原标题: 湖州曙光医院抽脂多少钱
The independent panel tasked with deciding a potential new flag for New Zealand has published its long list of 40 possible designs.新西兰的新国旗方案独立专家小组日前公布了40幅入围设计稿,这个小组将负责在其中选出新国旗的设计方案。Nearly 10,300 were submitted by members of the public to a government website for consideration by the government-appointed panel of 16 people.政府网站收到了新西兰民众提交的近10300幅作品,这些作品将交由政府任命的16人国旗方案专家小组进行评审。The process attracted international attention for its more off-the-wall entries, including memorably a kiwi with lasers for eyes, a crude line drawing of a man on a bicycle, a QR code, and the 10-year-old Pepe the Frog meme.由于较为稀奇古怪的参选作品,该活动吸引了国际关注。其中令人印象深刻的作品有:一只眼睛发射激光的几维鸟、一幅骑着自行车的男人的拙劣简笔画、一个二维码、甚至还有一只诞生于1995年的青蛙佩佩。Unsurprisingly, but nonetheless somewhat disappointingly, the panel went for a more refined approach in the longlist of 40 designs it published on Monday, with variations on the silver fern, the Southern Cross constellation and the koru (unfurling fern frond) featuring prominently.专家小组10日公布了40幅设计初选入围设计稿,走的是高雅路线,虽然不出意料,但还是或多或少有些让人失望。新西兰银蕨、南十字星座以及展开的银蕨叶这些入围作品里出现最多的元素。The silver fern on black designed by Kyle Lockwood which was the preference of the prime minister, John Key, before it was likened to the Islamic State’s flag by an Australian commentator is on the list.新西兰总理约翰·基(John Key)原本看好由凯尔·洛克伍德设计的黑底银蕨旗,但后来有一名澳大利亚人士指出黑底银蕨旗太像恐怖组织伊斯兰国(Islamic State)的旗帜。In an open letter jointly signed by all 12 members, the panel said its decision was guided by the input of “thousands of Kiwis across a range of communities told us when they shared what is special to them about New Zealand在一封由12名专家小组成员全体签名的公开信中,专家小组表示,数千名来自不同群体的新西兰人分享了新西兰对自已而言最特别的地方,他们是在这些民众传达出的信息的指引下做出的决定。“A potential new flag should unmistakably be from New Zealand and celebrate us as a progressive, inclusive nation that is connected to its environment, and has a sense of its past and a vision for its future.”“新国旗的候选设计毫无疑问必须具有鲜明的新西兰特色,体现出我们是一个进取、包容的国家,我们同自然和谐相处,我们铭记历史同样也面向未来。”Cultural, vexillology and art and design experts were asked to review the longlisted designs, and due diligence of all 40 will be carried out, “including robust intellectual property checks文化、旗帜学和艺术与设计方面的专家应邀审查这些入选作品,他们将认真负责地审阅全部40幅作品,“包括对这些作品进行严格的知识产权的审查”。Two designs by Pax Zwanikken, a New Zealander based in Sydney, made the longlist of the 0 or sohe submitted.住在悉尼的新西兰人帕克斯·茨瓦尼肯提交了0个左右”作品,有两幅作品入选。“My personal favourites were more simple than the ones they selected, but I’m not surprised that these two were their choice,he said. “They are potentially less divisive than some of my other concepts.”帕克斯表示:“我自己最喜欢的作品要比小组选出来的更简约,但他们选了这两幅作品我并不意外,因为同我的一些其他创意相比这两个要和谐多了。”Zwanikken said he felt that there had been a backlash against the push to change the flag instigated by Key in part because of the cost and duration of the process, which will include a two-step postal vote and is estimated to cost just under $NZ26m.更换国旗的事情由新西兰总理约翰·基发起。帕克斯说他认为更换国旗这件事遭到抵制的部分原因是开销过大耗时过长,它需要进行两轮邮寄投票,预计耗资600万新西兰元。The panel is now faced with the task of whittling down the longlist of 40 to four designs that will be put to a public vote in a binding referendum in November or December.小组现在面临着将这40幅设计稿精简幅的任务,选出款设计将1月份2月份接受公投,公投结果具有约束力。A second referendum, to be held in March 2016, will be a run-off between the current flag and the preferred alternative design.第二轮公投将016月份举行,将决定保留现在使用的国旗还是选择之前选出的新国旗设计。New Zealand’s current flag, a pairing of the Union Jack with the Southern Cross constellation that closely resembles Australia’s, was formally adopted in 1902.新西兰现在的国旗902年正式投入使用,由英联邦的米字旗和南十字星座组合而成,与澳大利亚的国旗颇为相似。来 /201508/392275

To help stay on top as global No. 1 maker of luxury automobiles, Germany’s BMW is redesigning the way its dealerships operate, a process that will include more “geniusproduct specialists and fewer sales personnel.为了保住全球头号豪华汽车制造商的宝座,德国宝马公司(BMW)正重新设计其经销商的运作方式,将增设更多“天才”产品专家,同时减少销售人员。The concept, popularized by Apple AAPL 1.19% with in-store specialists who explain the company’s laptops and other products, is a softer and more relaxed approach. Shoppers can pose questions to a trained expert without the pressure of price negotiation; once they’re y to buy, a sales person takes over.这是一种更柔和、更轻松的务理念,因苹果(Apple)而普及开来。在苹果门店中,有专门的产品专家向顾客解释苹果公司的笔记本电脑以及其它产品。顾客可以向训练有素的产品专家提问,而无需有议价的压力;一旦他们决定购买,将由销售人员接手。Lexus, which has ambitions to catch BMW one day, is thinking in the same direction. Greg Penske of Penske Motor Group has been employing “Lexpertsat Longo Lexus in El Monte, Calif., and Lexus of Stevens Creek in San Jose, Calif., for about three years.渴望有朝一日赶超宝马的雷克萨斯(Lexus),与苹果的思路大同小异。潘世奇汽车集团(Penske Motor Group)的格雷格o潘世奇,在加州艾尔蒙特市的Longo雷克萨斯店以及圣何塞的Stevens Creek雷克萨斯店雇佣“雷克萨斯专家”(“Lexperts”)已有近三年之久。“Even though it’s derived from the Apple Genius concept, we have been able to recruit college students who can learn about the business, see the career paths they can take—it’s a very similar income as an Apple Genius starting out—and drive cool cars,Penske said. “You are seeing all manufacturers looking at doing this because as technology is getting more intuitive, we want to make sure customers get the best guest experience.”潘世奇表示:“尽管借鉴了‘苹果天才’(Apple Genius)这一理念,但我们招募的大学生能了解汽车行业,看到自己可能的职业道路,而且还能开好车。他们的起薪也与‘苹果天才’非常接近。如今,所有厂商都在考虑这么干,因为随着技术日趋变成直观感受,我们希望确保顾客获得最佳的客户体验。”It’s not exactly a secret that conventional automotive retailing, in which customers visit showrooms clutching the Sunday newspaper and either are ignored or fast-talked by high-pressure sales people is vanishing quickly. Most successful retail operations are employing new tactics. The Internet is playing a bigger and bigger role in automotive retailing. Shoppers spend hours doing research and often are extremely knowledgeable about the vehicle and the price at which it should sell.传统汽车零售,即客户握着报纸走进汽车展销店,然后要么被晾在一边,要么被强行推销的销售人员忽悠的销售模式,正迅速消亡,这一点已经不是什么秘密。大多数成功的零售商正采用新战术。互联网正在汽车零售中扮演日益重要的角色。消费者会花很多时间去研究[自己想买的车型],他们往往对相关车型及其正常售价了如指掌。Dealers in the U.S. are privately-owned franchises. Experts and geniuses, therefore, are employed by the dealers, though often trained by the automaker.在美国,汽车经销商都是私有专营企业。因此,[产品]专家和“天才”是由经销商雇佣,虽然他们通常是由汽车制造商进行培训。BMW said it’s closing in on a goal of having 500 geniuses employed at 339 U.S. dealerships by the end of the year. The idea was rolled out at BMW dealerships in Europe a year earlier. Some of the larger dealerships employ as many as ten; and a quarter of the personnel are women, BMW said.宝马表示正在接近达成目标,即到今年年底,宝马339家美国经销商雇00名[产品]“天才”。一年前,宝马在该公司欧洲经销商中推出了这一理念。宝马表示,有些规模较大的经销商雇佣的[产品]专家多达10名;而且四分之一的[产品]专家是女性。Ian Robertson, BMW board member for marketing, said, “the automaker is changing the entire retail experience, and the geniuses are the front line to make it more informative and friendly for our customers.More than 1,500 are working in dealerships in 43 countries, including one in Tibet.宝马负责营销的董事伊恩o罗伯森表示:“汽车制造商正改变整个零售体验,而[产品]天才们是我们为顾客打造更有内容、更加友好的客户体验的第一线。3个国家的宝马经销商,共雇佣了1500多名[产品]“天才”。其中有一名是在中国西藏。Following a meeting of geniuses in Munich this month, Robertson said, “they’re excited, they like the new role, and they especially like seeing how much customers enjoy an atmosphere of information and no sales pressure.”本月,宝马“天才”们在慕尼黑聚首,罗伯森在会后表示:“他们很兴奋,他们喜欢这个新角色,而且他们尤其高兴的是,顾客非常喜欢这种能获取信息,且没有购物压力的氛围。”The next chapter in the future of automotive retailing aly in unfolding, allowing customers for some car brands to examine the inventories of vehicles at specific dealerships, place an order and arrange financing without a visit. AutoNation, the biggest publicly-owned chain of dealerships in the U.S., said it would unveil in December an online system that will allow buyers to select and reserve vehicles from dealer inventory.汽车零售业未来的新篇章已经展开,有些汽车品牌的顾客,足不出户就能查看特定经销商的库存、下订单并安排融资。美国最大的公营连锁汽车经销商AutoNation称,该公司将于今2月推出在线系统,使买家能从经销商库存中选择并预订车辆。BMW, perhaps anticipating the future, is making its geniuses available online as well.也许是预见到未来的发展趋势,宝马已开始在线上提供“天才”务。(财富中文网) /201412/346012

“Our family. Our jobs. Our future,is the message conveyed on the Facebook page and Twitter feed. Gazing out from the screen are a blonde woman, two blonde children, a pair of sheepdogs and a miner wearing overalls.“我们的家庭。我们的工作。我们的未来。”这是Facebook和Twitter上“我们的铁矿石Our Iron Ore)运动页面发布的信息。一个金发女人、两个金发儿童,一对牧羊犬,还有一个身穿工作的矿工透过屏幕看着你。This is the all-Australian family, with the mining sector at its heart, as envisaged by a campaign called “Our Iron Ore It is one of two competing public relations initiatives embroiled in bitter argument in Australia over this abundant commodity.这是这个被称为“我们的铁矿石”的运动所描绘的一个全澳大利亚人家庭,采矿业是这个家庭的核心。该运动是两项针锋相对的公共关系倡议之一,两者正在围绕澳大利亚丰富的铁矿石资源进行激烈论战。As the patriotic element of the “Ourcampaign suggests, iron ore is anything but prosaic in Australia, whose economy relies heavily on the hundreds of millions of tonnes sucked in annually by China’s steelmaking industry. In Western Australia’s Pilbara region, the iron ore heartland, its price movements are part of everyday conversation.正如“我们”运动的爱国主义元素所显示的,铁矿石对澳大利亚来说至关重要,因为该国经济严重依赖每年以数亿吨计输出至中国钢铁业的铁矿石。在西澳大利亚的铁矿石腹地——皮尔巴Pilbara,上图为皮尔巴拉的一家力拓公司拥有的铁矿石矿)地区,铁矿石价格波动是人们日常谈论的话题。In 2011, the price of iron ore scaled the heights of 0 per tonne and brought a bonanza for Australia. Four years later, the price has slumped by about 75 per cent: this month it fell below /t. Thousands of jobs are being cut and smaller, domestic miners are under pressure.2011年,铁矿石价格升至每90美元的高点,为澳大利亚带来一个巨大财源。四年后,铁矿石价格已经下跌了约75%:本月,价格已经跌至每吨45美元以下。数千个工作岗位被裁减,澳大利亚国内的中小型铁矿石生产商正面临压力。What has ensued is an Australian iron ore civil war, in which the main antagonists are the miners themselves.在澳大利亚,随之而来的是一场围绕铁矿石的“内战”,战争的双方就是铁矿石生产商自己。Behind the “Our Iron Orecampaign is an Australian miner called Fortescue Metals Group and its combative founder and chairman, Andrew “TwiggyForrest. It blames the price slump on multinational rivals meaning BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto and accuses them of harming Australian interests by flooding the iron ore market with excess supply, driving down industry profits and tax revenue and putting jobs at risk. “我们的铁矿石”运动背后的持者是一家名为Fortescue Metals Group的澳大利亚铁矿石生产商及其好斗的创始人兼董事长安德鲁輠里斯特(Andrew Forrest,因幼时瘦弱,绰号“柴禾棒Twiggy))。该公司将价格暴跌归咎于其竞争对手——跨国公司必和必BHP Billiton)与力Rio Tinto),指责它们的过量供应冲击了铁矿石市场,拉低了行业利润和税收收入,威胁到就业,从而损害了澳大利亚的利益。Iron ore taxes “help pay for schools, roads, police stations and pensionsthe campaign says, adding that the sector needs a “sustainable, Australian-focused future该运动称,铁矿石税“帮助付了学校、道路、警察局及养老金开”,并补充说,这一行业需要一个“可持续、以澳大利亚为重心的未来”。Such pro-Australia arguments seemed to strike a chord. Even Tony Abbott, prime minister, mused on whether an inquiry into the workings of the iron ore market would be sensible.此类亲澳大利亚观点似乎引起了共鸣。即使澳大利亚总理托尼縠伯Tony Abbott)都在思考:对铁矿石市场的运作进行调查是否明智。David Flanagan, managing director of a junior producer called Atlas Iron that was rescued from oblivion by a complex deal with its suppliers and contractors, backs the idea of a parliamentary inquiry, saying ordinary Australians need to understand how the iron ore price is set and how the industry works.市场地位不高的铁矿石生产商Atlas Ironthat董事总经理戴维弗拉纳David Flanagan)持由议会进行调查的观点,他说,普通的澳大利亚人需要了解铁矿石价格如何被设定以及这个行业如何运作。这家原本快要被遗忘的公司此前由于与供应商及承包商达成了一笔复杂交易而再次被记起。Mr Flanagan says the rhetoric of BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto is partly to blame for the drop in prices, with their plans to keep expanding spooking many investors and traders.弗拉纳根说,必和必拓与力拓的言论应该对价格下跌负部分责任,它们继续扩大生产的计划吓到了许多投资商和交易商。The multinationals are hitting back through the Minerals Council of Australia, a sector lobby group, saying restricting output would not work. The council has set up a rival online and social media campaign called “Iron Ore Facts promising to address “mythsput out about the industry.这些跨国公司通过行业游说团体——澳大利亚矿业协Minerals Council of Australia)进行了回击,称限制产量不会有用。该委员会已经发起了一项与“我们”运动针锋相对的网络和社交媒体运动,名为“铁矿石真相Iron Ore Facts),誓言要澄清围绕这一行业的种种“误解”。One fact or at least prediction is that iron ore will be worth 0bn to Australia’s economy over the next 10 years, more than in the past decade.一个事实(或者至少是预测)是,铁矿石对未0年澳大利亚经济的价值将达到6000亿美元,超过过去10年的水平 /201507/386323When world leaders gather in New York this month at the UN General Assembly, they are set to endorse an ambitious package of global economic, social and environmental objectives for the coming 15 years.当世界各国领导人本月齐聚纽约参加联合国大UN General Assembly)时,他们将持一套面向未5年的雄心勃勃的全球经济、社会与环境目标。The aims include ending poverty in all its forms everywhere; providing inclusive and equitable quality education for all; achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls; taking urgent action to combat climate change; conserving and sustainably using the oceans; and ensuring healthy lives and promoting wellbeing for all.这些目标包括:消除全球一切形式的贫困;向所有人提供包容、公平的素质教育;实现性别平等、赋予所有妇女和女童权利;采取紧急行动应对气候变化;保护和可持续利用海洋;确保健康生活和促进全人类福祉。These sustainable development goals (SDGs) sound bold, perhaps even naively idealistic, but there is a precedent: the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ratified by their predecessors at the start of the century, which spanned poverty, hunger, education, health and the environment.这些可持续发展目SDGs)听起来很大胆,甚至有些幼稚的理想主义色,但我们已有先例:当今世界各国领导人的前任们1世纪初签署了8项千年发展目MDGs),涉及贫困、饥饿、教育、健康及环境等领域。Since then, radical changes in thinking, evolutions within countries and political shifts in governance have overhauled the process of selecting and the underlying substance of the international agenda. Yet experts remain divided on the value of the MDGs in the past, and whether the SDGs will have any greater impact in the future.自那以后,思维的剧变、各国内部演变以及治理方面的政治转变,已经彻底改变了国际议程的选择过程(及其内在实质)。然而,对于千年发展目标过往的价值,对于可持续发展目标是否会在未来产生更大的影响,专家们仍各持己见。Ban Ki-moon, the UN’s secretary-general, summed up the effects of the eight MDGs in a final evaluation report this year as “the most successful anti-poverty movement in history On paper, at least as far as the data can be relied upon, there has indeed been significant progress in achieving the goals endorsed in 2000. Extreme poverty in developing countries has fallen from 47 per cent in 1990 to 14 per cent this year, while annual global deaths of children under five have halved to 6m.在今年公布的一份最终评估报告中,联合国秘书长潘基文(Ban ki-moon)将八项千年发展目标的效果总结为“历史上最成功的反贫困运动”。理论上,至少就可依靠的数据而言,在实现2000年确定的目标方面,我们的确取得了巨大的进步。发展中国家的极端贫困人口占比已990年的47%降至今年4%,而全岁以下儿童每年死亡人数已经减少了一半,00万。Yet even on their own terms, the achievements have fallen short of the goals. Despite the positive spin in the UN evaluation report, on current trends it will take another decade for child mortality to fall by the target of two-thirds, for instance. Many of those most in need of the MDGs the poorest and those living in fragile, conflict-torn states benefited least.然而,即使是按照这些目标本身的标准,目前取得的成绩也未达到预期目标。虽然联合国的评估报告往积极的方向说,但以婴儿死亡率为例,按目前趋势,还需10年时间才能实现使其降低三分之二的目标。许多最需要千年发展目标的群体(最贫困以及生活在脆弱、饱受战乱国家的人群)获益最少。Just as important is how far the MDGs themselves have influenced what successes have been achieved. Most notably, if the single-greatest driver of declining global poverty since the turn of the millennium was the remarkable internal economic growth of China, then the MDGs had next to no influencing role.同样重要的是,千年发展目标自身在多大程度上推动了实际取得的成就?尤其是,如果自世纪之交以来全球减贫最大的单一驱动力是中国国内举世瞩目的经济增长,那么千年发展目标就没起到什么影响作用。An analysis by the economist Howard Friedman in 2013 concluded that there was no global acceleration towards most of the development goals after 2000. And among a subset that did progress, the acceleration had generally occurred in the 1990s, before the MDGs were even launched.2013年,经济学家霍华德弗里德Howard Friedman)的一项分析得出结论:2000年之后,大多数发展目标的推进并未在全球范围出现加速。而在确实取得进展的那些国家中,加速也主要发生在上世纪90年代(即千年发展目标被提出之前)。However, Mr Friedman pointed out that the goals could have crystallised existing development beliefs and practices, and some individual countries and regions may have achieved accelerated progress after 2000 because of their influence.但弗里德曼指出,这些目标可能明确表述了原有的发展理念和实践,一些国家乃至地区可能在它们的影响下000年后实现了加速进展。For Charles Kenny, a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development, a US think-tank, even any marginal gains attributable to the MDGs should not be dismissed. “At the global level, such change can still amount to millions of lives saved or improved,he argues.对于美国智库——全球发展中Center for Global Development)高级研究员查尔斯肯尼(Charles Kenny)来说,千年发展目标带来的任何微小成绩都不应被忽视。“在全球层面,这种变化仍可能相当于拯救数百万人的生命,改善数百万人的生活,”他说。In some areas, the MDGs were at least a corollary of a broader trend. They reflected, if not determined, policy and funding shifts by richer donors and poorer recipient countries alike. In health, for instance, international development assistance more than trebled after 2000, with the creation of new multilateral agencies and bilateral funding commitments to maternal and child health and infectious diseases.在某些领域,千年发展目标至少是整体趋势的必然结果。它们反映(如果不是决定的话)富裕捐赠国和贫穷受援国双方在政策和资金提供方面的变化。例如,在医疗卫生领域,2000年以来,国际发展援助增加倍多,创立了新的多边机构,出现了针对母婴健康及传染病的双边出资承诺。Fatoumata Nafo-Traoré, minister of health and social development in Mali at the start of the millennium and now head of the Roll Back Malaria partnership, says: “At first the MDGs created a lot of anxieties, with people thinking they were too ambitious. But they became excited, countries advocated better and mobilised their parliamentarians. If you look at what has been achieved, it’s because of the focus of the UN on bringing all partners on board and really agreeing on goals.”新千年伊始时曾担任马里卫生与社会发展部部长、现为“遏制疟疾伙伴关系Roll Back Malaria partnership)负责人的Fatoumata Nafo-Traoré表示:“一开始,千年发展目标带来了很多焦虑,人们认为它们过于雄心勃勃。但他们变得激动起来,各国更好地进行宣传,并动员起立法者。如果你看一看已经取得的成绩,这应归功于联合国专注于让所有各方参与进来,就目标达成真正的共识。”However, William Easterly, professor of economics at New York University, remains sceptical. “The MDGs communicated a very wrong idea about how development happens: technocratic, patronising and magically free of politics,he says. “It’s not about western saviours but homegrown efforts linked to a gradual extension of political freedom.”然而,纽约大学(New York University)经济学教授威廉伊斯特William Easterly)仍持怀疑态度。“千年发展目标传递了关于如何实现发展的一种非常错误的观念:技术官僚的、居高临下的、神奇般的脱离政治,”他说,“这里的关键与其说是西方救世主,不如说是与逐渐扩大政治自由相关的本土努力。”There was at least some attempt to reflect such concerns in the drafting of the SDGs, which involved a far more extensive consultation and debate over many months, and ensured a larger voice for developing countries.至少已有一些尝试将这些关切反映在新起草的可持续发展目标中,后者涉及持续多月的、范围大得多的磋商和辩论,并确保发展中国家拥有更大的发言权。Yet the result has been an explosion in the number of overall goals from eight to 17, and of specific targets from 18 to 169. Some fear that whatever benefits the MDGs had will be diluted and further progress on them set back. Mr Easterly says: “The SDGs are a mushy collection of platitudes that will fail on every dimension. They make me feel quite nostalgic for the MDGs.”然而,这一切的结果是总体目标数量个增7个,而具体目标从18个暴增至169个。有人担心,千年发展目标带来的成就将被稀释,而未来的进展也将会受挫。纽约大学的伊斯特利说:“可持续发展目标是众多陈词滥调的杂乱集合,它们在每一个层面都将失败。它们让我怀念千年发展目标。”In a recent evaluation, the International Council for Science and the International Social Science Council argued that less than a third of the SDG goals were “well developed with some objectives not quantified and many containing contradictory trade-offs and unintended consequences.在最近一次评估中,国际科学理事会(ICSU)与国际社会科学理事会(ISSC)认为,只有不到三分之一的可持续发展目标“拟定有方”,有些目标没有得到量化,还有不少目标相互矛盾,或者会带来并非出于本意的后果。Jamie Drummond, head of One, a development advocacy group, argues that much greater emphasis on data is needed: swiftly collecting, using and sharing reliable and high-quality information using technology to monitor and assess progress and hold policymakers to account.发展倡导组织One的负责人杰米德拉蒙德(Jamie Drummond)认为,需要更加注重数据:利用科技迅速收集、利用并分享可靠、高质量的信息,以监测和评估进展,让政策制定者承担起责任。There are wider concerns about implementation. Derek Yach, chief health officer of the Vitality Institute, an insurance company, worries that while the involvement of the private sector will be essential to delivering the SDGs, it is struggling to find a voice in the process. “Ownership of the SDGs has to be well beyond government, but there is not a mechanism in the UN for non-state partners,he says.对于这些目标的实施存在着更广泛的担忧。保险公司Vitality Institute首席医疗官德雷克騠什(Derek Yach)担心,虽然私营部门的参与对于实现可持续发展目标不可或缺,但它们很难在这一进程中发出自己的声音。“政府不应该垄断所有可持续发展目标,但联合国没有面向非国家合作伙伴的机制,”他说。So far, against a backdrop of slower global growth and disparate national interests, governments have been slow to signal there is an appetite to fund the SDGs. There were strong words but few additional resources pledged this summer at the UN Financing for Development meeting in Addis Ababa, for instance. And there are also mixed views on the likely progress that may be made at the Paris climate change conference in December.到目前为止,在全球经济增长放缓以及国家利益各不相同的背景下,各国政府都迟迟不愿表现出有意为可持续发展目标出资。例如,在今年夏天亚的斯亚贝巴召开的联合国发展筹资会议上,虽然有不少豪言壮语,但没有多少提供额外资源的承诺。对2月的巴黎气候变化会议有望取得什么进展,各方也看法不一。US economist Jeffrey Sachs, a longstanding advocate of the MDGs, concedes that the new goals will not be easy to implement. But he argues: “The SDGs are a very broad and complex agenda. Whether it can work out is an open question. But there is now an amazing amount of discussion. There is a sense that this is a sensible framework. I’m not saying a new dawn has broken, but at least governments are saying we need to try.”千年发展目标的长期倡导者、美国经济学家杰弗里萨克Jeffrey Sachs)承认,新的目标不易实斀?但他认为:“可持续发展目标一项非常广泛而复杂的议程。能否顺利推进还是个未知数。但现在有大量讨论。大家的感觉是,这一个明智的框架。我并没有说一个新的黎明已经破晓,但至少各国政府在说我们需要试一试。”来 /201509/400251

The recent images of refugees literally struggling over fences to get into Europe make for a powerful reminder, if it were needed, of the scale of the movement of people around the world. The latest official figures for world migration date show a clear step up in the proportion of the global population on the move. It rose from around 2.5 per cent of the total for the decades 1960-1990, to 3.2 per cent in 2013 and the absolute number had reached 231.5m. For the attractive destination countries, the share of the total population consisting of those of foreign birth has reached much higher proportions (15.9 per cent in Sweden, 14.3 per cent in the US, 12.4 per cent in the UK and 11.9 per cent in Germany, on theinternationally comparable UN figures).最近那些难民挣扎着翻越隔离围栏、涌入欧洲的照片有力地提醒了我们全世界人口流动规模之巨大(如果这种提醒有必要的话)。最新的全球移民官方数据显示出,全球人口中流动人口比例出现明显上升。这一比例960年至1990年数十年间的2.5%左右上升013年的3.2%,而且流动人口绝对人数已增.315亿。对于有吸引力的目的地国家来说,总人口构成中出生于外国的人口比例已远高于以前(根据具有国际可比性的联合国数据:瑞典5.9%、美4.3%、英2.4%、德1.9%)。Large-scale migration is nothing new. The late 19th and early 20th century saw huge movements from the Old World to the New. Before that, African slavery transformed the populations of the Caribbean and US. Taking into account movements within Asia, too (for example from northeastern China to Manchuria and Japan), the global total peaked in the 1920s. Post-war turmoil in Europe and Asia alike brought further large movements of people hoping to build new lives in new places.大规模移民并不是什么新鲜事9世纪0世纪初,大量人口从“旧世界”迁徙到“新世界”。在那之前,来自非洲的奴隶改变了加勒比海地区及美国的人口构成。再加上亚洲范围内的人口迁徙(比如从中国东北到日本),全球流动人口总数在上世纪20年代达到了峰值。一战后欧洲及亚洲的动荡局势同样带来了更大规模的人口流动,人们希望在新的地方开始新的生活。Equally, though, there is nothing new about the political and cultural tensions these migrations bring. Assimilation takes (at least) a generation, for obvious reasons. Residents dislike some of the consequences if they are directly affected by immigrant arrivals, or fear them, if they are not polling evidence shows stronger support for anti-immigration politicians in areas where there are the fewest immigrants.然而,同样不新奇的是这些移民带来的政治、文化上的紧张关系。因为显而易见的各种原因,实现同化(至少)需要一代人时间。如果本地居民直接受到了外来移民的影响、或者没有受到影响但害怕后者,他们不会欢迎移民的到来——民调据显示,在外来移民最少的地区,居民对反对移民的政客表现出更大的持。This is creating an acute policy dilemma, reportedly played out in the UK in the shape of a row between ministers. The political imperative is to limit or reduce the number of inward migrants; the economic imperative is to do the opposite. The economic consequences of large-scale immigration will always depend on the context, but the recent evidence for the UK is that the large inflows have had little adverse labour market effect on existing residents. The country’s employment rate is high, and it was only during the recession that there were signs of downward pressure on the wages of people on low pay.这正在造成一种严峻的政策两难,据报道这一幕正在英国上演,表现为各部大臣之间的争吵。政治上要做的是限制或减少外来移民的数量;经济上则相反。大规模移民的经济后果通常取决于环境,但对英国来说,最新的据是,移民大量流入几乎未对本地居民在劳动力市场造成不利影响。英国就业率高,而且只有在经济衰退期间,才会出现对低收入人群工资产生下行压力的迹象。This might seem surprising until you realise that the recent immigrants have skills that are complementary to the workforce in situ, rather than competing with it. This is a characteristic encouraged by the points-based migration policy; the independent Migration Advisory Committee (on which I served for five years) updated its skills shortage list earlier this year. Immigrants here have tended to be younger on average than the existing (ageing) population, net contributors to the public finances; and many are skilled workers. And, after all, it is probably the most dynamic and determined who go through the upheaval of moving to a new country.这或许令你感到惊讶,直到你意识到,近期的移民拥有与本地劳动力互补、而非竞争的技胀?这正是基于积分的移民政策的特点;我曾供职过5年的独立咨询机构——移民咨询委员会(Migration Advisory Committee)今年早些时候更新了短缺技能清单。外来移民平均而言往往比现有(老龄化)的人口更年轻,是公共财政的净贡献者;而且,许多都是有技能的工人。毕竟,经历过迁移到一个新国家的剧变的人,可能是最有干劲和决心的人。So immigration has had, if anything, a positive impact on the aggregate UK economy. No country can be a global leader in any market if it cannot bring in a global workforce. The City’s banks and professional services firms, the multinationals, the software companies, the creative industries all the high value growth sectors of the economy need that raw material of a diverse and international workforce. Higher education needs foreign students, who subsidise UK undergraduates. The public sector needs nurses and nursery assistants and carers and cleaners from eastern and southern Europe because cost pressures mean it does not increase wages to attract residents from, say, accountancy or PR.因此,如果移民对英国整体经济有什么影响的话,也是积极影响。如果不能引入全球劳动力的话,没有国家能在任何市场领域成为全球领导者。伦敦金融城的与专业务公司、跨国公司、软件公司以及创意产业——经济中所有的高价值增长领域——需要多样化、国际化的劳动力供应。高等教育需要外国留学生,后者所交学费可以补贴英国大学本科生。公共部门需要来自东欧、南欧的护士、托儿所助手、护工及清洁工,因为成本压力意味着不可能利用提高工资来吸引(比如说)从事会计或公关工作的居民从事此类工作。So what can politicians do to deal with the conflicting pressures?那么,政客们该如何做才能应对这些相互冲突的压力呢?One step simple to an economist, harder for politicians who d “U-turnswould be not to shoot yourself in the foot with an unattainable target. The UK government’s “net migration in the tens of thousandstarget was obviously always unattainable. It is a very bad idea to target the difference between two large numbers neither of which you can control. The structure of the target is causing stupid decisions such as preventing foreign students from working in the UK for a limited period after graduation. Targets should at least in principle be controllable and meaningful, so in the UK context that means aimed at non-EU inward migration for economic reasons.第一步——对经济学家来说简单,但对害怕80度大转弯”的政客们来说难一些——是不要用无法实现的目标砸自己的脚。英国政府“数万净移民”的目标显然是永远无法实现的。为两个你无法控制的大数字的差额设定目标是一个非常糟糕的主意。这一目标的结构正导致愚蠢的决定,如阻止外国留学生毕业后在英国工作一段有限的时间。目标至少应该在原则上是可控的、有意义的,所以,对英国来说,这意味着从经济原因出发制定针对非欧盟外来移民的目标。A second kind of measure addresses the economic drivers. The public sector itself could play a large role here by reducing its reliance on cheap labour, often arising indirectly through budget pressures on local authority spending on old age care or NHS spending on nurses. Pay and employment conditions will have to improve otherwise the demand for new immigrants to fill these jobs dependent on public spending will only grow.第二类措施需要解决经济驱动力问题。在这方面,公共部门本身可以通过降低对廉价劳动力的依赖发挥很大的作用,这种依赖往往间接地产生于地方当局养老出、或者国民卫生务体NHS)护士薪水出方面的预算压力。工资及雇佣条件必须得到改善,否则,对于用新移民填补这些依赖公共出的职位的需求只会不断增加。It is also important to deal with the adverse consequences of immigration outside the labour market, which manifest themselves in higher demand for public services and housing. Rents go up, GP surgeries are crowded with people speaking foreign languages, buses are packed full at rush hour. Although immigrants here are net financial contributors, paying more in taxes than they receive in benefits and services, that net contribution is not going into the services they use. This is a consequence of the UK’s highly centralised fiscal politics. If the government would devolve enough tax raising and spending power to local authorities, the pressures could be more easily addressed. Let the places where the immigrant settle charge a small local sales tax or keep local property tax revenue, and spend it on schools, housebuilding, transport and the health and social care budget in their area.同样重要的是要应对移民在劳动力市场之外造成的不良后果,主要表现在提升了对公共务和住房的需求。租金上涨,全科医生诊所挤满了操着外语的患者,高峰时间公交车里人满为患。虽然来到英国的移民是财政净贡献者——纳税额比得到的福利和务要多,但净贡献不会进入到他们享受的务之中。这是英国高度集中的财政政治的结果。如果英国政府能将足够的征税和出的权力下放到地方当局,就可以更容易地缓解这些压力。让移民定居的地方当局征收少量的地方消费税或者保留当地的房地产税收收入,并用于这些地区的学校、住房建设、交通、医疗和社会福利预算。None of these would make the migration flows that the world and the UK are experiencing easy to deal with but they would make the dilemmas far less acute.这些措施都不可能让全球及英国正在经历的移民流动更加易于应对,但会显著缓和两难局面的尖锐性。来 /201509/399790

Foreign ministers from the world’s seven leading industrialized countries have called on Russia to rein in Ukrainian rebels and abide by two peace accords reached in Minsk designed to end the conflict. The call came in a communiqué at the end of a meeting in Luebeck, Germany.世界七个主要工业国家(七国集团)的外交部长呼吁俄罗斯遏制乌克兰反叛分子,遵守在明斯克达成的旨在结束冲突的两项和平协议。七国集团外长在德国吕贝克开会后发表的联合公报中作出上述呼吁。Their host, German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier said they called for an end to the recent increase in violence in Ukraine, in spite of a ceasefire.七国集团外长会议主持人、德国外长施泰因迈尔说,七国外长呼吁遵守乌克兰停火协议,结束最近升级的暴力冲突。He also expressed concern about Russia’s decision to sell missiles to Iran, indicating the move is poorly timed with the negotiations on Iran’s nuclear program. “We have the opportunity within the next two-and-a-half months to reach a proper agreement, to get a proper result. So, I don’t think that we should preempt this issue and take steps that might be misunderstood by one side or another.”他还表示对俄罗斯决定向伊朗出售导弹系统的担忧。施泰因迈尔说:“在接下来的两个半月里,我们有机会达成一项合适的协议,取得不错的结果。因此,我认为不应该在解决问题之前采取可能引起任何一方误解的行动。”This meeting brought together the foreign ministers of Germany, Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Canada and the ed States for meetings on crises including Ukraine, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Libya and several in Africa.德国、英囀?法囀?意大利、日本、加拿大和美国的外交部长在会上讨论了乌克兰、伊拉克、叙利亚、也门、利比亚和非洲等国的危机。Most of the G7 countries are also involved in the talks on Iran’s nuclear program, in which U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry has been taking a leading role.多数七国集团成员也参加了以美国国务卿克里为主导的伊核谈判。Secretary of State John Kerry said: “We are confident about our ability for the president to negotiate an agreement and to do so with the ability to make the world safer.”克里国务卿说:“我们相信,总统有能力通过谈判达成协议,让世界更加安全。”Secretary Kerry said the Iran talks are “looming largeafter he helped reach a framework accord two weeks ago, and with the deadline for a final agreement just two-and-a-half months away.他说,他努力促成两个星期前达成伊核框架协议,现在距离达成最终协议的最后期限还有两个半月的时间,伊核谈判显得更加重要。There was a heavy police presence in Luebeck for this meeting, as protesters gathered to march against G7 policies. But the violence that erupted during similar demonstrations a month ago in Frankfurt was not repeated.七国集团外长会谈期间,吕贝克戒备森严。有人在当地举行示威,抗议七国集团的政策。不过,吕贝克没有再现一个月前在法兰克福示威中出现的暴力。These meetings involve considerable formality. But Minister Steinmeier said their importance is “underestimated,though, as ministers have the chance to discuss crises that affect millions of people, and in which the world’s richest countries, and some of its largest militaries, have an important role to play.德国外长施泰因迈尔表示,尽管会谈的重要性被“低估”了,但会谈相当严肃认真,因为各国部长有机会讨论影响成百上千万人的危机;而且,七国集团成员作为世界最富裕的和拥有庞大军力的国家,可以为解决危机发挥重要作用。来 /201504/370872Hundreds of Chinese companies have halted trading in their shares as Beijing struggles to insulate the economy from the country’s steepest equity decline in more than two decades.数中国企业已将自己的股票停牌。目前北京方面正竭尽全力隔离中国经济,使其不受0年来最剧烈的股市下滑的影响。Another 173 groups listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen announced trading suspensions after the market closed last night, bringing the total to about 940, or more than a third of all listed companies on the two exchanges.昨日又有173家在上海和深圳上市的集团在市场收盘后宣布停牌,使停牌的股票总数达到942只,占沪深股市所有上市公司的三分之一。In a further sign of unease about the Chinese market, commodities were hit hard, led by copper. The price of copper futures on the London Metal Exchange dropped to its lowest level since , falling 8.4 per cent in two days.突显人们对中国市场感到不安的另一个迹象是,大宗商品普遍遭受重创,其中铜价领跌。伦敦金属交易所(London Metal Exchange)期铜价格跌至年以来最低水平,在两天里下跌8.4%。Since hitting a seven-year high less than a month ago, stocks have suffered a precipitous decline sparked by a clampdown on margin finance the use of borrowed money to buy shares in response to worries about a bubble.自不到一个月前触年高点以来,中国股市急剧下跌,其触发因素是当局针对有关市场可能存在泡沫的担忧,采取措施控制保金融资,即利用借来的钱购买股票的行为。About tn has been wiped off the value of all listed companies as retail investors have rushed to unwind leveraged bets on the market.随着散户投资者竞相退出对股市的杠杆化押注,上市公司整体已蒸发了大万亿美元市值。The largest number of companies to suspend trading in their shares come from the tech-heavy ChiNext board in Shenzhen, which posted the biggest gains earlier this year and has since suffered the largest correction.停牌数量最多的是以科技股为主的深圳创业ChiNext),该市场在今年早些时候涨幅最大,最近的调整幅度也最大。Beijing has taken steps to keep stocks on China’s two main indices afloat, including direct purchases of large-cap companies, a halt to initial public offerings and a cut to trading fees. But so far its efforts have failed to staunch losses.北京方面已采取措施撑中国两个主要股指的成份股,包括直接购买大盘股、停止首次公开发行(IPO)以及降低交易费。但到目前为止,当局的努力未能止损。“There is a panic but no matter how they [the authorities] jump in, this thing just doesn’t stop falling,said Dong Tao, an economist at Credit Suisse.“目前市场存在一股恐慌情绪,但不管他们(当局)怎么干预,都挡不住市场下跌,”瑞Credit Suisse)经济学家陶冬表示。Chinese stocks fell for a fourth session in the past five yesterday. The Shanghai Composite shed 1.3 per cent, while the Shenzhen Composite lost 5.3 per cent.昨日中国股市在过去五个交易日第四次下跌。上综Shanghai Composite)下跌1.3%,深成Shenzhen Composite)下跌5.3%。The Shenzhen index is now up 36 per cent this year, having been up 122 per cent less than a month ago. The two indices have both dropped a third during the sell-off that began on June 12 in the country’s steepest decline since 1992, according to Bloomberg data.按目前水平衡量,深成指今年以来上涨36%,而不到一个月前的涨幅曾达22%。在始于62日的此轮跌势中,两个股指双双下跌三分之一;根据彭Bloomberg)的数据,这是中国股市992年以来最剧烈的下挫。Kevin Norrish, a commodities analyst at Barclays, said: “China is the largest consumer of copper. The growth outlook for China’s economy is uncertain. Added to this, a huge amount of money has gone into the Shanghai stock market, so as this market falls, there are worries this negative sentiment could feed back into the economy.”巴克莱(Barclays)大宗商品分析师凯#8226;诺里Kevin Norrish)表示:“中国是铜的最大消费国。目前中国经济增长前景是不确定的。再加上此前大量资金涌入上海股市,因此随着这一市场下跌,人们担心这种负面情绪可能反馈至经济。”Shares listed offshore have also been hit. Hong Kong-listed Chinese stocks fell 3.3 per cent, erasing the year’s gains, while mainland groups with US listings lost the most since 2011 on Monday.境外上市的股票也受到了重创。在香港上市的中国内地股票下.3%,抹去了今年全部涨幅,而在美国上市的中资集团周一出现011年以来最大跌幅。The accelerating share suspensions, which have frozen .4tn worth of equity according to Bloomberg calculations, are the latest step by the corporate sector to help halt the decline.数量激增的股票停牌是企业部门帮助遏止股市跌势的最新举措。据彭计算,停牌已冻结了价.4万亿美元的股票。来 /201507/384980

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