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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年12月18日 18:31:58
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Zhou Dynasty周朝General概况In the years around the 10th century , after defeating the last Shang ruler, King Wu with a family name of Ji founded the Zhou Dynasty,大约公元前10世纪,姬氏家族的武王在打败了商朝的最后一个统治者后,建立了周朝。making Haojing his capital city, near the present city of Xi’an in Shaanxi Province.他定都镐京,也就是今天的陕西省西安市附近。As a semi-nomadic tribe, the Zhou learned how to communicate with people of different cultures and gain the allegiance of disaffected city-states.作为一个半游牧的部落。周朝人学会了如何与来自不同文化的人交流以及如何获得心怀不满的城邦的忠心。The early Zhou system was proto-feudal, being a more sophisticated form of earlier tribal organization, in which effective control depended more on familial ties than on feudal legal bonds.周朝早期的制度就是具有封建制度模型的,而这较之早期的部落体系来说更加复杂。早期部落体系中的有效控制更多的依赖于家族的联系而不是封建法治的维系。Whatever feudal elements there may have been decreased as time went on,the Zhou amalgam of city-states became progressively centralized and established increasingly impersonal political and economic institutions.随着时间的推移,不管封建元素是否消退,有不同城邦组成的周朝变得日益集权并且建立了一个更加独立的政治与经济制度。These developments, which probably occurred in the latter Zhou period, were manifested in greater central control over local governments.这些发展,可能出现在周朝后期,表明了中央对于地方政府的掌控。The Zhou adopted much of the Shang lifestyle.周朝采纳了商朝许多的生活方式。In order to utilize the knowledge of the Shang artisans, they often imported Shang families or communities to the new towns they built.为了利用商朝工匠的知识,周朝让商朝的家族或团体居住在他们修建的村庄里。The Zhou also adopted much of the Shang writing system, rituals, and administration techniques.周朝还采纳了商朝很多的文字系统、仪式和管理技巧。Agriculture in Zhou Dynasty was more intensive.周朝的农业更加集中。All farming lands were owned by nobles, who then gave their land to their serfs,贵族拥有所有的土地,然后把这些土地给他们的奴隶。a piece of land was divided into nine squares in the shape of the character jing, with the grain from the middle square taken by the government and that of surrounding squares kept by individual farmers.一块地会被划分成“井”字型的九块,中间那块的粮食收归政府所有,旁边土地的粮食分给个体农户。This way, the government was able to store surplus food and distribute them in times of famine or bad harvest.通过这种方式,政府可以囤积足够的粮食并在饥荒或收成不好时分配粮食。Some important manufacturing sectors during this period include bronze making, which was integral in making weapons and farming tools.这个时期重要的生产部门包括青铜制造,而青铜是武器和农具制造中必不可少的一部分。Again, these industries were dominated by the nobility who direct the production of such materials.同样,这些产业由贵族掌控,他们管理着这些材料的生产。Historians divide the Zhou era into Western Zhou from late 10th century to late 9th century up until 771 and Eastern Zhou from 770 up to 221 .历史学家将周朝分为西周(公元前10世纪至公元前9世纪末,直到公元前771年)和东周(公元前770年至公元前221年)。The beginning year of Western Zhou has been disputed----1122 ,1027 and other years within the hundred years from late 12th century to late 11th century have been proposed.西周开始的年份存在争议。有可能是公元前1121年,公元前1027年或者是公元前12世纪至公元前11世纪100年之间的某一年。Chinese historians take 841 as the first year of consecutive annual dating of the history of China, based on the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian.中国的史学家依据司马迁《史记》的记载将公元前841年定为连续纪年的元年。From the beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty to the unification by Qin, China was marked by disunity and continuous conflicts.从东周的开始到秦朝的统一,中国一直处于割据战乱的状态。 /201509/395407

The hassle of having to charge your smartphone for hours a day could become a thing of the past.今后你可能不需要每天都给手机充几小时的电了。British scientists have created a material that replaces the screen glass for phones, tablets and smartwatches, but uses no power – meaning they could be charged weekly.英国科学家发明了一种物质,它可以替代手机、平板电脑和智能手表的玻璃屏幕,因为该物质不耗电,所以意味着这种屏幕的手机每周充一次电即可。The discovery is significant because more than 90 per cent of a device#39;s battery power illuminates the screen.这项发明十分有意义,因为电子设备90%的电量都是用来为屏幕提供亮度的。Technology firms have focused on improving battery life. But the British experts say tackling the main drain on a gadget#39;s power may give better results.各家技术公司一直在专注提升电池的续航能力。但从事这项技术的英国专家称,找到耗电的主要部件并着手解决,才能取得更好的结果。Oxford University engineer Dr Peiman Hosseini, who invented the material, told the Sunday Telegraph: #39;You have to charge smartwatches every night. But if you had smart glass, you could recharge it just once a week.#39;牛津大学工程师胡赛尼士发明了这种物质。他在接受《星期日电讯报》采访时称:“你不得不每天晚上为智能手表充电。但如果你有了这种智能玻璃屏幕,那你一周充一次电就可以了。”The innovation uses electrical pulses to create displays that require no power and can be viewed even in direct sunlight. Dr Hosseini#39;s company, Bodle Technologies, hopes to have a prototype in a year.这项发明利用电脉冲让屏幕能在不需要电的情况下显示内容,在阳光直射下也能看得清。胡赛尼士在德尔技术公司任职,该公司希望一年后能拥有该屏幕的原型。#39;This is the right moment to be an academic at Oxford,#39; Dr Hosseini said.胡赛尼士说:“作为牛津学者,此时做这项研究很合适。”Battery life is seen as a major stumbling block for modern computing and technology.电池续航能力被视为现代计算机技术的一个主要绊脚石。While the power of technology and lifestyle gadgets has improved exponentially in recent years, batteries have not kept pace.尽管近几年科技发展越来越强大,各种生活工具呈爆发式增长,但电池领域仍没有显著提高。The success of smart watches, including Apple#39;s version, is thought to hinge on solving this problem - because few users are willing to charge a watch every day.人们普遍认为,苹果手表等智能手表的成功与否取决于能否解决电池这个问题——因为几乎没有人愿意每天为手表充电。Gadget firms are also desperate to solve the problem.各家科技产品公司也都在努力想要解决这一问题。Apple, for example, is investigating using fuel cells to power its phones and laptops, and this year was granted a patent for a system it claimed could power its devices for weeks.例如苹果公司就在研究为其手机和笔记本电脑配备燃料电池。公司今年还获得了一项系统专利,该系统据称可以连续几周为苹果设备供电。In 2012 US energy secretary Steven Chu called for a big push to improve batteries, challenging scientists to produce a battery with five times the capacity within five years.2012年,美国能源部长朱棣文呼吁大力帮扶电池领域,希望科学家能在五年内研究出五倍电量的电池。Aside from mobile gadgets, improving battery technology is seen as being key to the success of electric cars, which currently have a limited mileage before they must stop to be recharged.除了移动设备,提升电池技术也是电动汽车发展的关键。目前的电动汽车均有里程上限,因为要时常停下来充电。 /201511/412613

  Five years ago, Zach Klein, a successful tech entrepreneur then in his late 20s, was living in New York City but dreaming of the wilderness. A former Eagle scout, partner at CollegeHumor, and founder of Vimeo, the elegant online platform, he was in between ventures, teaching entrepreneurship at the School of Visual Arts and spinning cycles, as he put it, while looking for land to buy — a lot of land — upon which he hoped to spend time building things and reconnecting to the scouting skills of his childhood.纽约州巴里维尔——5年前,当时快30岁的扎克·克莱恩(Zach Klein)是一名成功的科技行业创业者。他住在纽约市,却梦系荒野。他是曾经的鹰级童子军(美国童子军中的最高级别——译注)、CollegeHumor的合伙人、高雅在线视频平台Vimeo的创始人。当时,他处于创业间歇期,在纽约视觉艺术学院(School of Visual Arts)教授创业课程,同时骑着车四处游走,寻找要买的土地。他买了很多地,想在上面建东西,重新拾起他在儿时学会的童子军技能。Most urgently, he hoped he could persuade his friends to come along for the ride.最迫切的是,他希望能说朋友们加入进来。Mr. Klein got lucky in Sullivan County, N.Y., where he found 50 acres of forest with an understory of ferns and mossy boulders, lightly accessorized with a rough-hewed, one-room shack free from plumbing and electricity and a separate sleeping porch perched on a steep hill overlooking a rushing stream called Beaver Brook.当克莱恩骑到纽约州沙利文县时,幸运降临了,他在那里发现了50英亩森林。那里有蕨类植物组成的植被和长满青苔的巨石,陡峭的山上点缀着一个用粗木建成的没有水电的单间木屋和一个单独的凉台,可以俯瞰一条名叫比弗布鲁克(Beaver Brook)的湍急河流。The property belonged to Scott Newkirk, a New York designer, and much of its appeal lay in Mr. Newkirk’s aesthetic: His shack and porch were lovely enough to have been featured in New York magazine. After 10 years there, Mr. Newkirk was y to move on, and for about 0,000, Mr. Klein had found his utopia.这块房产属于纽约设计师斯科特·纽柯克(Scott Newkirk),它的魅力也主要源于纽柯克的审美:他的木屋和凉台太可爱了,《纽约》杂志(New York)专门对它进行过报道。纽柯克已拥有这块地产10年,打算搬走,于是克莱恩花了大约28万美元得到了自己的乌托邦。Beaver Brook, as he named it, inhabits a nexus of themes: a millennial’s version of the Adirondack camps of the robber barons, the back-to-the-land movements and intentional communities of the 1950s and ’60s, and a combination folk school/artists’ residency.这块房产被纽柯克命名为比弗布鲁克,它汇聚了多个主题:它是这位千禧一代眼中的强盗贵族的阿迪朗达克(Adirondack,木屋所在的大山的名字——译注)营地;它也有点像20世纪五六十年代的返土归田运动和理念村(intentional communities);它还是民间学校和艺术家创作地的结合体。While hedge funders tend to express themselves in ever-bigger shingled simulacrums of early 20th century waterfront estates, those in the tech world who’ve enjoyed similar success may be more interested in experience, community and relationships, as Lane Becker, a founder of digital start-ups and the author of “Get Lucky,” a tech business primer on serendipity, pointed out.虽然木屋的投资者是想建造一个大型的20世纪初滨水木瓦建筑,但正如数字创业公司创始人林恩·贝克(Lane Becker)指出的那样,在科技界体会过类似成功的人可能对体验、社区和人际关系更感兴趣。贝克是《好运》(Get Lucky)一书的作者,这本书是了解科技界各种机缘巧合的入门书籍。“To the extent they want to spend their money, it’s on stuff like that,” he said. Mr. Becker and his wife, Courtney Skott, a furniture maker, were in Denver last weekend for a wedding, staying with a couple — a start-up entrepreneur and a television producer — who had rehabbed a Masonic Lodge. “They Airbnb some of the rooms out,” Mr. Becker said, “less because they need the money but because they’d like to get know different people. That’s sort of the model of what Zach’s doing. Some might see a sort of hipster-twee affectation, but I think there’s a more genuine impulse at work.”“他们就想把钱花在像那样的东西上面,”贝克说。上周末,他和妻子(以制作家具为业)考特妮·斯科特(Courtney Skott)去丹佛参加婚礼,住在一对夫妇家里。这夫妻俩一个是创业家,一个是电视制片人,他们翻修了一个共济会会所(Masonic Lodge)。“他们把其中一些房间挂到了Airbnb上,”贝克说,“并不是因为他们需要这点钱,而是因为他们喜欢结识各种人。这和扎克在做的事有点儿像。有些人可能把这看作是一种追求新奇的做作行为,但我觉得这源于一种更真实的。”Mr. Klein’s inspirations are familiar: the writings of Stewart Brand, the ’60s era eco guru and editor of the Whole Earth Catalogue; and John Seymour, the author of “The Self-Sufficient Life and How to Live it, ” along with the architectural ideals of Christopher Alexander. Other touchstones included a maple sugar shanty he once visited as a child, a community of Hobbitlike tiny houses called Trout Gulch built by some tech friends in Santa Cruz, Calif., and a yurt village built by a family in the Adirondacks.克莱恩的灵感可能来自以下这些著名人物的理念:60年代的环保大师、《全球概览》(Whole Earth Catalogue)的主编斯图尔特·布兰德(Stewart Brand);《自给自足的生活技能》(The Self-Sufficient Life and How to Live it)的作者约翰·西(John Seymour);以及建筑师克里斯托弗·亚历山大(Christopher Alexander)。他儿时去过的一个枫糖小屋、加利福尼亚州圣克鲁斯科技界的一些朋友建造的霍比特式小屋社区鳟鱼峡谷(Trout Gulch),还有阿迪朗达克山区一户人家修建的蒙古包村,也都是克莱恩灵感的来源。But his pitch was pretty simple, said Courtney Klein, a digital strategist and entrepreneur, who married Mr. Klein at Beaver Brook in 2012. “It was, ‘Let’s get a piece of land and we could bring all our friends together and have a good time.’ ”但数字策略师、创业家考特妮·克莱恩说,她丈夫的想法其实很简单。“那就是,‘让我们找一块地,把所有朋友都叫到一起快乐地生活’。”他们俩是2012年在比弗布鲁克结婚的。And so it began. In August 2010, the couple hosted a weekend of “bonfires, contemplation and wood chopping,” among other activities. They cooked stew in the shack, now called Scott’s Cabin, for Mr. Newkirk, and which Mr. Newkirk had outfitted with a propane stove, and washed up by hauling five-gallon containers from the brook.然后他们就开始行动。2010年8月,他们俩组织了一个包括“篝火、冥想和伐木”等内容的周末活动。之前,纽柯克已经在木屋里安装了烧丙烷的炉子,而且用5加仑容量的桶从小溪里提水上来,把木屋洗了一遍。如今这个木屋以纽柯克的名字命名,被称为“斯科特木屋”。搞活动的时候,克莱恩夫妇在木屋里炖肉。Some guests bunked in the shack and sleeping porch; others pitched tents among the ferns. The experience was the model for what would be a kind of weekend commune, an experiment in episodic off-the-grid-living with a core of eight friends that has grown to about 20, including five children (Nell Klein arrived just over a year ago. )一些客人在木屋和凉台上打地铺,其他人则在蕨类植物上起帐篷。这种体验就像某种周末公社,像是偶尔来一次无电力生活体验。参加活动的人从最初的8个增加到约20个,包括5个小孩(包括一年多前出生的内尔·克莱恩)。There was Brian Jacobs, a sound designer and composer and Mr. Klein’s former roommate in New York City. He had been a junior Maine guide and his proficiency with an ax served the group well. There was Jace Cooke, a founder of the tech start-up Giphy, and other young creatives — animators, app designers, musicians and filmmakers.其中一位叫布赖恩·雅各布斯(Brian Jacobs),他是一名音响设计师兼作曲家,也是克莱恩在纽约时的室友。以前他在缅因州做过初级导游,他很会使用斧头,这个技能对这个组织很有用。来这儿的还有科技初创公司Giphy的创始人杰斯·库克(Jace Cooke)等年轻创意工作者,比如动画师、应用程序设计师、音乐人和电影人。Mr. Jacobs brought Grace Kapin, who worked in fashion, one weekend; having survived that, they are now married and building a cabin there. Before long, everyone became handy with chain saws and other power tools; they brought in more experienced builders to oversee large projects and teach the group carpentry skills.有一个周末,雅各布斯带着格蕾丝·考平(Grace Kapin)前来,她在时尚界工作。有了在那里共度周末的经历,现在他们已经结婚,在附近也建了一座小木屋。不久之后,所有人都能熟练使用链锯等电动工具,他们还请了一些更有经验的建筑工人来监督大型项目,教大家木工技术。There were rookie mistakes. An early project, a barrel-shaped tub, floated away one spring when the snow melted and the brook rose. Composting drew bears. (Ms. Kapin named their ursine visitors: Alan Ginzbear, Stephen Colbear, Marion Beary.)他们也会犯些新手才会犯的错误。早期他们做过一个桶状浴盆,结果春天冰雪融化、小溪涨水时,它就被冲走了。堆肥还把熊给引来了(考平还给那些熊起了名字:艾伦·金丝熊[Alan Ginzbear]、斯蒂芬·科尔熊[Stephen Colbear]和马里昂·熊熊[Marion Beary])。The group made art on their camping weekends, including a winsome short film about building a stool from an oak tree, and took enticing photographs that looked like they had been art-directed by the editors of Kinfolk magazine. Since 2009, Mr. Klein had been collecting images of sheds, shacks, cabins and huts into a Tumblr blog he called, cunningly, Cabin Porn, and he also posted Beaver Brook’s embellishments, captured in those photographs, there.这群人还把他们的周末野营生活搞得很艺术化。他们拍了一部颇为讨喜的短片,讲的是如何用一段橡木做一把凳子;还拍了一些诱人的照片,像是在《Kinfolk》杂志编辑的艺术指导下完成的。自2009年起,克莱恩就一直在收集各种工棚、棚屋和木屋的图片,并把它们收入一个Tumblr客里,客的名字起得很搞怪,叫Cabin Porn。他还在上面发布大家拍的比弗布鲁克装饰品的照片。When the blog, an enchanting rabbit hole of tiny handmade houses, quickly went viral, his private utopia became public record, and book publishers came courting, seeing in Cabin Porn the architectural equivalent of Brandon Stanton’s Humans of New York. The result, “Cabin Porn: Inspiration for Your Quiet Place Somewhere,” is out this week from Little, Brown.这个客成了集合各种小手工房的兔子洞,非常吸引人,很快传播开来,克莱恩自己的乌托邦变得广为人知,出版商也找上门来,他们认为Cabin Porn是摄影师布兰登·斯坦顿(Brandon Stanton)《人在纽约》(Humans of New York)的建筑界版本。结果,《Cabin Porn:心中静默之处的灵感》(Cabin Porn: Inspiration for Your Quiet Place Somewhere)一书将于本周(9月20日至9月26日)由利特尔-布朗出版社(Little, Brown)出版。Three years ago, Mr. Klein began inviting artisans like Tom Bonamici, a product designer with an expertise in woodworking and timber framing, to hold annual weeklong workshops at Beaver Brook for paying students to learn building skills. Mr. Klein, whose latest endeavor is DIY, an online “maker” site for children, is keenly interested in turning Beaver Brook into both a folk school and an artists’ residency.三年前,克莱恩开始邀请一些工匠每年花一周时间来比弗布鲁克举办讲习班,学生们可以付费学习建造技巧。比如,产品设计师汤姆·纳米奇(Tom Bonamici),他擅长木工活和木屋骨架制作。克莱恩最近在做的是一个名叫DIY的儿童“创客”(maker)网站,他很想把比弗布鲁克变成一个民间学校和艺术家创作地。After his first workshop, and at Mr. Klein’s urging, Mr. Bonamici, a gentle Oregonian with a passion for traditional Japanese timber framing, became a Beaver Brook resident.纳米奇是个温和的俄勒冈人,对传统日式木屋骨架有着强烈的热情。在克莱恩的鼓励下,他在这里第一次举办讲习班后,也成了比弗布鲁克的居民。Like all utopias, this one changed as it grew. It was three years ago that the Bunkhouse was built, on a piece of land across the brook with road frontage, electricity and a well. Camping in Scott’s Cabin or in tents strewn about the hill had lost its luster, Mr. Klein said, “People got slower and slower about volunteering to do the dishes on cold nights.” And without power, Beaver Brook’s season was contained to the warmer months.和所有乌托邦一样,这里也在不断变化。三年前,他们在小溪对面的一块地上建起了工棚,前面有路,附近有井,还通了电。克莱恩说,在斯科特木屋住宿或者在附近的山上搭帐篷野营,已经不再具有吸引力,“在寒冷的夜里,人们越来越不愿意主动洗碗”。而且因为没有电,人们只会在气候温暖的几个月来比弗布鲁克。Yet there is some nostalgia for the time “before,” when there was no cellphone coverage, Wi-Fi or hot water. This year’s Beaver Brook workshop project was timber framing, the foundation for an outdoor kitchen the residents hope will bring some of the action back to the Arcadian side of the brook. Six students paid 0 for Mr. Bonamici’s tutelage; the fee covered a week’s worth of chef-cooked meals and groceries (Mr. Klein and Ms. Klein paid for materials and Mr. Bonamici’s stipend).不过对于“从前”,人们还是有着某种怀旧情绪,那时候,这里没有手机信号,没有Wi-Fi,没有热水。今年比弗布鲁克讲习班的主题是木屋骨架制作,它是户外厨房的基础。居民们希望它能把某些活动带回小溪对面的阿迪朗达克那一侧。6位学员付500美元,获得纳米奇的指导,这笔钱只够付一周的厨师餐和零食(克莱恩夫妇则付了原材料费和纳米奇的报酬)。On the last night of the workshop, students and residents ate by candlelight among the sturdy framework they’d built. “It was like old times,” Mr. Klein said.在讲习班的最后一个晚上,学员和居民坐在他们做好的结实的骨架里,在烛光下吃了一顿饭。“真像从前啊,”克莱恩说。The Bunkhouse, Mr. Klein said, was also bait for a plan he was hatching to draw Ms. Klein, Mr. Jacobs and Ms. Kapin into full-time residency at Beaver Brook. The four discussed buying a local market, perhaps putting a bar in its basement until Ms. Klein put the kibosh on the plan.克莱恩说,工棚也是他为了吸引妻子、雅各布斯和考平成为比弗布鲁克全职居民所设的诱饵。他们4个还讨论过买下当地的一个市场,可能还要在市场的地下室里开一家酒吧,但是最后克莱恩太太叫停了这些计划。While Beaver Brook, she said, “did snowball pretty quickly from something that had more meaning than a weekend house,” it was not her life plan to settle permanently in rural Sullivan County.她说,虽然比弗布鲁克“不仅是一个周末度假屋,而且它发展得很快”,但是永远住在沙利文乡下并不是她的人生计划。“Courtney was the voice of reason,” Ms. Kapin said.“考特妮是我们中间比较理性的一个,”考平说。The Kleins have since moved to San Francisco, where DIY is based. Ms. Klein and Ms. Kapin, who still lives in Brooklyn, are partners in Storq, a line of maternity clothes that Ms. Klein founded.后来,克莱恩夫妇搬到了DIY所在的旧金山。考平仍住在布鲁克林,她成了考特妮创立的妇装品牌Storq的合伙人。Mr. Klein and Ms. Klein are Beaver Brook’s owners, and they pay taxes and insurance on the properties. Beaver Brook residents are divided by their dues into two categories: Bunkers pay 0 a month for a guaranteed bed in the Bunkhouse. Campers pay a month for a spot across the brook.克莱恩夫妇是比弗布鲁克的主人,他们为它交税、上保险。根据各人交的会费高低,比弗布鲁克的居民被分到不同的住处:工棚里一个床位的月租费是150美元,在小溪对面搭帐篷的费用是每月75美元。Bedrooms at the Bunkhouse, an airy open-plan house designed around the frame of a 19th-century barn, are first come first served. It’s the most practical system, Mr. Klein said.工棚的卧室是宽敞的开间,是绕着一个19世纪谷仓设计而成的,这些卧室采取先到先得的原则。克莱恩说,这种安排最实用。Last year, 100 people, give or take, spent at least one night in the house. Over Labor Day, he and Ms. Klein and Nell were sleeping in a first-floor bedroom that has been outfitted with a crib, one of three separate bedrooms.去年,大约100人至少在这里过了一夜。这里有三间独立的卧室。今年劳动节,克莱恩夫妇和孩子睡在一层的一个配备婴儿床的独立卧室里。Most of the sleeping options are communal: In an open loft space upstairs, there are two double beds; the Bunkroom, which is also upstairs, has eight futons on its wide-planked yellow pine floor. It’s Mr. Klein’s favorite place to sleep. “I love being up here with eight snoring buddies,” he said.这里大部分睡觉的地方都是共用的:在楼上开放的loft里有两张双人床;Bunkroom也在楼上,它宽大厚实的黄松木地板上放着8张日式床垫。克莱恩最喜欢在那儿睡觉,他说:“我就喜欢到楼上去和8个打呼噜的兄弟们在一起。”As for projects, there is one simple rule, Mr. Klein said: “As long as the thing you want to do doesn’t cause irreversible change, just go for it.” Idan Cohen, an amateur chef, organized the building of a cob oven one work weekend this summer. As it happens, Ms. Kapin’s and Mr. Jacobs’s stunning wedge of a cabin, dubbed Clydeshead for their dog, Clyde, was Mr. Klein’s idea.克莱恩说,他做项目有一条简单的规矩,“只要你想做的事不会导致不可逆转的变化,那就尽管去做”。今年夏天的一个劳动周末,业余大厨伊登·科恩(Idan Cohen)组织大家做柴火炉。实际上,考平和雅各布斯的那个令人惊艳的楔形木屋(他俩以自家Clyde的名字把木屋命名为Clydeshead)就是克莱恩的主意。“It’s his special skill to talk people into doing something ambitious,” Ms. Kapin said. (Given Mr. Klein’s hope to anchor his friends more permanently to Beaver Brook, one suspects in this instance a deeper motive.)“他有一种特殊的能力,能鼓动人们做些有抱负的事,”考平说(鉴于克莱恩希望朋友们能更长久地呆在比弗布鲁克,所以他的这种能力可能也源于一种更深层次的动力)。With a budget of ,000, Mr. Jacobs’s and Ms. Kapin’s original vision of a cube tucked into the hill receded pretty quickly. “Once we talked to people who knew what they were doing,” Mr. Jacobs said, “we realized we’d have to build a retaining wall, there’d be backhoes involved...”凭借一万美元的预算,雅各布斯和考平很快就打消了建造一个嵌入山体的正方形小屋的念头。“我们和了解此事的人聊了聊,”雅各布斯说,“得知我们得砌一堵挡土墙,那要用到挖掘机……”Mr. Jacobs’s brother, Mike, is an architect, and he designed a refined 350-foot rectangle cantilevered out over the hill that uses the surrounding trees as supports. That particular innovation depends on treehouse technology, an anchor bolt known as a Garnier Limb. (Michael Garnier, an Oregon based treehouse builder — and treehouse dweller — is sometimes known as the father of the modern treehouse movement.)雅各布斯的弟弟迈克(Mike)是一名建筑师,他设计了一个350平方英尺大的精致长方形屋子,利用周围的树作撑,悬挂在山上。这种特殊的创新靠的是一种名叫“卡尼尔枝翼”(Garnier Limb)锚栓的树屋技术(迈克尔·卡尼尔[Michael Garnier]是俄勒冈的一位树屋建筑师,他自己也住在树屋里,有时他被誉为现代树屋运动之父)。There are Beaver Brook rituals, like the annual talent show, held New Year’s Eve in the Bunkhouse. Newbies earn a nickname after their third night on the property, and following a requisite post-sauna plunge in the brook after dark. (Mr. Klein’s is Zubaz, for the virulently patterned pants that he and other Buffalo Bills fans like to wear. Ms. Kapin’s is Guns, for the Linda Hamilton-like biceps she developed building her cabin.)比弗布鲁克也有各种仪式,比如每年新年前夕在工棚里举办的才艺秀。新来的人在这里度过三晚之后,就会拥有自己的昵称,然后必须在晚上洗完桑拿之后跳进小溪里完成整个仪式(克莱恩的昵称是Zubaz,名字来自他和其他布法罗比尔队(Buffalo Bills)的粉丝喜欢穿的那种有着狂野图案的裤子。考平的昵称是Guns,因为在盖小屋期间,她练出了像琳达·汉密尔顿[Linda Hamilton]那样的肱二头肌)。On work weekends, newcomers might be assigned grunt work chores like path maintenance. “It is much, much harder than you’d imagine,” Ms. Kapin said with a slight shudder.在劳动周末,新来的人可能会被安排去做累人的工作,比如道路维护。“它比你想象的要难得多,”考平说这话的时候身体都有点儿抖。There’s an email chain, for planning projects and working out domestic issues. Laundry has been particularly thorny. With so many beds and no assigned rooms, the residents were struggling until it was suggested they bring their own sheets and towels. One resident offered to cross-stitch everyone’s names on their linens.他们建了一个邮件组,讨论项目策划和家务问题。洗衣的问题尤为棘手。床铺这么多又没有固定的房间,居民们此前一直很苦恼,最后他们决定自己带床单和毛巾。一位居民主动提出用十字绣给每个人的床单和毛巾绣上名字。Beekeeping has been broached as a project for next summer (Mr. Klein has a hankering for mead). In August, Mr. Klein sent around a Beaver Brook logo he and Mr. Cooke designed as a book stamp for their growing Bunkhouse library.他们已经在讨论明年夏天开始养蜂(克莱恩特别想喝蜂蜜酒)。今年8月,克莱恩开始分发比弗布鲁克的logo,那是他和库克为越来越大的工棚图书室设计的藏书章。Unlike the vicious, trollish tenor of, say, the internal communiqués of Manhattan co-ops, Beaver Brook residents write with civility and a regular refrain of “awesome!”不像曼哈顿合作公寓的内部公告那样恶毒,比弗布鲁克居民的内部公告彬彬有礼,而且经常能看到人们写道“好极了”。“I think this is an important step,” Mr. Klein wrote, weighing in on the recent laundry discussion, “towards delegating the responsibilities for making BB work, creating a more camp-like culture, and raising the bar of participation to be more intentional. Cheers or jeers?”在最近一次关于洗衣的讨论中,克莱恩写道:“我觉得这一步很重要。比弗布鲁克要想运转下去,我们必须分担责任,营造一种更像野营的文化,并且提高参与标准,选择那些更有诚意的人。大家同不同意?”Back home in San Francisco, the email chain is Mr. Klein’s primary online community, as he pines for his East Coast retreat.回到旧金山的家里后,邮件组就成了克莱恩最常去的网络社区,因为他很怀念自己在东海岸的那个隐居地。Sunday nights are rough, he added. “It’s when everyone is driving back to the city from Beaver Brook,” he said, “and I get a flurry of photos of the meals they’ve made, or of building the cob oven, and I feel on some level I’m missing out on the life I made.”他补充说,周日晚上是最难过的。“因为那时所有人都会开车离开比弗布鲁克回城里去,”他说,“然后我会收到一大堆照片,他们做的饭的照片或者他们搭的柴火炉的照片。我觉得,从某种层次上讲,我缺席了自己创造的生活。” /201510/405502

  阅读提示:对照英文在下。5. 谷歌母公司Alphabet联合创始人兼总裁谢尔盖·布林(Sergey Brin)谷歌创始人谢尔盖·布林(Sergey Brin)出任谷歌母公司Alphabet总裁一职,身价380亿美元。Brin was the president of Alphabet, a Google subsidiary ofa new holding company. Today Brin have personal fortunes of billion. /201512/413284。

  

  

  Half of one satisfying sexual encounter a month. That is the average benefit a woman gets when she takes the new female libido drug, sometimes called the “female Viagra,” researchers reported Monday. 周一(2月29日),研究人员报道:妇女们在用一种新型女用助兴药(有时也称为“女用伟哥”)后,一个月里满意的性行为次数平均可以增加半次。 Last year the Food and Drug Administration approved the drug, flibanserin, making it the first drug available to treat low sexual desire in women. It was promoted by a group of women’s rights activists who argued it was unfair that men had numerous drugs to boost sexual function while women had nothing. 该药物名叫氟班色林(flibanserin),去年获得了美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, F.D.A.)的批准,从而成为了第一种用于治疗女性性欲低下的药物。这是一群女权主义者大力敦促的结果。她们认为,男人们有好多药物可以促进性功能,而女人们却什么都没有,太不公平。 But public health groups and some other women’s groups contended that the science did not justify its approval. The drug’s effects were modest, they said, and not worth side effects such as sleepiness, dizziness, fatigue and nausea. And the risk of some side effects increased with alcohol consumption. 然而,部分公共卫生组织和其他一些妇女团体对此表示异议,声称该药物的获批缺乏足够的科学依据。他们说,这种药物的作用平平,不足以抵消其副作用,如嗜睡、头晕、疲劳和恶心等。而且,饮酒还会加大某些副作用的风险。 In the new study, published in JAMA Internal Medicine, researchers found benefits that were slightly more modest than those submitted to the F.D.A. during the approval process. The researchers analyzed eight studies of about 5,900 women, using a method that involved pooling the data. They concluded that treatment with flibanserin, now marketed as Addyi, resulted in “one-half of an additional sexually satisfying encounter per month.” (The study did not define what “one-half” of a sexually satisfying encounter was.) 在发表在《美国医学会期刊:内科学》杂志(JAMA Internal Medicine)上的一项新研究中,研究人员发现,该药物的效益比审批过程中提交给F.D.A.的材料中显示的略低。研究人员采用数据汇总等方法,分析了涉及5900名妇女的八项研究。他们的结论是:接受氟班色林(商品名为Addyi)治疗的女性“一个月里满意的性行为次数平均可以增加半次”(该研究并未给“半次”满意的性行为做出定义)。 That result was not very different from original findings of three clinical trials submitted to the F.D.A. as support for the drug’s approval. Those trials found that once women started taking the drug, they had an average of about one additional satisfying sexual encounter a month, on top of the two to three they were having aly. That result lifted the benefits above the bar of being scientifically meaningful, but barely. Still, it was enough for the agency’s approval. 该结果与当初药物审批过程中提交给F.D.A.的三个临床试验的结果大同小异。那些试验发现,从妇女们开始用该药物起,她们一个月里满意性行为的次数平均增加了一次,最多可以增加两到三次。这些结果表明,该药物的效益勉强达到了“具有科学意义”的标准——但已经足以获得F.D.A.的批准了。 In a statement, Dr. Tage Ramakrishna, the chief medical officer at Valeant, the company that now owns the drug, said that the new analysis confirmed the findings of the clinical trials and “provided little additional context.” He said the way the analysis was done, combining data from a number of different studies, carried “less statistical weight” than the randomized trials . 该药物的当前持有者——Valeant制药国际公司的首席医务官塔格·罗克里希纳(Tage Ramakrishna)士在一份声明中表示,上述新分析实了临床试验的结果,且“没提供什么新东西”。他说,该分析合并了来自众多不同研究的数据,其“统计权重低于”随机试验。 The drug was approved last June, after twice being rejected by the agency over several years. In the clinical trial results submitted, women taking the drug also reported on monthly questionnaires that they felt more desire, although the difference compared with a placebo was also meager — only about 0.3 points on a scale ranging from 1.2 to 6.0. 继此前若干年里两次遭到F.D.A.拒绝后,该药物终于在去年6月通过了审批。在提交给F.D.A.的临床试验结果中,用该药物的妇女们还在每月的问卷调查中报告,她们感到性欲增强了,只是与安慰剂差异甚微——在评分范围为1.2到6.0分的量表中仅差0.3分上下。 Experts who had opposed the drug’s approval said the JAMA analysis, which confirmed that the drug increased the risk of dizziness, sleepiness, nausea and fatigue, underscored the meagerness of the benefit. 反对该药物过审的专家们则称,JAMA的分析实,该药物确会增加头晕、嗜睡、恶心和疲劳的风险,反过来更显出其效益的微乎其微。 “An additional half a satisfying sexual encounter a month — is that meaningful?” asked Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman, the director of PharmedOut, a project at Georgetown University that questions the influence of drug companies on the practice of medicine. “I think only the women can answer that, but perhaps they aly have with their lack of enthusiasm for getting prescriptions.” “一个月平均可增加半次满意的性行为——这有意义么?”安德莱内·傅柏曼(Adriane Fugh-Berman)士问道,他在乔治城大学(Georgetown University)领导了PharmedOut项目,质疑制药公司对医疗实践的影响。“我认为这个问题只有妇女们自己才能回答,但或许她们的兴趣缺缺已经表明了她们的态度。” The drug is not selling well. As of early January, Addyi was generating only 240 to 290 prescriptions a week, according to a report last week by David Maris, an analyst at Wells Fargo Securities, who cited the prescription tracker IMS Health as the source of the data. Mr. Maris estimated that sales of Addyi were running at a rate of million a year, well below the 0 million to 0 million in sales that Valeant said it hoped to achieve this year. 这种药物并不畅销。上周富国集团(Wells Fargo Securities)的分析师戴维·马里斯(David Maris)在一份报告中指出,根据艾美仕市场研究公司(IMS Health)的处方跟踪数据,截至1月初,一周里只有240到290张Addyi的处方开出。马里斯先生估计,Addyi的年销售额约为每年1100万美元,远低于Valeant公司的预期——今年达到1亿至1亿5000万美元。 Still, some said the drug helped. Dr. Lauren Streicher, an associate clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, said a number of her patients have taken the drug and reported significant increases in libido. None has discontinued use because of side effects, she said. 不过,也有人说这种药有些用处。西北大学费恩柏格医学院(obstetrics and gynecology,位于芝加哥)的妇产科临床副教授劳伦·施特赖歇尔(Lauren Streicher)士说,她的一部分患者在药后报告性欲显著上升。她还说,没有人因副作用而停药。 The analysis was undertaken by researchers in Europe, but one of the study’s authors, Dr. Ellen Laan, an associate professor in the Department of Sexology and Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam, has been an opponent of the drug. Last year, she helped organize a letter to the F.D.A. opposing the approval and signed another letter to Congress that said the argument about gender equality was “misleading and dangerous.” 前述新分析由欧洲的研究人员完成,但该研究的作者之一,荷兰阿姆斯特丹大学(University of Amsterdam)学术医学中心(Academic Medical Center)的性学和心理妇产科系(Department of Sexology and Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology)副教授埃伦·拉恩(Ellen Laan)士一直对该药物持反对态度。去年,她协助组织致函F.D.A.反对该药物通过审批,并在给国会(Congress)的另一封信上签名,表示那些声称该药物的审批关乎性别平等的论调“误导人心,十分危险”。 /201603/430535

  Imagine working long hours day in day out, falling into bed exhausted each night and getting up with the sun each morning — but never getting paid and never, according to the people who measure such things, actually “creating value”. It sounds grossly unfair, but this is the condition of most women around the world. When governments measure national economies in the gross domestic product, “women’s work” — caregiving, housekeeping, home-making — does not count as “work”.想象一下,日复一日地长时间工作,每天早上太阳升起就起来,夜晚精疲力尽才入睡,但从来没有报酬,而且,据那些测算经济活动的人所说,也从来没有真正“创造价值”。这听起来极其不公平,但这就是世界各地大多数女性的境况。当政府以国内生产总值(GDP)计量国民经济时,“女性的工作”——照顾家人、操持家务——不算“工作”。Thanks to a new report out from McKinsey on the gender gap in the workplace, though, we now know the actual value of all this unpaid work: a staggering tn. That is roughly the size of China’s GDP. If all the women taking care of their families constituted one nation, it would have the fourth-largest economy in the world.然而,麦肯锡(McKinsey)一份有关工作场所性别鸿沟的新报告告诉我们,这些没有报酬的工作的实际价值达到令人震惊的10万亿美元。这大致相当于中国的GDP。如果所有照顾家庭的女性组成一个国家,那将是世界上第四大经济体。All this work, moreover, is just the physical dimension of care. As Anne-Marie Slaughter argues in her new book, Unfinished Business , caregiving includes the additional emotional component of love and nurture, the transformation of an income stream into the teaching, discipline, moral guidance, problem-solving, emotional support and role-modelling that raising children and simply investing in others requires. That is work worth measuring.此外,这些劳动只是女性对家庭照顾的物理方面。正如安妮-玛丽斯劳特(Anne-Marie Slaughter)在新书《未竟之业》(Unfinished Business)中提出的,照顾还包括爱和培育中附加的情感组成部分,把收入流转化为教导、训诫、道德引导、问题解决、情感持和树立榜样,这些都是养育孩子和将精力投入到其他人身上所必需的因素。这是一份值得衡量的工作。These inequities exist in rich and poor countries alike. In rich countries, women turn money into the goods and services necessary for survival and flourishing: shopping, cooking, cleaning, washing, organising. In poor countries, women bear the burden of providing the basic necessities of life: hauling water and firewood, and farming subsistence crops.这种不平等在富国和穷国都存在。在富国,女性将金钱转换成生存和发展所必需的产品和务:购物、烹饪、打扫、洗刷、整理。在穷国,女性则背负着提供基本生活必需品的重担:收集水和柴火,以及耕种用作口粮的农作物。We must act. The economist Diane Elson has created a strategy that has been adopted by many advocates: “Recognise, reduce and redistribute.”我们必须行动。经济学家黛安娜埃尔森(Diane Elson)提出了一套得到许多持者采用的策略:“认识、减少和再分配。”Recognising the unfair burden being placed on women is the first step to addressing it. As long as economic statistics of record erase the work they do, it will be easier for everyone to ignore the disparity at the heart of our societies.认识到女性背负的不公正的重担是解决这个问题的第一步。只要计量经济学的记录还在抹消女性的工作,大家就更容易忽视处于我们社会核心的不平等。Reducing the amount of time and effort women spend doing tedious chores is possible with labour-saving technologies. In developing nations, where women spend hours gathering water and wood to run their households, this may mean efficient cookstoves, community cisterns and rural electrification. In richer countries, we have been using washing machines, electric irons, and vacuum cleaners for years. By reducing the 61 per cent of unpaid work that consists of routine household tasks, we can free up time for the valuable work of caring for children and elders.通过节省劳力的技术来减少女性花在乏味家务上的时间和精力是可能的。在发展中国家,女性耗费很多时间来收集水和柴火以维持家用,这或许意味着我们需要高效率的炉灶、社区蓄水池和农村通电。在更发达的国家,多年来我们一直在使用洗衣机、电熨斗、真空吸尘器。通过减少占日常家务61%的无偿劳动,我们可以把这些时间释放出来去做有意义的事——照顾孩子和老人。Redistributing unpaid labour, the last step, means including men equally in the work and the joys of care. Men who bond with their children early on and become fully competent at childcare report that they experience a different and deeply fulfilling relationship. Moreover, when men and women are equal co-parents, they are both likely to push for the flexible work arrangements that would help everyone.最后一点是重新分配家务活,这意味着男人也要平等地参与到照顾家庭的劳作和乐趣中来。那些很早就和子女建立亲密关系,并且逐渐变得完全胜任照顾孩子的工作的男性表示,他们体验到了一种与众不同、深沉充实的亲子关系。此外,当男女平等地分担家长的工作时,他们很可能会争取弹性的工作安排,这样对所有人都有利。We do not know with certainty what women will do with the extra time they gain from reducing and redistributing unpaid work. But it is hard to imagine they would not use some of it for economically productive activities or to further their education. That is where a second number in the McKinsey report comes in: if the world’s women were not assigned the majority of household tasks, forced to take part-time jobs to accommodate childcare and other important responsibilities, or shunted into low-paying professions, global GDP would grow by a breathtaking tn, a number larger than the US and Chinese economies combined.减少和重新分配这些无偿工作以后,女性会用这些多出来的时间做什么,我们无法确定。但是,很难想象她们会不用一部分时间来从事经济活动或者进修。这是麦肯锡报告提出的第二个数字:如果全世界的女性没有承担大部分的家务劳动,没有为了照顾孩子和担负其他重大责任而被迫兼职工作,也没有被打发到一些低工资职业,那么全球GDP将增长28万亿美元,这个数字令人震惊,它比美国和中国经济总量之和还大。Estimates are tricky and real equality would mean men stepping back as women step up. Still, the business case is clear. Politicians, employers, investors, and voters have no excuse not to act.估算是困难的,真正的平等意味着当女性向前迈一步的同时,男性要向后退一步。即便如此,经济上的理由还是显而易见的。政界人士,雇主,投资者和选民没有借口不采取行动。 /201511/409607

  Chinese online bookstores Amazon, Dangdang and Jingdong have released their best-seller lists for 2015, showing that The Secret Garden, an all the rage coloring book with only 264 characters, is the book most people spent money on in the past year.近日,中国网上书店亚马逊、当当和京东均发布了2015年畅销书排行榜。根据数据显示,《秘密花园》,这本仅有264个字但风靡一时的图画书,是过去一年里卖的最火的一本书。;Sales of The Secret Garden reached a million copies three months since it hit the shelves, and total sales in 2015 are more than 1.5 million,; Chen Lijun, manager at Dangdang#39;s publications devision, told Huaxi Metropolis Daily.当当网出版物事业部经理陈丽君告诉华西都市报记者,“《秘密花园》在上架后三个月内售出了一百万本,2015年的销售总额超过了150万。”;I think coloring is a good way to relax,; said Xiong Xin, a 27-year-old staff worker at a state-owned enterprise in Beijing who bought the book soon after it came out.《秘密花园》刚一出版,北京某国企27岁的职工熊信就购买了本书,他表示,“我觉得涂色是一种很好的放松方式。”The sold out popularity of the book, while not surprising, is quite accidental to some cultural critics - it is a byproduct of the growing young middle class#39;s endeavor to escape from work and life pressures.这本书的畅销不足为奇,但却意外的遭到了文化界的批评--这本书被认为是越来越多年轻的中产阶级努力想要逃避工作和生活压力的副产品。;The book is more about participation and recreation. Its popularity suggests that the book is becoming an alternative for the young middle class Chinese to let out pressure,; Peking University professor and cultural critic Zhang Yiwu told China Daily Website.北京大学教授、文化家张颐武在接受中国日报采访时表示,“这本书,更多的是参与和。其受欢迎程度表明,涂色书正在成为年轻一代中产阶级释放压力的选择之一。”Books concerning children, as last year, did not miss out among the top 10 - only that the focus shifted from children#39;s literature to children#39;s education. Such demands, came as no surprise as the country is encouraging more babies and the middle class Chinese#39;s interests in cultivating their children is on the rise.和去年一样,有关儿童的书籍在畅销书前十也榜上有名,只是重点从儿童文学转移到了儿童教育。随着国家鼓励生育,以及中国的中产阶级对孩子教育的兴趣上升,这类需求上升也在意料之中。Other trending books include those spurred by same name movies or dramas, such as Wolf Totem written by Chinese writer Jiang Rong, The Little Prince by French writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry and Ordinary World by Chinese writer Lu Yao.其他具有上升趋势的书籍包括那些受同名影视剧所推动的作品,比如中国作家姜戎所著的《狼图腾》,法国作家安东尼·德·圣艾修伯里的《小王子》和中国作家路遥的《平凡的世界》。The only economics and management book on the list is Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future, ranked second and fourth in Jingdong and Amazon#39;s selling lists respectively. The book, recommended by many worldwide CEOs including Facebook#39;s Mark Zuckerberg.名单上唯一的经济管理类书籍--《从0到1:开启商业与未来的秘密》,分别在京东和亚马逊的畅销书单中名列第二名和第四名。这本书,被包括Facebook 的CEO马克·扎克伯格在内的国内外众多高管所推荐。 /201601/422303。

  One of the responsibilities of the Food and Drug Administrationis to assure that foods are labeled properly. It providesregulations on what, where, and how prominently informationshould be placed on packaging. The idea is that consumersshould not be misled by what they on the groceries theybuy. However, the labels should also be written in plain,understandable language. This means that sometimes regularEnglish words—words that have commonsense but slightly fuzzy meanings—must be definedmore precisely for food labeling. Here are 11 words that mean something more specific on thesupermarket shelves.  美国食品药物(FDA)的责任之一就是确保食品被正常标注。该局提供对包装上应标示的食品成分,产地及生产过程这些重要信息的管理规定,目的是确保产品上的说明不会误导消费者。然而,标签应使用简单且易懂的语言。这就意味着有时正常的英语单词在食品标示中应该更加简洁明了,这些词都是常见的,但是意思稍微有些模糊。下面这11个词在超市的货架上就有着特殊的意义。  1. IMITATION   A food that looks like another food but isn’t made of the same stuff is an imitation, right? Notquite. It only has to be labeled as “imitation” if it has a lower amount of protein or some otheressential nutrient than the food it’s trying to look like.  一种食品看上去像另一种食品,但是原料却不相同,那么这就是一个仿造品,是吗?这是不准确的。如果该食品比被模仿的食品的蛋白质或其他一些营养成分低,那么它只能被贴上“仿造品”的标签。  2. FREE   If it’s free of fat, or sugar, or salt, it doesn’t mean that not one trace of those things is to be foundin it. The FDA evaluates certain terms with reference to a typical portion size known as an RACC(reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion). An RACC of eggnog, for example,is #189; cup. For croutons, it’s 7 grams, and for scrambled eggs, 100 grams. To be labeled “free” ofcalories, the food must have less than 5 per RACC. For fat and sugar, less than .5 grams. Forsodium, less than 5 milligrams. Also, the food must somehow be processed to be “free” of thosethings in order to get the simple “free” label. You can’t have “fat free lettuce,” only “lettuce, a fatfree food.”  食物上脱脂、无糖或者无盐的字样,并不意味着食物中完全没有这些成分。美国食品药物(FDA)参照RACC(单次食用参考值)这个有代表性的分配比例来评估某些条款。例如,蛋酒的RACC数值是半杯。油炸面包丁是7克,炒鸡蛋是100克。只有对应的RACC数值小于5,才能被标注为“free”,即:脂肪和糖分少于5克,钠含量少于5毫克。此外,食品必须经过处理成;free;的商品,以获得单一的标签。你买不到“无脂肪生菜”,只能是“生菜,无脂肪的食物”。  3. LOW   Low is also defined with respect to set portion sizes and varies with whether it refers to calories,fat, or sodium. For fat it’s less than 3 grams. For calories, it’s less than 40, unless it’s a preparedmeal, in which case it’s 120 per 100 grams. Saturated fat and cholesterol have specific “low”values as well.  低含量也是用来定义食品中是卡路里、脂肪和盐分的含量。脂肪要少于3克,卡路里要小于40,才能称为;low;,如果是一顿总量100克的饭,总卡路里不得超过120。另外,饱和脂肪和胆固醇有特别低的价值含量。  4. REDUCED/LESS   Sometimes manufacturers want to make a relational claim about a food—not just that it’s “low” insome substance, but lower than it usually is (which may mean it doesn’t meet the standard for“low” at all). Relational claims are evaluated with respect to a reference food. A reference foodshould be the same type of food (chocolate ice cream compared to other chocolate ice cream)though the numbers against which the “reduced” claims are compared can be an average of thetop three brands. The “reduced” substance must be less than 25 percent of what it is in thereference food.  有时制造商想要做一个食品的相关声明,不仅仅是标明某些成分中的低含量,而且比通常同类食品的含量还低(这就意味着它完全没有达到低含量的标准)。一种参照食物应该是相同类型的食品根据数量和降低含量的比值评选出的平均前三名(例如巧克力冰激凌和其他巧克力冰激凌相比)。食物中降低的成分一定要比参照物的中该成分含量还要小25%。  5. LIGHT   Light (or lite) is also evaluated with respect to a reference food, and a rather complicated set ofconditions is taken into account for different substances. For example, if a “light” product hasmore than half of its calories from fat, the fat must be reduced by half per reference servingamount. If less than half its calories come from fat, it can be “light” if the calories per serving arereduced by 1/3. Sometimes foods that meet “low” requirements can also be labeled as “light.” “Lightly salted” should have 50 percent less sodium than a reference food.  Light通常也是被用来评定参考食物的,这是一种非常复杂的组合用来说明不同的成分。例如,如果一种“Light”食物的脂肪中一半以上的卡路里来自脂肪,其单份参考规格中的脂肪就必须减半。如果不到一半的卡路里来自脂肪,那么单份参考规格中的卡路里就要减少1/3。有些食品达到;low;的标准也能贴上;light;的标签。盐分偏少的食物中,其盐分含量必须偏低至少50%。  6. HIGH   Our food labels don’t only brag about low levels of the bad stuff, but also about high levels of thegood stuff. “High” (or “rich in”) means that the food has 20 percent or more of the recommendeddaily value for that nutrient per reference serving.  我们的食品标签不仅标榜食品中成分的“低含量”,也要宣传高含量的好东西。高含量(丰富)就意味着食物中含有日常建议一餐所需营养价值的20%或者更多。  7. GOOD SOURCE   “Good source of” is a little lower than “high.” A food with this label should have 10 to 19 percentof the recommended daily value.  “Good source of“比”high“含量低一点。带有这一标签的食物应该拥有日常建议所需营养价值的10%到19%。  8. MORE   Below “good source” is “more,” “fortified,” “enriched,” “added,” “extra,” or “plus.” A food with 10percent of the recommended daily value can use one of these, but it only applies for vitamins,minerals, protein, fiber, and potassium.  在“大量的(good source)”标准之下的是“更多的(more),” “增强的(fortified),” “丰富的(enriched),” “有添加的(added),” “剩余的 (extra),”和“少量的(plus).”食物中拥有10%的日常所需营养就可以使用以上的这些词中的一个,但是他只能应用在维他命,矿物质,蛋白质,纤维和钾这些方面。  9. LEAN   “Lean” applies to seafoods or meats that have less than combined specified levels of fat, saturatedfat, and cholesterol (10g, 4.5g, and 95mg, respectively).  ;lean;被用于海产品和肉类上,这些食物拥有比脂肪,含饱和脂肪酸的脂肪和胆固醇组合而成的特殊等级还要低(他们的含量分别是10克,4.5克,95毫克)。  10. HEALTHY   To qualify as “healthy,” a product must meet the “low” standard for fat and saturated fat, anotherstandard for sodium and cholesterol, and it must have at least 10 percent of the recommendeddaily value for a range of nutrients.  达到”健康“标准,该产品必须满足低脂和含低饱和脂肪酸的脂肪的双重标准,还有另一个钠和胆固醇的标准。它必须拥有至少日常建议所需所有营养价值的10%。  11. NATURAL   After years soliciting suggestions and considering comments on the question of what “natural”should mean, no useful consensus could be reached, and the FDA decided to forgo establishing anofficial definition. Though it hasn’t issued rules for the use of “natural,” it endorses the generalunderstanding that it implies nothing artificial orsynthetic has been added that would not normallybe expected to be added.  对“天然”的界定经过数年的征求意见和后,一直也没有达成一致的共识,美国食品药物决定放弃长久以来官方给出的定义。虽然没有发布对“天然”用途的规定,但是赞成普遍的理解,“天然”就是没有经过人工的或是合成的,不会是人们通常被期望的那样添加。 /201603/433304

  Imagine working long hours day in day out, falling into bed exhausted each night and getting up with the sun each morning — but never getting paid and never, according to the people who measure such things, actually “creating value”. It sounds grossly unfair, but this is the condition of most women around the world. When governments measure national economies in the gross domestic product, “women’s work” — caregiving, housekeeping, home-making — does not count as “work”.想象一下,日复一日地长时间工作,每天早上太阳升起就起来,夜晚精疲力尽才入睡,但从来没有报酬,而且,据那些测算经济活动的人所说,也从来没有真正“创造价值”。这听起来极其不公平,但这就是世界各地大多数女性的境况。当政府以国内生产总值(GDP)计量国民经济时,“女性的工作”——照顾家人、操持家务——不算“工作”。Thanks to a new report out from McKinsey on the gender gap in the workplace, though, we now know the actual value of all this unpaid work: a staggering tn. That is roughly the size of China’s GDP. If all the women taking care of their families constituted one nation, it would have the fourth-largest economy in the world.然而,麦肯锡(McKinsey)一份有关工作场所性别鸿沟的新报告告诉我们,这些没有报酬的工作的实际价值达到令人震惊的10万亿美元。这大致相当于中国的GDP。如果所有照顾家庭的女性组成一个国家,那将是世界上第四大经济体。All this work, moreover, is just the physical dimension of care. As Anne-Marie Slaughter argues in her new book, Unfinished Business , caregiving includes the additional emotional component of love and nurture, the transformation of an income stream into the teaching, discipline, moral guidance, problem-solving, emotional support and role-modelling that raising children and simply investing in others requires. That is work worth measuring.此外,这些劳动只是女性对家庭照顾的物理方面。正如安妮-玛丽斯劳特(Anne-Marie Slaughter)在新书《未竟之业》(Unfinished Business)中提出的,照顾还包括爱和培育中附加的情感组成部分,把收入流转化为教导、训诫、道德引导、问题解决、情感持和树立榜样,这些都是养育孩子和将精力投入到其他人身上所必需的因素。这是一份值得衡量的工作。These inequities exist in rich and poor countries alike. In rich countries, women turn money into the goods and services necessary for survival and flourishing: shopping, cooking, cleaning, washing, organising. In poor countries, women bear the burden of providing the basic necessities of life: hauling water and firewood, and farming subsistence crops.这种不平等在富国和穷国都存在。在富国,女性将金钱转换成生存和发展所必需的产品和务:购物、烹饪、打扫、洗刷、整理。在穷国,女性则背负着提供基本生活必需品的重担:收集水和柴火,以及耕种用作口粮的农作物。We must act. The economist Diane Elson has created a strategy that has been adopted by many advocates: “Recognise, reduce and redistribute.”我们必须行动。经济学家黛安娜埃尔森(Diane Elson)提出了一套得到许多持者采用的策略:“认识、减少和再分配。”Recognising the unfair burden being placed on women is the first step to addressing it. As long as economic statistics of record erase the work they do, it will be easier for everyone to ignore the disparity at the heart of our societies.认识到女性背负的不公正的重担是解决这个问题的第一步。只要计量经济学的记录还在抹消女性的工作,大家就更容易忽视处于我们社会核心的不平等。Reducing the amount of time and effort women spend doing tedious chores is possible with labour-saving technologies. In developing nations, where women spend hours gathering water and wood to run their households, this may mean efficient cookstoves, community cisterns and rural electrification. In richer countries, we have been using washing machines, electric irons, and vacuum cleaners for years. By reducing the 61 per cent of unpaid work that consists of routine household tasks, we can free up time for the valuable work of caring for children and elders.通过节省劳力的技术来减少女性花在乏味家务上的时间和精力是可能的。在发展中国家,女性耗费很多时间来收集水和柴火以维持家用,这或许意味着我们需要高效率的炉灶、社区蓄水池和农村通电。在更发达的国家,多年来我们一直在使用洗衣机、电熨斗、真空吸尘器。通过减少占日常家务61%的无偿劳动,我们可以把这些时间释放出来去做有意义的事——照顾孩子和老人。Redistributing unpaid labour, the last step, means including men equally in the work and the joys of care. Men who bond with their children early on and become fully competent at childcare report that they experience a different and deeply fulfilling relationship. Moreover, when men and women are equal co-parents, they are both likely to push for the flexible work arrangements that would help everyone.最后一点是重新分配家务活,这意味着男人也要平等地参与到照顾家庭的劳作和乐趣中来。那些很早就和子女建立亲密关系,并且逐渐变得完全胜任照顾孩子的工作的男性表示,他们体验到了一种与众不同、深沉充实的亲子关系。此外,当男女平等地分担家长的工作时,他们很可能会争取弹性的工作安排,这样对所有人都有利。We do not know with certainty what women will do with the extra time they gain from reducing and redistributing unpaid work. But it is hard to imagine they would not use some of it for economically productive activities or to further their education. That is where a second number in the McKinsey report comes in: if the world’s women were not assigned the majority of household tasks, forced to take part-time jobs to accommodate childcare and other important responsibilities, or shunted into low-paying professions, global GDP would grow by a breathtaking tn, a number larger than the US and Chinese economies combined.减少和重新分配这些无偿工作以后,女性会用这些多出来的时间做什么,我们无法确定。但是,很难想象她们会不用一部分时间来从事经济活动或者进修。这是麦肯锡报告提出的第二个数字:如果全世界的女性没有承担大部分的家务劳动,没有为了照顾孩子和担负其他重大责任而被迫兼职工作,也没有被打发到一些低工资职业,那么全球GDP将增长28万亿美元,这个数字令人震惊,它比美国和中国经济总量之和还大。Estimates are tricky and real equality would mean men stepping back as women step up. Still, the business case is clear. Politicians, employers, investors, and voters have no excuse not to act.估算是困难的,真正的平等意味着当女性向前迈一步的同时,男性要向后退一步。即便如此,经济上的理由还是显而易见的。政界人士,雇主,投资者和选民没有借口不采取行动。 /201511/409607

  The Republic of China中华民国Second Revolution二次革命In April, Yuan secured the Reorganization Loan of twenty-five million pound sterling from Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany and Japan, without consulting the parliament first.1913年4月,袁世凯在没有与议会讨论的情况下,向英、法、俄、德、日五国筹措了二千五百万英镑的“善后大借款”。The loan was used to finance Yuan’s Beiyang Army.这笔借款用于扩充北洋军费。On May 20, Yuan concluded a deal with Russia that recognized special Russian privilege in Outer Mongolia and restricted Chinese right to station troops there.5月20日,袁世凯与俄罗斯达成了协议,承认俄在外蒙古的特权,并限制中国驻军权。Kuomintang members of the Parliament accused Yuan of abusing his rights and called for his removal.议会中的国民党成员指责袁世凯滥用权力,要求他辞职。On the other hand, the Progressive Party(进步党), which was composed of constitutional monarchists and supported Yuan, accused the Kuomintang of fomenting an insurrection.另一方面,由君主立宪主义者和袁世凯的持者组成的进步党,指责国民党煽动起义。Yuan then decided to use military action against the Kuomintang.袁世凯因此决定对国民党采取军事行动。In July of 1913 seven southern provinces rebelled against Yuan, thus began the Second Revolution(二次革命).1913年7月,南方7省起义反抗袁世凯统治,掀开了二次革命的序幕。There were several underlying reasons for the Second Revolution besides Yuan’s abuse of power.除了袁世凯滥用权力外,还有一些潜在的原因导致了二次革命。First was that many Revolutionary Armies from different provinces were disbanded after the establishment of the Republic of China, and many officers and soldiers felt that they were not compensated for toppling the Qing Dynasty.第一是各省革命军在民国成立后被解散,很多军官和士兵觉得自己并未得到推翻清政府的好处。Thus, there was much discontent against the new government among the military.因此,军中对于新政府有很多不满。Secondly, many revolutionaries felt that Yuan Shikai and Li Yuan-hong were undeserving of the posts of presidency and vice presidency, because they acquired the posts through political maneuvers, rather than participation in the revolutionary movement.第二是许多革命者觉得袁世凯和黎元洪作为总统和副总统不够格,他们通过政治手段获得职位,而非参与革命。And lastly, Yuan’s use of violence (such as Song’s assassination), dashed Kuomintang’s hope of achieving reforms and political goals through electoral means.最后一点是袁世凯对于暴力的极端使用,例如暗杀宋教仁,粉碎了国民党通过选举实现改革和政治目的的希望。However, the Second Revolution did not fare well for the Kuomintang.然而,国民党领导的二次革命并不成功。The leading Kuomintang military force of Jiangxi was defeated by Yuan’s forces on August 1 and Nanchang was taken.8月1日,江西的国民党军被袁世凯军击败,南昌失守。On September 1, Nanjing was taken.9月1日,南京失守。When the rebellion was suppressed, Sun and other instigators fled to Japan.起义失败后,孙中山和其他组织者逃往日本。 /201512/412295

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