料经销商,还要自己去发现素材。”她说自己目前的方式就像是混合了“数码方式与前互联网时代的方式”。And while she admits that Instagram can be “mesmerizing,” she worries that reflection and research skills are being bypassed in favor of quick but superficial browsing online. “Often when I’m asked to judge projects at art schools, it’s clear that everything comes from a Google search and too often the results lack any depth,” she said.她承认Instagram很“迷人”,也担心在当今快速而肤浅的网络浏览趋势之下,思考与研究的习惯正在为人们所忽略。“在艺术学校,我经常被要求评判学生设计的项目,显然所有东西都是用谷歌搜索来的,这种结果通常缺乏深度,”她说。Erdem Moralioglu has seen his business grow alongside the rise of digital technology and social media: Twitter debuted in 2006, the same year Erdem did during London Fashion Week.艾尔丹姆·莫拉里奥格鲁(Erdem Moralioglu)认为自己的企业是随着数码科技与社交媒体的崛起一同成长的:2006年出现了Twitter,同年,艾尔丹姆品牌登陆伦敦时装周。The London-based designer says he routinely scours Tumblr, and checks Instagram obsessively. “Instagram has definitely filtered into my approach to design; I love the idea of curated images, the idea of juxtaposing images that don’t connect — it’s a way of finding obscure things,” he said, citing Xavier Dolan, a Montreal film director; Michel Gaubert, the Paris-based D.J. and producer; Grace Coddington; and Sotheby’s as his current Instagram favorites.这位伦敦设计师说,自己每天都要浏览Tumblr,还要强迫症般地检查Instagram。“毫无疑问,Instagram已经渗入我的设计方式;我喜欢收集图像、把不相关的图像放在一起——这样可以发现模糊隐蔽的事物。”他表示,蒙特利尔导演泽维尔·多兰(Xavier Dolan)、巴黎DJ与制作人米凯尔·戈贝尔(Michel Gaubert)、格蕾丝·科丁顿(Grace Coddington)以及苏富比拍卖行的Instagram是他目前最喜欢的账户。But Mr. Moralioglu said such social media rambles remained a “secondary resource” for inspiration.但莫拉里奥格鲁也说,漫游社交媒体仍然只是灵感的“二手资源”。“The thing with social media is that it can become a bit of a vortex that sucks you in and suddenly the afternoon is gone,” he said. “I still find looking at something ‘real’ sharpens my creative focus.” So the initial sparks for his spring 2015 y-to-wear collection came from a trip to Kew Gardens to see the paintings of the Victorian botanist Marianne North and a “back to front” silk gazar fabric that he spotted at Première Vision, the textile trade show in Paris.“社交媒体的问题在于,它可以成为一股把你吸进去的漩涡,突然之间,整个下午就消磨过去了,”他说。“我仍然觉得,观察某些‘真实’的东西可以令自己的创意关注点更加敏锐。”所以,他的2015春夏成衣系列最初的灵感是来自去英国皇家植物园旅游的经历,他在那里看到维多利亚时期植物学家玛丽安娜·诺斯(Marianne North)的绘画作品;此外灵感还来自他在巴黎“第一视觉”面料展上看到的一种“被反挂着”的、饰有金属亮片的透明丝绸织物。For designers, the distinction between social media’s function as a communication tool and as a creative resource has become blurry, said Rachel Arthur, a fashion trend forecaster at WGSN in New York who specializes in digital developments. “We’re getting to a point where marketing and design go hand-in-hand, especially in the U.S. where designers have to be super-commercial,” she said. “Yes, creativity is paramount, but the vision of the designer has to marry with where you see your customer. It’s about listening.”纽约WGSN公司专门负责数码潮流发展的的时尚预报者瑞秋·阿瑟(Rachel Arthur)说,设计师们既把社交媒体作为交流工具,也用它寻找创意灵感,二者之间的界限很模糊。“在目前的阶段,市场与设计密不可分,特别是在美国,所以设计师们都得特别有商业头脑,”她说。“是的,创作是至高无上的,但设计师的想法必须同客户的需求结合。这关乎倾听。”For example, the Proenza Schouler designers Jack McCollough and Lazaro Hernandez claimed Tumblr as a point of reference for their spring 2013 collection, citing the social media platform’s unexpected juxtapositions of imagery and all-but-infinite content.比如,普罗恩萨·施罗(Proenza Schouler)的设计师杰克·麦克卢尔(Jack McCollough)与拉扎洛·赫南德兹(Lazaro Hernandez)说,他们2013春夏系列的设计就从Tumblr上得到了灵感,并说社交媒体平台出人意料地将想像力与无穷无尽的内容融为一体。The technological change also challenges old ideas about the designer as lone artist. “Fashion needs to start listening and start sharing,” said Julie Anne Quay, founder of the fashion social network VFiles, which has 60,000 users. “If you look at our news feed there are images by Meisel and Testino, but there are also images by a 16-year-old style blogger in Ukraine and a new designer from Korea. They are all in the same place, no one has any hierarchy over each other. That’s what fashion looks like now.”技术的变革也挑战了那种将设计师视为孤独艺术家的旧观念。“时尚界需要开始倾听和分享了,”时尚社交媒体网站VFiles的创始人朱莉·安妮·奎伊(Julie Anne Quay)说,该网站目前有六万名用户。“我们的新闻推送里有梅塞尔(Meisel)和特斯迪诺(Testino)拍摄的照片,但也有16岁的乌克兰时尚客写手与韩国新锐设计师的作品。他们都在同一个平台上,没有凌驾于他人之上的等级观念。现在的时尚就是这个样子。”Rebecca Minkoff, a New York designer who has been quick to embrace digital developments, said she feels there still is a distinction between crowdsourcing — creation through online collaboration — and using social media as a sounding board. “For me, it’s about understanding a trend,” she said, “so if my Instagram followers are really into wide-leg pants, that definitely feeds into the design process.”纽约设计师丽贝卡·敏科夫(Rebecca Minkoff)很快就接受了数码科技的发展,她认为,把社交媒体视为大众资源——即通过在网络上收集的素材进行创作,以及使用社交媒体作为宣传工具,二者之间还是有区别的。“对于我来说,重要的是理解潮流,”她说,“所以,如果我Instagram上的关注者们真的喜欢阔腿裤,这种趋势肯定会反馈到设计过程中去。”Actually, she added, presenting her creations on social media also has become a design consideration. “People are manipulating photos to show their best self,” Ms. Minkoff said. “That’s influenced me to think about how a piece will photograph, whether the colors are saturated enough to withstand filters, and how print will translate.”事实上,她还说,把自己的作品在社交媒体上展示也成了设计决策的一部分。“人们调整、修改照片,呈现自己最好的一面,”敏科夫说,“这也影响了我,去思考一件作品应当怎样去拍摄,色的饱和度是否适合滤镜,印出的成品又将如何转换呈现。”Rebecca Arnold, a lecturer in fashion history at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London, believes that the job of a fashion designer is at a pivotal moment: “Right now you have designers who are adapting, rather than people who have grown up with this technology; it will be interesting to see what happens with the next generation.”伦敦考陶尔德艺术学院的时装史讲师丽贝卡·阿诺德(Rebecca Arnold)认为,时装设计师这一工作目前正处于转折点:“现在的设计师是在努力适应环境,而并不是随着这种技术一起成长,下一代的情况会非常有趣。”And part of the shift will be designing for a millennial customer who also has grown up with social media, she added.她还说,这种变迁也是为千禧一代客户所打造,这一代也是同社交媒体一起成长的。Considering recent collections, Dr. Arnold said that the “visual collage of cultural references” used by the Marc by Marc Jacobs designers Luella Bartley and Katie Hillier were a “savvy digital response” to the Instagram generation.至于最近的时装系列,阿诺德士说,马克·雅克布之马克(Marc by Marc Jacobs)品牌的设计师卢埃拉·巴特利(Luella Bartley)和凯蒂·希尔里尔(Katie Hillier)那种“有文化指涉的视觉拼贴”是对Instagram一代“颇具见地的数码回应”。 /201412/347255


  Chinese cuisine is known for its taste and philosophical and aesthetic qualities. It is closely tied to the development of the 5 000-year-old Chinese civilization. It is also related to the development of tourism in China-well known scenic spots are associated with well-known dishes named after the spots. There is for example“fried Yellow River carp with sweet and sour sauce; of Shandong,and“Hupao vegetarian ham; and“West Lake water shield soup; of Hangzhou。中国的菜肴因其味道可口并具有哲学和美学品质而闻名。这是与中国五千年的文明发展息息相关的。这还与中国旅游业的发展相联系—著名的景点都有以景点命名的知名菜肴。例如,山东的“糖醋黄河鲤鱼”,杭州的“虎跑素火腿”和“西湖药菜汤”。Chinese cuisine devotes meticulous attention to the color,smell,taste,shape,sound and vessel of food.“Sound; refers to the crispiness of food,especially for such dishes as Sichuan#39;s“sizzling rice crust with three delicacies.”When a steaming hot sauce made of shrimp and other delicacies is poured on freshly fried rice crust, a sizzling sound will be heard which signals kinds of containers,and dishes. happiness to the Chinese.“Vessel”refers to the different such as porcelain,pottery and silverware,for different tables。中国菜肴十分注意食物的色、香、味、形、声、器。“声”指的是食物松脆程度,尤其是四川的“三鲜锅巴”等菜肴。当由虾子和其他鲜美食品煮成的热酱浇在刚炸出来的锅巴上时,就可以听到吱吱的声音,这对于中国人来说象征着幸福。“器”指的是不同种类的盛放器皿,例如瓷器、陶器以及银器,它们适用于不同的桌子和菜肴。Chinese food can be classified into six categories:中国食品可以分为下列六大类:1. Local dishes.1.地方莱肴This refers to a class of dishes with very strong local flavors that came into existence in line with local products,climate and customs. Among the most well known local dishes are“sea cucumber braised with scallion; of Shandong,“hot and spicy hot pot; of Sichuan.这一类指的是带有浓厚地方风味的菜肴,它们是伴随着当地的农产品、气候以及习俗而产生的。其中最出名的地方菜肴就是山东的“葱烧海参”和四川的“香辣火锅”。2. Royal dishes.2.宫廷菜肴These used to be prepared by the imperial kitchen for emperors and empresses. Usually,they are fancifully named and exquisitely prepared with the best ingredients. Among the most famous are“all birds pay court to the phoenix; and “swastika-shaped braised pork slices.”这些菜肴过去是由御膳房为皇帝和皇后烹制的。它们通常都有神奇的名称并且选用最好的配料精心制作而成。其中最有名的就是“百鸟朝凤”以及“万字扣肉”。3. Family dishes.3.家族菜肴These used to be reserved for high-ranking bureaucrats and celebrities.But they were subsequently adopted by ordinary people. Among the most famous family dishes are Confucian-style and Tan-family style. In addition,“Dongpo Pork;“diced chicken stir-fried with chili and peanuts; are also popular dishes.这些过去是由高级官员和名人所享用的。但是最终还是进人了寻常百姓家。最有名的家族菜肴莫过于孔府菜和谭府菜。,此外,“东坡肉”和“宫爆鸡丁”也是深受欢迎的菜肴。4. Ethnic food.4.民族食品These originated in minority-inhabited areas,and became popular nationwide. Famous ethnic dishes include roast beef,“sliced mutton hot pot; and shashliks.这些指的是发源于少数民族居住地区并风靡全国的食品。出名的民族菜肴包括烧牛肉、羊肉火锅以及烤肉串。5. Vegetarian food.5.素食Because most monks eat vegetarian food,it is also known as“monastery dishes.”There are a wide variety of flavors. These dishes are often cooked in such a way as to look and taste exactly like meat and fish.由于大多数僧人都吃素食,因此这也被称为“斋饭”。它有各种各样的风味。这些菜肴的烹饪方式经常使其看上去、吃起来就仿佛是肉和鱼一样。6. Medicinal dishes, or food therapy.6.药膳或食疗The Chinese believe that mixing tonics with food adds flavor to the food and is good for health. Famed medicinal dishes include“lily decoction with chicken; and “porridge with lotus seeds and lily.”中国人认为将补药和食物放在一起既可以丰富食物的味道又有益于健康。有名的药膳包括“百合鸡汤”和“莲子百合粥”。Chinese Food-Eight Regional Variations中国的八大地方菜系The late Chairman Mao once remarked that China#39;s greatest contributions to the world are traditional Chinese medicines and Chinese food. To testify to the popularity of Chinese food,a piece of Western humor has it that the happiest man in the world is one who earns an American salary,lives in an English house,is married to a Japanese woman and eats Chinese food!毛主席生前曾经说过,中国对世界的最大贡献就在于传统中药和中国食品。有一则西方幽默可以明中国食品的受欢迎程度:世界上最幸福的人就是拿美国的薪水、住英国的房子、娶日本老婆、吃中国食物的人!Gourmets agree that Chinese cuisine is the only one that combines all the qualities of others. Some say French food is good for the flavor, Greek food for the smell,and Japanese for the ritual. But Chinese food has all these qualities and more.美食家一致认为中国的菜肴是唯一结合了其他国家菜肴优点的。有些人说法国菜的优点在于口味,希腊菜的优点在于香味,日本菜的优点在于礼节。但是中国菜除了所有这些长处还有别的优点。Chinese cuisine has a number of different genres,but the most influential and typical known by the public are the“Eight Cuisines;.These are as follows:Shandong Cuisine,Sichuan Cuisine,Guangdong Cuisine,Fujian Cuisine,Jiangsu Cuisine,thejiang Cuisine,Hunan Cuisine,and Anhui Cuisine .The essential factors that establish the form of a genre are complex and include history,cooking features,geography, climate,resources and life styles. Cuisines from different reqions are so distinctive that sometimes despite the fact that two areas are geographical neighbors their styles are completely alien.中国的菜肴拥有许多种不同的流派,但是最具影响力并且最为公众所熟悉的就是“八大菜系”。它们是:鲁菜、川菜、粤菜、闽菜、苏菜、浙菜、湘菜以及徽菜。确定一种流派形式的关键要素十分复杂,而且包括历史、烹调特征、地理、气候、资源以及生活方式。不同地区的菜肴各具特色,因此尽管有时两个地区相互毗邻,但是它们的风格完全不同。Shandong Cuisine鲁菜This is the local flavor of Jinan City and Jiaodong Peninsula derived from the use of shallots and garlic. Both restaurant chefs and housewives are expert in cooking seafood,soups, meat and offal. The recipes are those that once delighted the royal court and were served to the emperor. The typical can indude many delicate dishes such as:这是济南市和胶东半岛的地方风味,它使用葱和蒜。饭店厨师和家庭主妇都是烹制海鲜、汤、肉和内脏的行家。这些菜谱曾经取悦了皇家并且由皇帝享用。它的特色菜单包括许多精美的菜肴,例如:Braised abalone一一smooth,delicate, fresh and savory.红烧鲍鱼—光滑、精美、新鲜、美味。Sweet and Sour Carp-with crisp exterior and tender fish interior,a little sweet and sour.糖醋鲤鱼—外表松脆,里面鲜嫩,微甜、微酸。;Eight Immortals Crossing Sea Teasing Arhats; This is a starter before a celebration feast. It is luxurious and traditionally uses its eight main ingredients: fin,sea cucumber,abalone,asparagus,prawns and ham. The stock is flavored with fish#39;s swimming bladder and fish bones. These symbolize the eight immortals and the Arhats are symbolized by the inclusion of chicken breast.八仙过海闹罗汉—这是喜庆宴会的第一道菜。这道菜十分豪华,它传统上使用八种主要配料:鱼翅、海参、鲍鱼、芦笋、对虾以及火腿食料要用鱼缥和鱼骨来调味。这些象征着八仙,而罗汉(相当于佛教中的圣徒)则用鸡脯来象征。Guangdong Cuisine粤菜Guangdong cuisine takes fine and rare ingredients and is cooked with fished skills and in a dainty style. It emphasizes a flavor which is clear but not light, refreshing but not common,tender but not crude. In summer and autumn it pursues clarity and in winter and spring, a little more substance. The sauteed dishes always rely upon exquisite presentation involving excellent cutting and carving skills. Typical here can embody these following characteristics:粤菜采用了精美、珍稀的配料,而且采用了精致、爽口的烹调技巧。粤菜强调口味清爽但不清淡,提神但不落俗套,鲜嫩但不粗糙。在夏季与秋季,粤菜追求的是清爽;而在冬季和春季则比较注重实质。炒菜经常采用精美的外表,这就需要精湛的切菜技巧。它的特色菜单包括以下这些特征:Chrysanthemum fish-chefs with adept cutting techniques shape the fish like chrysanthemums,each individual morsel being convenient to enjoy with either chopsticks or forks.菊花鱼—拥有高超切菜功夫的厨师将鱼做成菊花形状,每一片鱼都十分便于用筷子或又子食用。Braised snake porridge-of rare meat of cobra,grimalkin,and pullet,braised elaborately,also called“Dragon and tiger contending;(Long Hu Dou).烩蛇粥—选用珍贵的眼镜蛇肉、雌猫肉、仔鸡肉进行烩制,它也被称作“龙虎耳一”。Roast suckling pig-a famed dish with rather long history,golden and crisp exterior, and tender meat inside,with dense aroma.烤乳猪—这是一道拥有悠久历史的名菜,它外面是金黄色的松脆外壳,里面则是粉嫩的肉,香气浓郁。Fujian Cuisine闽菜Fujian cuisine has four distinctive features, that is,fine cutting techniques,various soups,unique seasonings, and exquisite cooking. Chefs can always cut the thin jellyfish into three pieces and into very thin th. And thanks to the abundant resources of marine products,the soup of this cuisine genre has its freshness and keeps its own savor with ease. The seasonings add sweet and sour flavors to the dishes. To add to its appeal the food is served in or on elegant bowls or plates.闽菜有四个与众不同的特征,这就是精美的切菜技巧、各种汤菜、独特的作料以及精湛的烹饪。厨师总是能够将薄薄的海蜚切成三片,然后再切成非常细的丝。而且由于当地海产品资源丰富,因此该菜系的汤菜十分鲜美,而且很容易保持其本身的香味。作料则让菜肴具有甜味和酸味。食物是用雅致的碗或盘子盛放的,这增加了它的吸引力。Appealing dishes are countless,so we can only enumerate some of them:由于诱人的菜肴难以一一列举,因此我们只举出几道菜肴:Fried golden bamboo shoot with chicken mince-every 100g of winter bamboo shoots will be cut into 500一600 strips with the same length and bth. Then they can blend with the very small pieces of chicken.鸡茸金丝笋—每一百克冬笋要切成500至600片,并且长度和宽度相等。然后将它们与非常小的鸡肉混合在一起。Buddha jumping over the wall-the most famous and classical dish,which has a long history since the Qing Dynasty.佛跳墙—这是最有名、最经典的一道菜,它起源于清朝,历史悠久。Dongbi dragon pearl-it chooses materials from the rare longyan trees of thousand year#39;s history in Kaiyuan Temple in Auanzhou,the delicate scent is rather catching.东壁龙珠—它选用泉州开元寺中有着上千年历史的珍稀龙眼树上的龙眼,它那柔和的清香十分诱人。;Fried Xi Shi#39;s tongue; is made from the locally produced Fujian mussel. According to the legend of the concubine,Xi Shi,of the king of the state of Wu was thrown in the sea tied to a huge stone by the wife of Gou Jian,the king of Yue who destroyed Wu,to prevent her husband being seduced by her beauty. In the area of the sea where she sank, a special breed of mussel appeared and this was said to be Xi Shi#39;s tongue.炒西施舌选用当地出产的福建海蚌制成。传说越国国王勾践灭了吴国之后,吴国国王的妃子西施被勾践的妻子绑在一块大石头上面投人大海,以防止自己的丈夫被西施的美貌所勾引。在她沉入的海中出现了一种品种特殊的海蚌,据说这就是西施的舌头。Anhui Cuisine徽菜It is mainly composed of local flavors of Huizhou and other areas along the Yangtze River and the Huai River. Among the dishes on the hui cuisine ,you will find fried or quick-fled dishes than those that are braised. People here are indined to add ham as seasoning and sugar candy to enrich the freshness and are quite accomplished in the art of cooking。它主要由徽州以及长江和淮河沿岸地区的地方风味组成。在徽菜菜单上,人们会发现油煎或爆炒的菜肴要比煮的菜肴少。当地人倾向于将火腿用作作料并用冰糖提鲜,而且在烹饪艺术上十分精湛。Among these delicacies,some of the traditional ones are eye-catching:在这些美食中,有些传统美食十分抢眼:;Braised turtle with ham;-the oldest dish using the special ;Mati turtle;. The delightful taste of this dish has inspired poets。火腿炖甲鱼—这是最古老的一道菜,它选用特殊的马蹄鳖。这道菜令人愉悦的口味激起过文人墨客的诗兴。;Fuliji grilled chicken; the cooking technique was derived from Dezhou braised chicken of Shandong Province,with improvement of the technique by chefs at Fuliji. The grilled chicken is golden and tempting,and the meat is so well cooked that it falls easily from the bone.符离集烧鸡—它的烹饪技巧来自于山东省的德州扒鸡,并由符离集的厨师对其技巧进行了改进。烧鸡呈金黄色并且十分诱人,鸡肉的烹饪十分精湛,因此很容易从骨头上剥离。Jiangsu Cuisine苏菜Jiangsu cuisine developed from the local recipes of Yangzhou,Suzhou and Nanjing. Its main cooking techniques are braising and stewing,thereby preserving the original flavor and sauce. The elegant color,novel sculpts, with salt and sweet taste will soothe your stomach. The Jiangsu cuisine has several branches,including Shanghai cuisine,Nanjing cuisine is known for its duck recipes,Suxi cuisine with flowery hue,etc. the most highly recommended courses are:苏莱是从扬州、苏州以及南京的当地菜谱发展而来的。它主要的烹制手法是煮和炖,因此保持了原汁原味。精美的颜色、新奇的造型、再加上注重咸味和甜味,因此定能让您大快朵颐。苏菜分为几个分,其中包括上海菜、因鸭肴而闻名的南京菜、色斑斓的苏锡菜等,强烈推荐下面几道菜:Three sets of ducks-an interlinking dish,that is to put pigeon into wild duck, then put the wild duck into a fowl duck. When stewed,the fowl duck is tender, the wild one crisp,and the little pigeon delicate!三套鸭—这道菜是一个连环套,要把鸽子放在野鸭里面,然后把野鸭放进家鸭里面‘。当菜炖好之后,家鸭鲜嫩、野鸭松嫩、小鸽子则味道鲜美。Boiled dry th of Tofu-thanks to the exquisite skills of chefs,the tofu can be cut into very thin ths which have chances to absorb the savor of soup.When chicken pieces added to the soup,the dish is called“chicken dry th;;likewise,when shrimp added,it makes“shrimp dry th;.大煮干丝—由于厨师技艺的精湛,豆腐可以切成非常细的丝,因而有机会将汤的味道吸收进去。当把鸡块加到汤里时,菜肴便被称作“鸡汁干丝”;同理,如果将虾子加进去的话,它便成了“虾汁干丝”。Lion#39;s head braised with crab-powder there is a metaphor in the dish name. In actual fact the Lion#39;s head is a conglomeration of meat that is shaped like a sunflower and resembles a lion#39;s head. It can be braised in a clear soup,or be red-cooked in a dense soup. A seasoning of crab powder enhances the flavor.清炖蟹粉狮子头—这道菜的名字是形象的说法。实际上,这个狮子头是用肉聚在一起做成向日葵的外形,而且这和狮子头十分相似。它既可以放在清汤里炖也可以放在浓汤里红烧。如果加人蟹粉作调料的话则可以让味道更棒。Zhejiang Cuisine浙菜As Zhejiang cuisine consists of hundreds of small delicacies from its main tities,it takes in Hangzhou#39;s fineness and diversification,Ningbo#39;s softness and origfinality, and Shaoxing#39;s pastoral interests. Hangzhou,once the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty(1127一1279),it is customary to endow cuisine with dainty place-names. The chief techniques of cooking lie in the methods used such as frying,quicking,stir一ing,braising,and steaming thus rendering the dishes both salubrious and savory.由于浙菜包含了几大城市中数百道小吃,因此它有杭州菜的精致和多样、宁波菜的清鲜和原汁原味以及绍兴菜的田园魅力。杭州曾经是南宋(1127一1279)的首都,当地菜肴通常以秀美的地名命名。烹饪的主要技巧在于所使用的方法,例如炸、爆炒、炒、炖、煮,因此使菜肴既有助于健康又美味可口。West-lake braised fish in vinegar-a traditional delicacy in Hangzhou. It is said that there was once a boy who made his living by fishing. When he fell ill his sister-in-law fished for him and braised the fish she caught with a marinade of vinegar and sugar. He was said to have made an immediate recovery after eating it.The boy#39;s story aroused the attention of the emperor and the recipe has been used ever since.西湖醋鱼一这是杭州的一道传统美食。据说,曾经有一个男孩以为生外当他生病时,他的嫂嫂便为他,然后将捕来的鱼放到糖醋汁中炖。据说他吃了以后立刻病就痊愈了。这位男孩的故事引起了皇帝的注意,从此以后这道菜谱便沿用至今。Shelled shrimps cooked in Longjing tea-as the Longjing tea is taken as the best tea in Hangzhou,which is reputed for greenness,fragrance,pure taste and elegant looks,when the living shrimps are stir-fried in the longjing,the dish sends a refreshing aroma and is quite delicious.龙井虾仁—由于龙井茶是杭州最好的茶叶,并且因为其绿、香、纯以及美妙的外观而闻名。当把活虾剥壳后与龙井茶一起翻炒的时候,这道菜便散发出沁人的香味并且极为可口。Sichuan Cuisine川菜This combinesthe cuisines from Chengdu and Chongqing. From as early as the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911),books had systematically recorded a total of 38 cooking methods,such as scalding,baking,mixing,and stewing,etc. It features pungent seasonings which were famed as“Three Peppers;(Chinese prickly ash,pepper and hot pepper ),“three aroma;(shallot, ginger,and garlic),“Seven Tastes ;(sweet,sour, tingling,spicy,bitter,piquant, and salfir),and“Eight Flavors”(fish-flavored,sour with spice,pepper-tingling,odd flavor, tingling with spice,red spicy oily,ginger sauce,and home cooking ).川菜包括成都和重庆的菜肴。从清代起(1644一1911),就有书籍系统地记录了总共38种烹饪方法例如烫、烘、和、炖等。它的特点就在于使用了辛辣的作料,这些佐料是“三椒”(辣椒、胡椒、花椒),“三味”(葱、姜、蒜),“七味”(甜、酸、麻、香、苦、辣、咸),“八味”(鱼香、酸辣、椒麻、怪味、麻辣、红油、姜汁、家常)。Delicious dishes:美味菜肴:Stir-fried tofu with minced beef in spicy bean sauce-A real feast of tender bean curd,minced beef, pepper and bean sauce. It is said that it was made by a pock-marked but ingenious woman. Hence the name Ma Po Tofu(pock-marked woman#39;s bean curd).麻婆豆腐—这是用嫩豆腐、碎牛肉、辣椒以及豆酱做成的一道真正的美食。据说它是由一位麻脸但却极具创造天赋的妇女做成的,因此起名叫麻婆豆腐。;lamp-shadow beef;-the beef is cut in very thin sheet. When a piece is car-ried,it looks like translucent paper, slippery and reddish. When put under the lamp or light,a red shadow will appear.灯影牛肉—它将牛肉切成非常薄的片状。当拿起一片牛肉时,看上去就像一张半透明的纸一样,十分光滑并且略带红色。当把它拿到灯光下时,就会出现红色的阴影。;Lung pieces by the couple;-a quite popular in Chengdu. It got the name because the dish was ever sold be a couple and today it remains the original savor, tender meat,tingling and spicy.夫妻肺片—这道菜在成都相当受欢迎。它这个名称的由来是因为这道菜曾经由一对夫妻卖的,今天它依然保留了原先的味道,肉嫩、麻辣。;Gong bao ji ding;-This is a tender chicken dish,tender as the meat is quickly fried. Flavored with peanuts,this is tasty and very popular.宫爆鸡丁—这道菜使用了嫩鸡肉,因为它是快速煎炸而成的。加了花生之后它便十分可口了,而且深受青睐。Hunan Cuisine湘菜Hunan cuisine lays a stress on the use of oil,dense color, and techniques that produce crispness,softness and tenderness as well as the savory flavors and spices. Stewed fins,fried fresh cabbage with chestnuts,Dong Anzi chicken,immortal chicken with five elements,are of the highest reputation. Chairman Mao, together with other leaders praised the Hunan cuisine in 1958.湘菜强调油重、色浓,而且所采用的手艺使菜肴具有脆、软、嫩的特点并有可口的香味和辣味。红艰鱼翅、板栗烧菜心、东安仔鸡、五元神仙鸡都是最出名的菜肴。毛主席以及其他领导人在1958年都对湖南菜给予了赞誉。;Stewed fins;-it had been famous during the Qing Dynasty. Choice fins,chickens,pork are stewed in chicken soup and sauce,tasting really fresh and mellow.红偎鱼翅—它闻名于清朝。它选用鱼翅、鸡肉、猪肉放在鸡汤和酱油中偎制而成,品尝起来极为鲜美醇香。;Immortal chicken with five elements;-a dish made by putting five elements,litchi,longyan,red dates,lotus seeds,and medlar, into the body of a chicken,then to braise. The taste is rather peculiar and it is said to have the effect of strengthening the constitution.五元神仙鸡—指将五种要素,荔枝、龙眼、红枣、莲子以及拘祀放入一只鸡的体内,然后开始炖鸡。它的味道十分独特而且据说能够强身健体。Other Cuisines其他菜肴There are also other delicious cuisines such as Beijing cuisine,Dongbei cuisine,Uygur cuisine and Hubei cuisine. As the capital of China,Beijing always offers a vast variety of dishes from all over the country. Consequently,no matter where you visit, there will be fascinating food that you can enjoy.在其他地方也有美味,例如北京菜、东北菜、维吾尔菜以及湖北菜。北京作为中国的首都,总是能让人们品尝到全国各地的各种菜肴。因此,无论您前往哪个地方,都可以享受到美味的食物。Chinese Medicinal Cuisine中国的药膳Chinese medicinal cuisine is a long standing tradition.Early records show that it was in use as far back as the Han Dynasty(206 一220 ).Through continual improvement during the succeeding dynasties,it has developed into a practical science of nutrition. This is not a simple combination of food and traditional medicine, but it is a distinctive cuisine made from food and medicinal ingredients following the theory of Chinese medicine.中国的药膳拥有悠久的传统。早期的记录显示,早在汉朝(公元前206至公元220年)人们就开始用药膳。通过以后各朝各代的不断改良,药膳已经发展成一门实用的营养科学。这并不是简单地将食物和传统药物相混合,而是按照中医理论将食物和药物成分制作成与众不同的菜肴。This not only became the means of health-preservation among the people of China,but also sp abroad,especially popular in Southeast Asia.There is a wide choice of foods that are used in many different.ways to promote health.It is estimated that there are more than 600 different kinds of resources ranging from cereals fruits,vegetables , meats and marine products. Many of these will be unfamiliar to foreigners;however all are quite precious and effective in the field of medicinal food.Many different ingredients are used to add to the appeal as well as to strengthen effects of the cuisine. Wine,sugar, oil,sah, vinegar and honey,and other commonly used items such as almonds,mandarin orange,or peanuts,all are utilized in the cooking process.这不仅成为中国人保养的一种方式,而且还走出了国门;它在东南亚尤其受欢迎。为了增进健康,可以选择多种多样的食物并使用不同的烹制方法。据估计,有600多种不同种类的资源可供选用,它们包括谷物、水果、蔬菜、肉类以及海产品。这些资源中有许多对于外国人来说很陌生,但是所有这些在药膳领域都十分珍贵并卓有功效。药膳使用了许多不同的配料来增加其吸引力并加强菜肴的药效。酒、糖、油、盐、醋、蜜以及其他常用的材料,例如杏仁、芦柑或是花生,所有这些都在烹饪过程中得以使用。According to its respective functions,medicinal cuisine is classified under four categories:health-protection dishes,prevention dishes,healing dishes and thera-peutic dishes.根据其各自的功用,药膳分为四类:保健菜肴、防病菜肴、康复菜肴以及治疗菜肴。Health-protection dishes refer to reinforcement of required nutritional food correspondingly to maintain the organic health. A soup of pumpkin and almond can help lose weight;soup of angelica and carp can add beauty; and ginseng congee can give more strength.保健菜肴指为了保持机体健康相应加强所需营养的食物。一份南瓜杏仁汤有助于减肥,当归鲤鱼汤则可以美容,而人参粥则可以增强体力。Prevention dishes build resistance to potential ailments.“Mung bean soup; is considered helpful as a guard against heat stroke in summer. Lotus seeds,lily, yam,chestnuts,and pears can assist in the prevention of dryness in autumn and a strengthening of resistance to cold in winter.防病菜肴增强了对可能患上疾病的抵抗力。人们认为绿豆汤在夏天有助于预防中暑。莲子、百合、山药、核桃以及桃子在秋天可以有助于防止干燥,并在冬季增强对感冒的抵抗力。Healing dishes are the medicinal food for rehabilitation after severe illness.“Broiled sheep#39;s heart with rose; or“braised mutton with angelica; will help to rebuild a healthy constitution.康复菜肴指用于重病之后帮助康复的药膳。玫瑰烤羊心或当归炖羊肉则有助于恢复健康的体质。Therapeutic dishes aim at the specific pathology.“Fried potatoes with vinegar; can adjust the organ and restrain hypertension and carp soup with Tuckahoe may enrich the strength of blood plasma albumen to help reduce swelling.治疗菜肴的目的是为了治疗特定的疾病。醋馏土豆可以调解器官并抑制高血压,而获荃鲤鱼汤则可以增强血浆蛋白的能力并有助于消肿。 /201506/378789

  After a wave of criticism online, administrators of the Confucius Temple in Beijing said they plan to replace a plaque bearing an inscription by Mo Yan, who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature.The wooden plaque features the characters “Qian Long Shi Jing,” or Stone Classics of Qian Long, and is the marker for an exhibition hall housing stone tablets engraved with excerpts from Confucian classics during the reign of the 18th-century emperor Qian Long. Three smaller characters indicate that the inscription is by Mr. Mo.在网上出现一波批评声音之后,北京孔庙的管理人员表示,他们将替换由2012年诺贝尔文学奖得主莫言题写的额匾。这块木匾上的汉字为“乾隆石经”,悬挂该牌匾的大厅里保存着18世纪乾隆皇帝统治时期留下的刻有儒家经典文字的石碑。额匾落款的三个小字写着“莫言题”。The plaque was installed in 2013, but a photograph and a scathing comment posted online this month set off a debate about the propriety of placing an inscription by a writer best known for his earthy tales of rural life in such a hallowed venue. Just as jarring to traditionalists is the fact that the characters were written left to right, instead of right to left, as is the norm in classical Chinese.这块额匾于2013年开始悬挂,不过,本月在网上出现的一张照片和一条犀利的引发了争论。争议之处在于,在这样一处圣地悬挂以创作通俗农村故事出名的作家的题字是否恰当。同样令恪守传统的人士不满的是,这几个汉字是从左往右写的,而中国古代的惯常写法是从右往左。In a comment posted on Sina Weibo on May 10, Ren Zhong, a researcher at the Confucius Institutes of Renmin University and the director of Rujia Net, a website devoted to Confucianism, wrote: “It is shocking that a plaque carved with Mo Yan’s writing has been displayed as the name plaque for the hall.” He also objected to the left-to-right order of the characters.人民大学孔子研究院研究员任重于5月10日在新浪微上发布了一条,其中写道:北京孔庙“在大厅门上悬挂莫言题写的牌匾,令人吃惊。”此外,他还谴责了这些题字从左往右的书写顺序。任重同时在儒家网担任主编,而这是一家致力于研究儒学的网站。The comment was reposted more than 400 times and attracted coverage in the state news media. Although modern Chinese writing usually runs left to right, many Weibo users criticized that usage at the temple, one of the most important Confucian institutions in China, as a sign of disrespect.这条帖子被转发了超过400次,官方新闻媒体也对其进行了报道。尽管当代中国书法的书写顺序通常是从左往右,但许多微用户批评,孔庙是中国最重要的儒学机构之一,这样的写法用在那里是一种不敬。“Wrong direction,” one commenter wrote under the name Mr. Li Eating Chestnuts With His Wife. “Are we abandoning our traditional culture now?”“方向错了,”一名叫做“李公子携眷吃栗子”的用户写道。“是连文化传统都不要了吗?”They also questioned whether being awarded a Nobel Prize qualified a writer to be honored in a place dedicated to ancient Chinese learning.他们还质疑,一名作家获了诺贝尔奖,是否就有资格为专事古经研习的地方题字?“The Nobel Prize is just a product representing Western culture,” one commenter wrote. “A Chinese who was awarded but refused the prize would be more qualified to provide the inscription.”“诺奖可是西方文化产物,”一名用户写道。“若以后有一国人得奖而拒之,应该比莫言更有资格为匾额提字。”In an interview, Chu Hung-lam, director of the Confucius Institute of Hong Kong, agreed that the plaque was at odds with convention. “It is kind of inappropriate for traditional buildings, although on rare occasions it does appear,” he said of the direction in which the inscription was engraved. “Traditionally, inscriptions run from right to left.”香港孔子学院院长朱鸿林(Chu Hung-lam)在采访中表示,他也认为这块额匾不合常规。“对于传统建筑而言,这有些不协调,尽管少数情况下的确会出现,”谈到题字方向时,他说。“传统上,题字是从右向左的。”The Beijing Municipal Administration of Cultural Heritage, which oversees the management of the temple and other cultural sites in the city, said that Mr. Mo had been invited to provide an inscription because of his literary accomplishments.负责管理北京地区庙宇等文化古迹的北京市文物局称,之所以邀请莫言题字,是因为他取得的文学成就。“We wanted to honor Mo Yan for his achievement as the first Chinese laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature,” the administration’s publicity department wrote in an email late Friday. “We also wanted to emphasize the importance of promoting traditional Chinese culture in modern society.”“这一举措,是为了表达对中国历史上第一位诺贝尔文学奖得主莫言先生的礼遇,”文物局宣传部周五晚些时候在电子邮件中称。“也藉此唤醒观众对中国文化特别是传统文化的推崇和重视,做到古为今用。”As for the decision to reverse the traditional order of the characters, it said: “In order to show that we are keeping up with modern developments, we followed the modern writing style and carved the inscription from left to right.”至于颠倒传统书写方向的决定,邮件说:“秉着尊重传统,与时俱进的原则,我們遵从现代书写方式,题写了该匾额。”After considering “suggestions from Internet users” and “with the agreement of Mo Yan,” however, the temple’s administrators have decided to replace the plaque with characters in the more traditional order. They did not say when this would happen.然而,在考虑“网民的意愿及合理性建议”和“征求莫言先生的意见”之后,孔庙的管理方决定用更符合传统顺序的题字来替换这块额匾。不过,他们并未披露将何时采取行动。 /201505/376273In 2009, after half a century of nearly unbroken rule, the Liberal Democratic party was finally drummed out of office by a new force in Japanese politics. The Democratic Party of Japan, led by Yukio Hatoyama, promised a new contract with the Japanese public and a new relationship between elected officials and the powerful bureaucracy. Yet when Hatoyama went to Washington the following April, he was shunned.在几乎未曾间断地执政半个世纪后,自民党(LDP)最终在2009年被日本政坛的新力量赶下台。由鸠山由纪夫(Yukio Hatoyama)领导的日本民主党(DPJ),承诺与日本民众签订新契约,并在民选官员和势力强大的官僚体系之间建立新的关系。然而,当翌年4月鸠山访问华盛顿时,他遭遇了冷遇。The ostensible reason was that Hatoyama had displeased Washington by reneging on a deal to build a new US Marine base on Okinawa. However, according to R Taggart Murphy, professor of international political economy at Tokyo’s Tsukuba university, Hatoyama was attempting much more than that: he wanted to regain the sovereignty that Japan had lost when it became a virtual “protectorate” of the US after 1945. “Japan cannot be an ally of the ed States — or anyone else — until it is first a sovereign state,” Taggart Murphy writes. In this view, one shared by many on both the Japanese right and the left, Japan remains essentially an occupied nation, subject to a US-written constitution and honeycombed by US military bases. Rather like Hatoyama, he recommends Japan taking responsibility for its own defence and seeking a new accommodation with China.表面上的原因是,鸠山拒绝履行冲绳美国海军基地新建协议,触怒了华盛顿。然而,东京筑波大学(University of Tsukuba)国际政治经济学教授塔R#8226;塔格特#8226;墨菲(R Taggart Murphy)认为,鸠山想要的比这多得多:他想收回日本1945年后成为美国事实上的“保护国”时所丧失的主权。墨菲写到:“在首先成为一个主权国家之前,日本无法做美国(或任何其他国家)的盟国。”这种观点(得到日本右翼和左翼的很多人认同)认为:日本本质上仍是一个被占领国,要遵守一部由美国制定的宪法,本土遍布美国军事基地。跟鸠山的观点相像,墨菲建议日本自己担负国防责任,并寻求与中国取得新的和解。Taggart Murphy knows his Japanese history. His theories about Japan’s political economy — of which more later — shed interesting light on the country. They can, however, be taken to extreme. In the case of Hatoyama, the author contends that he was brought down by Washington. Certainly, the US was disturbed by Hatoyama, who casually announced in an essay that he wanted to recast Japan’s relationship with the US and China, omitting to mention this sea-change in foreign policy to his allies in the US. But while US diplomats may have schemed against him, to lay his demise squarely at Washington’s door is too much. (To be fair, as well as the Pentagon and Japan-handlers in Washington, the author also blames the LDP, the Japanese bureaucracy, Beijing, Pyongyang and the 2011 earthquake. Only the kitchen sink, it seems, was not in on the conspiracy.)墨菲了解日本历史。他关于日本(当代)政治经济史的理论提供了一些有意思的观点,有助于我们了解这个国家。但是,有些观点可能有些过头。就鸠山来说,作者认为他是被华盛顿搞下台的。当然,美国被鸠山弄得心神不宁——他在一篇文章中漫不经心地地宣布,要重塑日本与美国以及中国的关系,但却没有向他在美国的盟友事先提及这一外交政策突变。虽然美国外交官可能曾密谋对付鸠山,但把他的下台完全归咎于华盛顿有点太过了。(平心而论,除五角大楼以及华盛顿负责处理日本事务者之外,作者还指责自民党、日本官僚体系、中国政府、朝鲜政府以及2011年那场地震应该为鸠山下台负责。看起来只有厨房里的水槽没有参与这场阴谋。)The book’s intellectual foundations owe much to Karel van Wolferen, whose classic The Enigma of Japanese Power (1989) revolutionised the way people thought about Japan. In Taggart Murphy’s hands, the crux of the theory is that power relations have not properly evolved from the quasi-feudal system that operated for more than 250 years when Japan was an isolated shogunate. Then the nominal head of state was the emperor, though in reality he was little more than a figurehead. The Meiji Restoration of 1868, which overthrew the existing order in order to protect Japan from encroaching colonialism, supposedly restored the emperor to his rightful position. Unlike in Europe, this was not a bourgeois revolution mounted from below, but a putsch organised by a clique of samurai. Japan, in other words, has never properly destroyed the old order, a state of affairs perpetuated when the US occupation ducked its chance to topple the emperor.这本书的知识基础大大得益于卡雷尔#8226;范沃尔夫伦(Karel Van Wolferen),后者关于日本的经典著作《日本:权力结构之谜》(The Enigma of Japanese Power,1989)彻底改变了人们对日本的认识。在墨菲笔下,这一理论的核心是,权力关系还没有真正超越半封建体制,这一体制在日本还是个孤立的幕府国家期间运转了超过250年。那时,名义上的国家元首是天皇,尽管实际上他不过是一个傀儡。1868年的明治维新 (Meiji Restoration)为保护日本免受殖民主义入侵而推翻了原有秩序,据信恢复了天皇应有的地位。与欧洲不同,这不是一场自下而上的资产阶级革命,而是由武士集团组织的一场政变。换句话说,日本从来没有完全摧毁其旧秩序,而美国在占领期间放弃废除天皇的机会,使这一状态得以永久化。There is much useful rumination here. The section on the Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868) is particularly well done, and there are also many colourful, often acerbic, observations about modern Japan — a foreigner working for a Japanese company, for example, is likened to a rap artist joining a string quartet. The tragedy of Japan, says the author, stems from the fact it merely grafted the trappings of a modern state on to its existing system. To this day, he contends, there continues to be a “yawning gap between the political reality in Japan and the fictions with which that reality” is understood.本书中有很多有益的思考。关于德川幕府时代(Tokugawa shogunate,1600-1868)的章节写得格外好,书中对现代日本也有许多生动(往往也很尖刻)的——例如,书中将一个效力于日本企业的外国人比作加入了弦乐四重奏的说唱歌手。作者说,日本的悲剧源于它只是把现代国家的外表嫁接到了原有的体制之上。他说,时至今日,“日本政治现实与人们对这种现实的臆想之间仍存在巨大差距”。For the author, this gap explains more or less everything. It is why, for example, there are endless debates in parliament about matters that have long been decided upon behind closed doors. It is why it took a foreigner, unfamiliar with honour codes, to blow the whistle on the fictional accounts at Olympus. It is also why the salaryman can believe he is “a soldier for a cause” but can also recognise that ultimately he is an “exploited cog in a faceless, industrial machine”.在作者看来,这种差距几乎可以解释一切。例如,它解释了为什么议会要对早已秘密决定的事情进行无休止的辩论。它也解释了为什么举报奥林巴斯(Olympus)账目造假的是一个不熟悉日本荣誉守则的外国人,以及为什么一个工薪族既可以相信自己是“献身事业的士兵”,也可以承认自己最终是“千篇一律的工业机器上一颗被剥削的螺丝钉”。This latter example reveals the author’s propensity to see in every facet of modern Japan the ghosts of an unreconstructed past. The alienation of labour he describes could apply equally to almost anywhere. Similarly, many other features of the country, from teenage fashion to sexual relations, are shoehorned into an overarching theory with sometimes illuminating or far-fetched consequences.后面那个例子显示出,作者倾向于认为,那段未得到重建的历史的幽灵存在于现代日本的方方面面。他所描述的劳动异化(alienation of labour)可能同样适用于几乎任何地方。类似地,这个国家的许多其他特征(从青少年时尚到两性关系)都被硬塞进一个包罗一切的理论中,得出的结论有时发人深省,有时有些牵强。Shinzo Abe, the nationalist prime minister, becomes yet another throwback — one of the “vampires” from the darkest period of Japan’s history, in Taggart Murphy’s description. For this sorry state of affairs, the author concludes, Washington has only itself to blame. It “cavalierly” destroyed Japan’s best hope of revamping its political system and of repairing poisonous relations with China. Yet this is to credit the Democratic Party of Japan with a revolutionary agenda that it simply did not possess. It is also to depict modern Japan, for all its many faults, in too unrelentingly gloomy a light.日本的民族主义首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)则成为另一大倒退的象征——用墨菲的话来说,他是来自日本历史中最黑暗时期的“吸血鬼”之一。对于这种糟糕的状态,作者认为,华盛顿只能怪它自己:美国“傲慢地”摧毁了日本改造其政治体制以及修复糟糕的日中关系的最好机会。然而,作者这样说相当于认为日本民主党有一份革命议程,但实际上它根本没有。此外,尽管现代日本存在种种缺陷,但作者这样说也未免过于无情和悲观,没有公允地反映现代日本的真实面貌。Japan and the Shackles of the Past, by R Taggart, Murphy OUP USA RRP#163;20/RRP.95, 472 pages《日本及其历史枷锁》(Japan and the Shackles of the Past),R#8226;塔格特#8226;墨菲著,牛津大学出版社美国部(OUP USA)出版,建议零售价20英镑或29.95美元,472页David Pilling is the FT’s Asia editor and author of ‘Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival’ (Allen Lane)注:戴维#8226;皮林(David Pilling)是英国《金融时报》亚洲版主编,著有《弯折逆境:日本与生存艺术》(Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival),由艾伦莱恩出版社(Allen Lane)出版。 /201501/355259In a break from Royal protocol, the Duchess of Cambridge has taken Princess Charlotte#39;s first official portraits herself - and released them on Twitter via the Kensington Palace account.在一场皇家礼仪聚会间歇期,凯特王妃(Kate Middleton)亲自给夏洛特公主拍下第一组官方照片——并通过推特(Twitter)肯辛顿宫(Kensington Palace)账号发布。Warming the hearts of the nation, the series of pictures see a gorgeous Prince George proudly holding his tiny little sister, with beaming smiles for the camera.这组照片中,俊朗的乔治王子自豪地抱着,对着镜头开心微笑。照片一经发布立刻暖化全体英国民众的心。But just how did Kate get her pictures looking so professional? We asked professional children#39;s photographer Glenda Tarling for some expert tips.但为什么凯特王妃拍的照片看起来如此专业?为此,我们向专业儿童摄影师格伦达·塔林(Glenda Tarling)询问了一些专业拍照技巧。THE LIGHTING光线#39;Judging by the amount of natural light flooding into the pictures, it#39;s likely Kate took the shots next to a large window. And most likely without using any flash,#39; says Glenda, who runs GR Tarling Photography.格伦达说,“从照片中强烈的自然光线判断,凯特王妃很可能选择了在一扇大窗附近作为拍摄地,且很可能没有使用闪光。”With it#39;s gentle brightness, using natural light rather than artificial lighting equipment can often result in the best family photographs.自然光线亮度柔和,因此要拍出的完美的家庭照,选择自然光线要胜过人工照明设备。#39;The pictures have a very lifestyle feel to them, this wasn#39;t taken in a studio,#39; notes the photographer, who along with her husband Dave, has been taking creative shots of families and their children for the past three years.格伦达与丈夫戴夫(Dave)在过去三年给许多家庭拍过有创意的亲子照。她表示,“这些照片散发着满满的生活气息,肯定不是在工作室里拍的。”#39;Looking at the way the shadows are falling, it#39;s most likely that the Duchess has simply positioned the chair looking towards a big window on a nice and bright day.#39;“从阴影判断,那天天气晴朗,光线明亮,王妃很可能只是将椅子对着一扇大窗,拍下这组照片。” /201506/379979

  TOKYO — Between the futuristic ;BladeRunner;-esque toilets and the slightly terrifying (but healthier for you)traditional squatters, Japanese restrooms can be a bit intimidating for afirst-time user. And even for those who have lived in Japan for a while, usinga public toilet can still be a daunting task. So to better understand restroom woes for those coming from overseas, Japanese toilet manufacturer Toto recently surveyed 600 foreigners living in Japan about toilets in the country and what confuses them most.东京——在未来式的“银翼杀手”式的厕所和有点令人恐惧的(但对你来说更加健康的)传统蹲厕之间,日本厕所对于首次使用者来说可能有点吓人。即使对于那些在日本已经住过一段时间的人来说,使用日本的公厕仍然是令他们感到畏惧的。所以为了更好的了解外国人在使用日本公厕时所遭受的痛苦,日本厕所制造商Toto(东陶公司)最近对生活在日本的600名外国人进行了采访。First up on Toto#39;s toilet survey was aquestion about toilet choice. That is, if you were at a public restroom with Western-style (aka one you sit on) or traditional Japanese squat toilets, which stall would you go into? Unsurprisingly, over 80% answered that they preferred to sit rather than squat.The next question asked those surveyed to think back to when they first came to Japan and to remember the biggest problems they had when answering the call of nature in a public restroom. Mostpeople said that they had no idea how to use a Japanese squat toilet when theyfirst saw one. Even foreigners who came from countries with squat toilets werea little confused exactly how to use the Japanese ones. One of the Americanspolled said that he actually thought you were supposed to sit right on the toilet bowl.这个调研中的第一个问题有关于厕所的选择。即在一个同时拥有西式座圈马桶和传统日本蹲式厕位的公厕里时,你会选择哪一个?不出所料,超过80%的外国人都更喜欢坐式的。第二个问题是要求这些外国人回想自己第一次来日本时在使用公厕时所遇到的最大问题。大部分人回答说他们首次看到蹲式侧位时根本不知道要如何使用蹲式厕所。即使是那些来自拥有蹲式厕所的国家的外国人也不是很清楚要怎么使用日本式的蹲式厕所。其中一位美国人说他以为是要直接坐在日式蹲厕的坐便器上。And besides the squatters, many people recalled their utter confusion the first time they sat down on a modernJapanese ;washlet; toilet (see photo below). The many buttons on the seat ornearby control panel overwhelmed many and utterly confused people used tosimpler toilets that don#39;t need to be plugged in. And until you can Japanese, you have to rely on the little drawings that still won#39;t help you outmuch. The futuristic toilets of Japan may look cool, but many people were intimidated at first.除了蹲式厕所,很多人还回忆了首次坐在日本现代式的“卫洗丽”坐便器上。坐便器或者说附近控制板上的那么多按键让很多人无所适从。除非你懂日文,否则仅靠上面的一些图示真是相当困难。这种未来式的日本厕所看起来可能很酷,但是很多人第一次使用时都被吓到了。When asked about if they use the bidet function on the modern Japanese toilets, the number one answer was that it dida good job of cleaning up and some said they even preferred the bidet to toilet paper. And for others, they liked to use the bidet because they were alyused to using water via the bum gun to clean themselves in their home country.当被问及是否使用过其中的坐浴盆功能时,人们最多的回答是这种功能确实很利于清洁,有些人说比起厕纸他们更喜欢使用这种清洁功能。而有些人回答说他们之所以喜欢使用这种功能,是因为在他们自己国家他们就已经习惯这么做了。Perhaps the answer that should make Japan the proudest was when 93.6% of those surveyed said that Japanese publics are cleaner than those back home. And at the end of the day, even with the squatting and the confusing computer-like toilets, you can#39;t argue with a nice,clean public restroom.或许最让日本人感到骄傲的回答是有93.6%的人说日本公厕比自己国家的公厕都更加干净。虽然传统和现代的日本公厕让这些外国人在首次使用时有点不太适应,但是日本公厕的干净美好是无可置疑的。 /201501/356491


  In the District of Columbia’s historic Penn Quarter, the newly opened China Chilcano is a departure from the usual Spanish sprawl of José Andrés, the tapas pioneer (and arguably the city’s most famous chef) who runs a mini-empire of restaurants, frequented by Barack and Michelle Obama, in the city.西班牙小吃先锋大厨(也是华盛顿最著名的大厨)何塞·安德烈(José Andrés)在华盛顿历史悠久的佩恩区新开设了China Chilcano餐馆,它不同于这位大厨通常做的西班牙菜。奥巴马夫妇经常惠顾安德烈在这座城市经营的迷你餐馆帝国。This time, the spotlight is on Peru, with its large and diverse communities of Japanese and Chinese immigrants. Inspired by two years’ worth of travels throughout Peru, China, Japan and Southeast Asia, Andrés set out to create a exploring the distinct cuisines of Chinese Chifa, Japanese Nikkei and Peruvian Criollo (Creole) cultures. The result: main courses like a heaping plate of chaufa, a common Chinese-influenced Peruvian fried rice with pork belly, fried egg, fried plantain, chayote and fresh tomato; a spicy bigeye tuna ceviche with puffed quinoa, soy-cured egg yolk, avocado, mountain yam and furikake seasoning; and house-made “Chi-racha” (in the vein of Sriracha) made with Peruvian peppers. (Just don’t call it fusion.)这一次的焦点是秘鲁,那里有一些日本和中国移民组成的充满多样性的大社区。安德烈在秘鲁、中国、日本和东南亚旅行了两年,开创了一个探索中国吃法、日本料理和秘鲁西班牙拉美菜肴不同特色的菜单。结果是这样的:主菜包括一盘堆得满满的炒饭,这道常见的受中餐影响的秘鲁炒饭里含有猪肚、煎蛋、炸大蕉、佛手瓜和鲜番茄;酸橘汁腌辣大眼金鱼里含有蓬松的藜麦、卤蛋黄、牛油果、山药和日本香松调料;用秘鲁辣椒自制的“Chi-racha”(泰式香甜辣椒酱的风格)(但是不要称它为融合菜)。The vibrant, stylized interiors are also part of the narrative. The Spanish architect Juli Capella designed the industrial wood-accented room, subtly staged into three spaces. Like the , the space offers a discerning blend of elements, from the Peruvian woven textiles to the recessed Japanese dining tables to the ceiling’s swirling lights, which evoke patterns reminiscent of ancient geoglyphs found in Southern Peru’s Nazca Desert. The effect is only intensified after a few obligatory pisco brandy sours, Peru’s national cocktail. It’s hard to take your eyes off the pièce de résistance, filling an entire wall: a bold, sensual and Kubrick-red floral-tattooed wall mural courtesy of the Peruvian-turned-Philadelphian artist Cecilia Paredes, fittingly titled “Both Worlds.”这家餐馆的另一个特色是色明亮、具有艺术风格的内部装修。西班牙建筑师胡利·卡佩利亚(Juli Capella)设计了这个工业木材情调的房间,它巧妙地分为三个空间。和菜单一样,这个空间明显混合了多种元素,从秘鲁的编织品、日本的嵌入式餐桌,到天花板上的漩涡状灯饰,这种灯饰让人想起了秘鲁南部纳斯卡沙漠的古代地质印痕。来这里必须喝几杯皮斯科白兰地酸酒,它是秘鲁的代表性鸡尾酒。喝完之后,你的感受就会更强烈。你很难把眼睛从装修的重头戏上移开,它占了一整面墙:秘鲁出生的费城艺术家塞西莉亚·帕雷德斯(Cecilia Paredes)创作的、非常醒目、刺激感官的库布里克红色花朵墙绘,它被贴切地命名为《两个世界》(Both Worlds)。China Chilcano is open for dinner. 418 7th St N.W., Washington, D.C., chinachilcano.com.China Chilcano餐馆供应晚餐。华盛顿特区西北第七街418号,chinachilcano.com。 /201501/354502。

  ;To protect our network against computer viruses,our IT Department has issued a ban on any use of e-mail attachments.For further details,please refer to the agttached document.;为了保护我们的网络不受病毒侵害,我们的IT部门对所有的电子邮件附件都进行了限制,需要了解详情请参见本邮件的附件。 /201507/386136

  Artificial sweeteners may evict good gut microbes人工合成甜味剂可能会清理掉肠道内部的有益细菌To avoid the calories in sugar, dieters often sweeten foods and drinks with no-calorie substitutes, such as saccharin. But this fake sugar could have unexpected side effects, a new study finds. Its authors show that a high-saccharin diet causes changes in mice and people that could lead to obesity or type 2 diabetes. The sweetener did that by altering microbes in the gut. Other sweeteners would likely cause similar problems, the researchers say.为避免糖分中过多的热量,节食者通常会在饮料和食物中添加零热量替代物将其变甜,比如说糖精。但是一项新研究发现这种;伪糖;也可能会产生意想不到的副作用。作者说明了高糖精饮食会引起老鼠和人体内部系统发生改变,通过改变肠道内的微细菌最终导致肥胖或二型糖尿病。研究者表示其他甜料也会引起类似的问题。This research suggests ;there could be unintended consequences; of using sugar substitutes, Robert Margolskee told Science News. He#39;s a neuroscientist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, Pa. He was not involved in the new work. ;This is very interesting and scary if it really does hold for humans,; he says.宾夕法尼亚州费城莫奈尔化学感官中心的神经系统科学家Robert Margolskee告诉科学新闻使用糖的替代品会有;意外结果;产生,Robert没有参加此次研究,但他表示如果这一发现真的会给人类带来这样的结果那么真的是既有趣又恐怖。Until recently, most people thought artificial (no-calorie) sweeteners passed through the body without doing anything. That#39;s what makes them appealing. They add a sweet taste without the caloric cost. Many diet foods, from soft drinks to desserts, are sweetened with these substances. But that may come with a different cost.近来很多人仍以为食用过人工甜味剂(零热量糖精)后不会给身体造成任何影响。这也是它们吸引人的原因之一。它们会在不增加任何热量的情况下把食物变甜。许多减肥食物,像软饮和甜品等添加过这种甜料后都会变甜,但更大的代价可能也会随之出现。To probe the sweeteners#39; effects, Eran Segal and Eran Elinav ran tests on mice. Segal is a computational biologist. Elinav is an immunologist. Both researchers work at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. The researchers added artificial sweeteners to the animals#39; drinking water. Those sweeteners included saccharin, aspartame and sucralose.为了探究甜料对食用者的影响,Eran Segal和Eran Elinav对老鼠进行了实验。前者是一名计算生物学家,后者是一名免疫学者。两位研究员均在以色列雷霍沃特威茨曼科学研究学院工作。他们把糖精,阿斯巴甜和三氯蔗糖等人工甜料加进动物的饮用水中。After 11 weeks, the animals showed problems with their metabolism. Unusually high levels of a type of sugar called glucose circulated in their blood after meals. This suggested the sweeteners impaired their bodies#39; ability to process glucose.11周后,这些动物的新陈代谢开始出现问题。通常饭后他们血液里会循环流淌着一种叫做种葡萄糖的糖类,这一现象说明了人工甜料已经损坏了他们自身加工处理葡萄糖的能力。 /201506/381531

  It may surprise fans of Johanna Basford’s intricately hand-drawn coloring books that the artist is, by her own admission, “pretty bad” at coloring.可能会让书迷感到惊讶的是,创作了精美的涂色本的乔安娜·巴斯福德(Johanna Basford)承认自己涂色“很差劲”。“I can’t stay in the lines,” she said sheepishly.她不好意思地说:“我老是涂出去”。Not that it matters. Ms. Basford’s coloring book “Secret Garden,” a 96-page collection of elaborate black-and-white ink drawings of flowers, leaves, trees and birds, has become a global best-seller.不过这根本不影响什么,重要的是她的96页涂色本《秘密花园》(Secret Garden)已成为全球畅销书。Since its release in spring 2013, “Secret Garden” has sold more than 1.4 million copies in 22 languages. It shot to the top of Amazon’s best-seller list this month, overtaking books by authors like Harper Lee, Anthony Doerr and Paula Hawkins. Her follow-up, “Enchanted Forest,” which came out in February, is briskly selling through its first print run of nearly 226,000 copies.从2013年春天出版以来, 这本满是细节丰富的花鸟虫鱼的书已经翻译成22种语言,销量超过140万册。本月它直登亚马逊(Amazon)的畅销书榜首位,击败了哈珀·李(Harper Lee)、安瑟尼·杜尔(Anthony Doerr)和宝拉·霍金斯(Paula Hawkins)的书。她的接下来的作品《魔法森林》(Enchanted Forest)在二月出版,首印轻松卖了近22.6万册。What makes Ms. Basford’s breakout success all the more surprising is her target audience: adults who like coloring books.而让巴斯福德的蹿红愈发显得惊人的是,她的目标受众是喜欢涂色本的成年人。There are, it seems, a lot of them. Though it is tempting to describe the market for her books as niche, Ms. Basford, a 31-year-old illustrator in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, has quickly outgrown that label.看起来这样的还不在少数。人们倾向于认为她所针对的是一个小众市场,但这位年方31岁的苏格兰阿伯丁郡插画家已迅速超越这个范畴。Like Play-Doh, jungle gyms and nursery rhymes, coloring books have always seemed best suited for the preschool set. So Ms. Basford and her publisher were surprised to learn that there was a robust — and lucrative — market for coloring books aimed at grown-ups. When they first tested the waters with “Secret Garden” a year ago, they released a cautiously optimistic first printing of 16,000 books.和橡皮泥、攀玩架、童谣一样,涂色本向来被认为是给学龄前儿童的东西。因此当巴斯福德和她的出版商得知针对成人的涂色本市场规模不小且利润丰厚时,他们是很意外的。一年前他们用《秘密花园》试水,本着谨慎乐观的态度决定首印1.6万册。“I thought my mom was going to have to buy a lot of copies,” Ms. Basford said. “When the sales started to take off, it was a real shock.”“我本来以为要让我妈去买一大堆回来了,”巴斯福德说。“销量往上冲的时候我真是被吓一大跳。”Surging demand caught Ms. Basford and her publisher off guard. Fan mail poured in from busy professionals and parents who confided to Ms. Basford that they found coloring in her books relaxing. More accolades flowed on social media, as people posted images from their coloring books.高涨的需求是巴斯福德和她的出版商始料未及的。忙碌的职场人士和家长纷纷给巴斯福德来信,坦陈给她的书涂色让他们感到放松。人们把涂色本上的手绘图发到网上,又在社交媒体中掀起一股热潮。Hard-core fans often buy several copies of her books at a time, to experiment with different color combinations. Others have turned it into a social activity. Rebekah Jean Duthie, who lives in Queensland, Australia, and works for the Australian Red Cross, says she regularly gathers with friends for “coloring circles” at cafes and in one another’s homes.铁杆粉丝经常一次买好几本她的书,尝试用不同的颜色组合。还有的人已经把它当成一种社交活动。家住昆士兰的瑞贝卡·简·达西(Rebekah Jean Duthie)在澳大利亚红十字会工作。她定期和朋友在咖啡馆或彼此的家中一起玩“转圈涂色”。“Each page can transport you back to a gentler time of life,” she said of Ms. Basford’s books in an email.“每一页都能让你回到一段更祥和的时光,”她在一封电子邮件中这么描述巴斯福德的书。Ms. Basford has become something of a literary celebrity in South Korea, where “Secret Garden” has sold more than 430,000 copies, she says. The craze was kicked off in part, it seems, by a Korean pop star, Kim Ki-bum, who posted a delicately colored-in floral pattern from Ms. Basford’s book on Instagram, where he has 1.8 million followers.在韩国,巴斯福德已经成为一位文学名流,她说在那里《秘密花园》销量已超过43万册。这种狂热是由韩国明星金起范拉开序幕,他把巴斯福德的花卉图案精心涂色,发到Instagram上,他在那里拥有180万粉丝。Part of the apparent appeal is the tactile, interactive nature of the books, which offer respite to the screen-weary. “People are really excited to do something analog and creative, at a time when we’re all so overwhelmed by screens and the Internet,” she said. “And coloring is not as scary as a blank sheet of paper or canvas. It’s a great way to de-stress.”一定程度上,这些书的吸引人之处显然在于它们的触感和互动性,给厌倦了屏幕的人带来一些缓解。“在被屏幕和互联网包围的时代,人们非常乐于去做一些模拟的、创造性的事情,”她说。“涂色不像在一张空白的纸或画布上画那么吓人。它是缓解压力的好方法。”Ms. Basford started out in fashion, working on silk-screen designs. Then she opened a studio on her parents’ trout and salmon farm in Scotland, and began designing hand-drawn wallpaper for luxury hotels and boutiques. When the financial crisis hit, her business evaporated. She closed the studio and found work as a commercial illustrator for companies like Starbucks, Nike and Sony.巴斯福德一开始从事的是时尚业,做丝网印刷设计。她的父母在苏格兰有一个鳟鱼和鲑鱼养殖场,她在那里开了一个工作室,为豪华酒店和精品店设计手绘壁纸。后来金融危机来袭,她的生意全没了。她关了工作室,开始做商业插画家,为像星巴克(Starbucks)、耐克(Nike)和索尼(Sony)这样的公司工作。Her publishing break came in 2011, when an editor at Laurence King Publishing discovered her work online. The editor thought her graceful illustrations could work well as a children’s coloring book.她在出版业的突破出现在2011年,当时劳伦斯·金出版社(Laurence King Publishing)的一位编辑在网上看到她的作品,认为她的这些优美的插图很适合用作儿童涂色本。“I came back and said I would like to do a coloring book for grown-ups, and it got a bit quiet for a moment,” Ms. Basford said. “Coloring books for adults weren’t as much of a thing then.”“我回答说,我想要为成年人画一本涂色本,当时有些冷场,”巴斯福德说。“那时候还不太有成人涂色书这种东西。”To convince them that it was a viable market, she drew five sample pages of detailed, mosaic-like illustrations. The publishers were sold.为了让他们相信这是一个可行的市场,她画了五幅样图,是有丰富细节的马赛克式插画。出版社被说了。“When Johanna first approached us with the idea, we knew that people would love her illustrations as much as we did, but could never have predicted just how big the adult coloring trend would be,” said Jo Lightfoot, editorial director of Laurence King Publishing.劳伦斯·金出版社编辑部主任乔·莱特福特(Jo Lightfoot)说:“当乔安娜第一次向我们提出这个想法时,我们知道人们会跟我们一样喜爱她的插图,但我们绝对没料到成人涂色书能这么火。”Ms. Basford spent the next nine months working on the book at night and freelancing as an illustrator during the day. Occasionally she had doubts. “I was worried that coloring for adults was silly and it was just me that wanted to do it,” she said.接下来九个月里,巴斯福德每晚都在画那本书,白天仍做自由职业插画师的工作。偶尔她也会怀疑。“我很担心成人涂色书是个傻主意,只有我才想这么做,”她说。It turns out she was far from alone. Other entries to this small but growing category include Patricia J. Wynne’s lavish, nature-themed Creative Haven coloring books — discreetly described as being “designed for experienced colorists” — and the more explicitly titled “Coloring Books for Grownups,” released by Chiquita Publishing. A subspecies of these books promote the meditative aspects of coloring and doodling, including “Color Me Calm” (subtitle: “A Zen Coloring Book”) and books that promise “Easy Meditation Through Coloring.”原来她一点也不孤单。这个小众但在不断扩大的门类中,还包括帕特里夏·J·韦恩(Patricia J. Wynne)的“创意港湾”(Creative Haven),一个华丽的自然主题涂色本系列,被小心翼翼地描述为“针对经验丰富的涂色玩家”,而金吉达出版社(Chiquita Publishing)的“大人的涂色本”系列(Coloring Books for Grownups)就要明确很多。这种书有一个子类是宣扬涂色和涂鸦的冥想功能的,包括《我涂我平静》(Color Me Calm,副标题:“一本禅涂色本”),还有的承诺“用涂色实现简易的冥想”。Major publishers are seizing on the trend. This year, Little, Brown will release four illustrated coloring books for adults, all subtitled “Color Your Way to Calm.” The books, “Splendid Cities” by the British artists Rosie Goodwin and Alice Chadwick and three titles by the French illustrator Zoé de Las Cases, feature detailed cityscapes with famous landmarks, cafes and street life. Promotional materials for the books emphasize the health benefits of “mindful coloring,” noting that the activity “has been shown to be a stress reliever for adults.”大出版商正在赶这股潮流。今年,利特尔amp;布朗出版社(Little, Brown)将出版四本面向成人的插画涂色本,统一副标题为“涂色让你静下来”(Color Your Way to Calm)。包括由英国艺术家罗茜·古德温(Rosie Goodwin)与爱丽丝·查德威克(Alice Chadwick)画的“锦绣城”(Splendid Cities)系列,还有法国插画家祖依·德拉卡斯(Zoé de Las Cases)的三本书,详尽勾画了著名地标、咖啡馆和街道生活等城市景观。书的宣传材料强调“用心的涂色”对健康的好处,称这种活动“已被明是成人的压力缓解法”。Ms. Basford is now working on her third book, after soliciting suggestions for themes from fans. A vocal faction has requested an ocean-themed coloring book. “I’ve been drawing starfish and seahorses this afternoon,” she said.巴斯福德目前正在为她的第三本书的主题征求书迷的建议。有一拨人强烈要求以海洋为主题的涂色本。“今天下午我一直在画海星和海马,”她说。In the meantime, “Secret Garden” has sold out in many markets, to the consternation of fans. Laurence King is reprinting 75,000 copies for the ed States.与此同时,《秘密花园》在许多市场都卖光了,令书迷陷入恐慌。劳伦斯·金出版社为美国市场又印了7.5万册。This month, Ms. Basford tried to calm her followers with a post on her Facebook page, promising that newly printed books would be shipping in a few weeks: “Don’t panic! New stock of Secret Garden and Enchanted Forest is on its way!”为了安抚书迷,这个月巴斯福德在Facebook上承诺几周内会有加印到货:“不要惊慌!《秘密花园》和《魔法森林》补货马上到!”Some were not placated. “WEEKS?” one frantic follower replied. “I can’t possibly wait WEEKS!”有的人却没那么容易打发。“几周?”一个情绪激动的粉丝回贴说,“我根本等不了那么久!” /201507/384604

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