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2019年05月20日 00:47:10 | 作者:医护热点 | 来源:新华社
国新办发表中菲南海争议白皮书(双语对照) -- 3:: 来源:chinadaily A China Southern Airlines jet lands on the new airport on Meiji Reef in the South China Sea on Wednesday.[PhotoXinhua]国务院新闻办公室日发表《中国坚持通过谈判解决中国与菲律宾在南海的有关争议白皮书白皮书万余字,除引言外,共包括南海诸岛是中国固有领土、中菲南海有关争议的由来、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识、菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动、中国处理南海问题的政策等五部分全文如下:中国坚持通过谈判解决中国与菲律宾在南海的有关争议(年7月)中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiationthe Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippinesin the South China Sea目 录Contents引 言Introduction一、南海诸岛是中国固有领土I. Nanhai Zhudao are China’s Inherent Territory(一)中国对南海诸岛的主权是历史上确立的i. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history(二)中国始终坚定维护在南海的领土主权和海洋权益ii. China has always been resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea(三)中国对南海诸岛的主权得到国际社会广泛承认iii. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is widely acknowledged in the international commy二、中菲南海有关争议的由来II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea(一)菲律宾非法侵占行为制造了中菲南沙岛礁争议i. The Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao(二)菲律宾的非法主张毫无历史和法理依据ii. The Philippines’ illegal claim has no historical or legal basis(三)国际海洋法制度的发展导致中菲出现海洋划界争议iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation三、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea(一)通过谈判解决南海有关争议是中菲共识和承诺i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea(二)妥善管控南海有关争议是中菲之间的共识ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea四、菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动IV. The Philippines Has Repeatedly Taken Moves that Complicate the Relevant Disputes(一)菲律宾企图扩大对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的侵占i. The Philippines attempts to entrench its illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao(二)菲律宾一再扩大海上侵权ii. The Philippines has increasingly intensified its infringement of China’s maritime rights and interests(三)菲律宾企图染指中国黄岩岛iii. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China’s Huangyan Dao(四)菲律宾单方面提起仲裁是恶意行为iv. The Philippines’ unilateral initiation of arbitration is an act of bad faith五、中国处理南海问题的政策V. China’s Policy on the South China Sea Issue(一)关于南沙群岛领土问题i. On the territorial issues concerning Nansha Qundao(二)关于南海海洋划界问题ii. On maritime delimitation in the South China Sea(三)关于争端解决方式iii. On the ways and means of dispute settlement(四)关于在南海管控分歧和开展海上务实合作iv. On managing differences and engaging in practical maritime cooperation in the South China Sea(五)关于南海航行自由和安全v. On freedom and safety of navigation in the South China Sea(六)关于共同维护南海和平稳定vi. On jointly upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea引 言Introduction1. 南海位于中国大陆的南面,通过狭窄的海峡或水道,东与太平洋相连,西与印度洋相通,是一个东北-西南走向的半闭海南海北靠中国大陆和台湾岛,南接加里曼丹岛和苏门答腊岛,东临菲律宾群岛,西接中南半岛和马来半岛1. Situated to the south of China’s mainland, and connected by narrow straits and waterways with the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Indian Ocean to the west, the South China Sea is a semi-closed sea extending from northeast to southwest. To its north are the mainland and Taiwan Dao of China, to its south Kalimantan Island and Sumatra Island, to its east the Philippine Islands, and to its west the Indo-China Peninsula and the Malay Peninsula.. 中国南海诸岛包括东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛这些群岛分别由数量不等、大小不一的岛、礁、滩、沙等组成其中,南沙群岛的岛礁最多,范围最广. China’s Nanhai Zhudao (the South China Sea Islands) consist of Dongsha Qundao (the Dongsha Islands), Xisha Qundao (the Xisha Islands), Zhongsha Qundao (the Zhongsha Islands) and Nansha Qundao (the Nansha Islands). These Islands include, among others, islands, reefs, shoals and cays of various numbers and sizes. Nansha Qundao is the largest in terms of both the number of islands and reefs and the geographical area.3. 中国人民在南海的活动已有00多年历史中国最早发现、命名和开发利用南海诸岛及相关海域,最早并持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛及相关海域行使主权和管辖中国对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益,是在漫长的历史过程中确立的,具有充分的历史和法理依据3. The activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea date back to over ,000 years ago. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea have been established in the long course of history, and are solidly grounded in history and law.. 中国和菲律宾隔海相望,交往密切,人民世代友好,原本不存在领土和海洋划界争议然而,自世纪70年代起,菲律宾开始非法侵占南沙群岛部分岛礁,由此制造了中菲南沙群岛部分岛礁领土问题此外,随着国际海洋法的发展,两国在南海部分海域还出现了海洋划界争议. As neighbors facing each other across the sea, China and the Philippines have closely engaged in exchanges, and the two peoples have enjoyed friendship over generations. There had been no territorial or maritime delimitation disputes between the two states until the 1970s when the Philippines started to invade and illegally occupy some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao, creating a territorial issue with China over these islands and reefs. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain maritime areas of the South China Sea.5. 中菲两国尚未举行旨在解决南海有关争议的任何谈判,但确曾就妥善处理海上争议进行多次磋商,就通过谈判协商解决有关争议达成共识,并在双边文件中多次予以确认双方还在中国和东盟国家年共同签署的《南海各方行为宣言(以下简称《宣言)中就通过谈判协商解决有关争议作出郑重承诺5. China and the Philippines have not yet had any negotiation designed to settle their relevant disputes in the South China Sea. However, the two countries did hold multiple rounds of consultations on the proper management of disputes at sea and reached consensus on resolving through negotiation and consultation the relevant disputes, which has been repeatedly reaffirmed in a number of bilateral documents. The two countries have also made solemn commitment to settling relevant disputes through negotiation and consultation in the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) that China and the ASEAN Member States jointly signed.6. 年1月,菲律宾共和国时任政府违背上述共识和承诺,单方面提起南海仲裁案菲律宾把原本不属于《联合国海洋法公约(以下简称《公约)调整的领土问题,以及被中国年依据《公约第98条作出的排除性声明排除的海洋划界等争议加以曲解和包装,构成对《公约争端解决机制的滥用菲律宾妄图借此否定中国在南海的领土主权和海洋权益6. In January , the then government of the Republic of the Philippines turned its back on the above-mentioned consensus and commitment, and unilaterally initiated the South China Sea arbitration. The Philippines deliberately mischaracterized and packaged the territorial issue which is not subject to the ed Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the maritime delimitation dispute which has been excluded from the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures by China’s optional exceptions declaration pursuant to 98 of UNCLOS. This act is a wanton abuse of the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. In doing so, the Philippines attempts to deny China’s territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.7. 本文件旨在还原中菲南海有关争议的事实真相,重申中国在南海问题上的一贯立场和政策,溯本清源,以正视听7. This paper aims to clarify the facts and tell the truth behind the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea, and to reaffirm China’s consistent position and policy on the South China Sea issue, in order to get to the root of the issue and set the record straight.[!-empirenews.page--]一、南海诸岛是中国固有领土I. Nanhai Zhudao are China’s Inherent Territory(一)中国对南海诸岛的主权是历史上确立的i. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history8. 中国人民自古以来在南海诸岛和相关海域生活和从事生产活动中国最早发现、命名和开发利用南海诸岛及相关海域,最早并持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛及相关海域行使主权和管辖,确立了对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益8. The Chinese people have since ancient times lived and engaged in production activities on Nanhai Zhudao and in relevant waters. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them, thus establishing sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and the relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea.9. 早在公元前世纪的西汉时期,中国人民就在南海航行,并在长期实践中发现了南海诸岛9. As early as the nd century E in the Western Han Dynasty, the Chinese people sailed in the South China Sea and discovered Nanhai Zhudao in the long course of activities.. 中国历史古籍,例如东汉的《异物志、三国时期的《扶南传、宋代的《梦粱录和《岭外代答、元代的《岛夷志略、明代的《东西洋考和《顺风相送、清代的《指南正法和《海国闻见录等,不仅记载了中国人民在南海的活动情况,而且记录了南海诸岛的地理位置和地貌特征、南海的水文和气象特点,以很多生动形象的名称为南海诸岛命名,如“涨海崎头”、“珊瑚洲”、“九乳螺洲”、“石塘”、“千里石塘”、“万里石塘”、“长沙”、“千里长沙”、“万里长沙”等. A lot of Chinese historical literatures chronicle the activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea. These books include, among others, Yi Wu Zhi (An of Strange Things) published in the Eastern Han Dynasty (5-), Fu Nan Zhuan (An of Fu Nan) during the period of the Three Kingdoms (-0), Meng Liang Lu (Record of a Daydreamer) and Ling Wai Dai Da (Notes the Land beyond the Passes) in the Song Dynasty (960-79), Dao Yi Zhi Lüe (A Brief of the Islands) in the Yuan Dynasty (71-68), Dong Xi Yang Kao (Studies on the Oceans East and West) and Shun Feng Xiang Song (Fair Winds Escort) in the Ming Dynasty (68-) and Zhi Nan Zheng Fa (Compass Directions) and Hai Guo Wen Jian Lu (Records of Things Seen and Heard about the Coastal Regions) in the Qing Dynasty (-19). These books also record the geographical locations and geomorphologic characteristics of Nanhai Zhudao as well as hydrographical and meteorological conditions of the South China Sea. These books record vividly descriptive names the Chinese people gave to Nanhai Zhudao, such as “Zhanghaiqitou” (twisted atolls on the rising sea), “Shanhuzhou” (coral cays), “Jiuruluozhou” (nine isles of cowry), “Shitang” (rocky reefs), “Qianlishitang” (thousand-li rocky reefs), “Wanlishitang” (ten thousand-li rocky reefs), “Changsha” (long sand cays), “Qianlichangsha” (thousand-li sand cays), and “Wanlichangsha” (ten thousand-li sand cays).. 中国渔民在开发利用南海的历史过程中还形成一套相对固定的南海诸岛命名体系:如将岛和沙洲称为“峙”,将礁称为“铲”、“线”、“沙”,将环礁称为“匡”、“圈”、“塘”,将暗沙称为“沙排”等明清时期形成的《更路簿是中国渔民往来于中国大陆沿海地区和南海诸岛之间的航海指南,以多种版本的手抄本流传并沿用至今;记录了中国人民在南海诸岛的生活和生产开发活动,记载了中国渔民对南海诸岛的命名其中对南沙群岛岛、礁、滩、沙的命名至少有70余处,有的用罗盘方位命名,如丑未(渚碧礁)、东头乙辛(蓬勃暗沙);有的用特产命名,如赤瓜线(赤瓜礁)、墨瓜线(南屏礁);有的用岛礁形状命名,如鸟串(仙娥礁)、双担(信义礁);有的用某种实物命名,如锅盖峙(安波沙洲)、秤钩峙(景宏岛);有的以水道命名,如六门沙(六门礁). The Chinese fishermen have developed a relatively fixed naming system the various components of Nanhai Zhudao in the long process of exploration and exploitation of the South China Sea. Under this system, islands and shoals have become known as “Zhi”; reefs “Chan”, “Xian”, or “Sha”; atolls “Kuang”, “Quan” or “Tang”; and banks “Shapai”. Geng Lu Bu (Manual of Sea Routes), a kind of navigation guidebook Chinese fishermen’s journeys between the coastal regions of China’s mainland and Nanhai Zhudao, came into being and circulation in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and has been handed down in various editions and versions of handwritten copies and is still in use even today. It shows that the Chinese people lived and carried out production activities on, and how they named Nanhai Zhudao. Geng Lu Bu records names at least 70 islands, reefs, shoals and cays of Nansha Qundao. Some were named after compass directions in Chinese renditions, such as Chouwei (Zhubi Jiao) and Dongtou Yixin (Pengbo Ansha); some were named after local aquatic products in the surrounding waters such as Chigua Xian (Chigua Jiao, “chigua” means “red sea cucumber”) and Mogua Xian (Nanping Jiao, “mogua” means “black sea cucumber”); some were named after their shapes, such as Niaochuan (Xian’e Jiao, “niaochuan” means “bird string”) and Shuangdan (Xinyi Jiao, “shuangdan” means “shoulder poles”); some were named after physical objects, such as Guogai Zhi (Anbo Shazhou, “guogai” means “pot cover”) and Chenggou Zhi (Jinghong Dao, “chenggou” means “steelyard hook”); still some were named after waterways such as Liumen Sha (Liumen Jiao, “liumen” means “six doorways”).. 中国人民对南海诸岛的命名,部分被西方航海家引用并标注在一些19至世纪权威的航海指南和海图中如Namyit(鸿庥岛)、Sin Cowe(景宏岛)、Subi(渚碧礁)来源于海南方言发音“南乙”、“秤钩”、“丑未”. Some of the names given by the Chinese people to Nanhai Zhudao were adopted by Western navigators and marked in some authoritative navigation guidebooks and charts published in the 19th and th centuries. instance, Namyit (Hongxiu Dao), Sin Cowe (Jinghong Dao) and Subi (Zhubi Jiao) originate from “Nanyi”, “Chenggou” and “Chouwei” as pronounced in Hainan dialects.. 大量历史文献和文物资料明,中国人民对南海诸岛及相关海域进行了持续不断的开发和利用明清以来,中国渔民每年乘东北信风南下至南沙群岛海域从事渔业生产活动,直至次年乘西南信风返回大陆还有部分中国渔民常年留居岛上,站峙捕捞、挖井汲水、垦荒种植、盖房建庙、饲养禽畜等根据中外史料记载和考古发现,南沙群岛部分岛礁上曾有中国渔民留下的作物、水井、房屋、庙宇、墓塚和碑刻等. Numerous historical documents and objects prove that the Chinese people have explored and exploited in a sustained way Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters. Starting from the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chinese fishermen sailed southward on the northeasterly monsoon to Nansha Qundao and relevant waters fishery production activities and returned on the southwesterly monsoon to the mainland the following year. Some of them lived on the islands years, going fishing, digging wells fresh water, cultivating land and farming, building huts and temples, and raising livestock. Chinese and eign historical literature as well as archaeological finds show that there were crops, wells, huts, temples, tombs and tablet inscriptions left by Chinese fishermen on some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao.. 许多外国文献记录了很长一段时间内只有中国人在南沙群岛生产生活的事实. Many eign documents also recorded the fact that during a long period of time only Chinese lived and worked on Nansha Qundao.. 1868年出版的英国海军部《中国海指南提到南沙群岛郑和群礁时指出:“海南渔民,以捕取海参、介壳为活,各岛都有其足迹,也有久居岛礁上的”,“在太平岛上的渔民要比其他岛上的渔民生活得更加舒适,与其他岛相比,太平岛上的井水要好得多”19年的《中国海指南以及19年、193年、1937年等各版《中国航海志多处载明中国渔民在南沙群岛上生产生活. The China Sea Directory published in 1868 by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty of the ed Kingdom, when referring to Zhenghe Qunjiao of Nansha Qundao, observed that “Hainan fishermen, who subsist by collecting trepang and tortoise-shell, were found upon most of these islands, some of whom remain years amongst the reefs”, and that “[t]he fishermen upon Itu-Aba island [Taiping Dao] were more comtably established than the others, and the water found in the well on that island was better than elsewhere.” The China Sea Directory published in 19 and The China Sea Pilot in its 19, 193 and 1937 editions made in many parts explicit records of the Chinese fishermen living and working on Nansha Qundao.. 1933年9月在法国出版的《绘殖民地世界杂志记载:南沙群岛9岛之中,惟有华人(海南人)居住,华人之外并无他国人当时西南岛(南子岛)上计有居民7人,中有孩童人;帝都岛(中业岛)上计有居民5人;斯帕拉岛(南威岛)计有居民人,较1930年且增加1人;罗湾岛(南钥岛)上,有华人所留之神座、茅屋、水井;伊都阿巴岛(太平岛),虽不见人迹,而发现中国字碑,大意谓运粮至此,觅不见人,因留藏于铁皮(法文原文为石头)之下;其他各岛,亦到处可见渔人居住之踪迹该杂志还记载,太平岛、中业岛、南威岛等岛屿上植被茂盛,有水井可饮用,种有椰子树、香蕉树、木瓜树、菠萝、青菜、土豆等,蓄养有家禽,适合人类居住. The French magazine Le Monde Colonial Illustré published in September 1933 contains the following records: Only Chinese people (Hainan natives) lived on the nine islands of Nansha Qundao and there were no people from other countries. Seven were on Nanzi Dao (South West Cay), two of them were children. Five lived on Zhongye Dao (Thitu Island); four lived on Nanwei Dao (Spratly Island), one person more over that of 1930. There were worship stands, thatched cottages and wells left by the Chinese on Nanyao Dao (Loaita Island). No one was sighted on Taiping Dao (Itu Aba Island), but a tablet scripted with Chinese characters was found, which said that, in that magazine’s rendition, “Moi, Ti Mung, patron de jonque, suis venu ici à la pleine lune de mars pour vous porter des aliments. Je n’ai trouvé personne, je laisse le riz à l’abri des pierres et je pars.” Traces were also found of fishermen living on the other islands. This magazine also records that there are abundant vegetation, wells providing drinking water, coconut palms, banana trees, papaya trees, pineapples, green vegetables and potatoes as well as poultry on Taiping Dao, Zhongye Dao, Nanwei Dao and other islands, and that these islands are habitable.. 190年出版的日本文献《暴风之岛和195年美国海军航道测量署发行的《亚洲领航(第四卷)等也记载了中国渔民在南沙群岛生产生活的情况. Japanese literature Boufuu No Shima (Stormy Island) published in 190 as well as The Asiatic Pilot, Vol. IV, published by the ed States Hydrographic Office in 195 also have s about Chinese fishermen who lived and worked on Nansha Qundao.18. 中国是最早开始并持续对南海诸岛及相关海上活动进行管理的国家历史上,中国通过行政设治、水师巡视、资源开发、天文测量、地理调查等手段,对南海诸岛和相关海域进行了持续、和平、有效的管辖18. China is the first to have continuously exercised authority over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant maritime activities. In history, China has exercised jurisdiction in a continuous, peaceful and effective manner over Nanhai Zhudao and in relevant waters through measures such as establishment of administrative setups, naval patrols, resources development, astronomical observation and geographical survey.19. 例如,宋代,中国在两广地区设有经略安抚使,总绥南疆宋代曾公亮在《武经总要中提到中国为加强南海海防,设立巡海水师,巡视南海清代明谊编著的《琼州府志、钟元棣编著的《崖州志等著作都把“石塘”、“长沙”列入“海防”条目19. instance, in the Song Dynasty, China established a post of Jing Lüe An Fu Shi (Imperial Envoy Management and Pacification) in the regions now known as Guangdong and Guangxi to govern the southern territory. It is mentioned in Zeng Gongliang’s Wujing Zongyao (Outline Record of Military Affairs) that, in order to strengthen defense in the South China Sea, China established naval s to conduct patrols therein. In the Qing Dynasty, Ming Yi’s Qiongzhou Fuzhi (Chronicle of Qiongzhou Prefecture), Zhong Yuandi’s Yazhou Zhi (Chronicle of Yazhou Prefecture) and others all listed “Shitang” and “Changsha” under the items of “maritime defense”.. 中国很多官修地方志,如《广东通志、《琼州府志、《万州志等,在“疆域”或“舆地山川”条目中有“万州有千里长沙、万里石塘”或类似记载. Many of China’s local official records, such as Guangdong Tong Zhi (General Chronicle of Guangdong), Qiongzhou Fu Zhi (Chronicle of Qiongzhou Prefecture) and Wanzhou Zhi (Chronicle of Wanzhou), contain in the section on “territory” or “geography, mountains and waters” a statement that “Wanzhou covers ‘Qianlichangsha’ and ‘Wanlishitang’” or something similar.1. 中国历代政府还在官方地图上将南海诸岛标绘为中国领土55年《皇清各直省分图之《天下总舆图、67年《大清万年一统天下图、18年《大清万年一统地理全图、18年《大清一统天下全图等地图均将南海诸岛绘入中国版图1. The successive Chinese governments have marked Nanhai Zhudao as Chinese territory on official maps, such as the 55 Tian Xia Zong Yu Tu (General Map of Geography of the All-under-heaven) of the Huang Qing Ge Zhi Sheng Fen Tu (Map of the Provinces Directly under the Imperial Qing Authority), the 67 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Tian Xia Tu (Map of the Eternally Unified All-under-heaven of the Great Qing Empire), the 18 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Di Li Quan Tu (Map of the Eternally Unified Great Qing Empire) and the 18 Da Qing Yi Tong Tian Xia Quan Tu (Map of the Unified All-under-heaven of the Great Qing Empire).. 历史事实表明,中国人民一直将南海诸岛和相关海域作为生产和生活的场所,从事各种开发利用活动中国历代政府也持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛实施管辖在长期历史过程中,中国确立了对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益,中国人民早已成为南海诸岛的主人. Historical facts show that the Chinese people have all along taken Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters as a ground living and production, where they have engaged in exploration and exploitation activities in various ms. The successive Chinese governments have exercised jurisdiction over Nanhai Zhudao in a continuous, peaceful and effective manner. In the course of history, China has established sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea. The Chinese people have long been the master of Nanhai Zhudao.[!-empirenews.page--](二)中国始终坚定维护在南海的领土主权和海洋权益ii. China has always been resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea3. 中国对南海诸岛的主权在世纪前未遭遇任何挑战世纪30年代至0年代,法国和日本先后以武力非法侵占中国南沙群岛部分岛礁对此,中国人民奋起抵抗,当时中国政府采取一系列措施,捍卫对南沙群岛的主权3. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao had never been challenged bee the th century. When France and Japan invaded and illegally occupied by ce some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao in the 1930s and 190s, the Chinese people rose to fight back strenuously and the Chinese government took a series of measures to defend China’s sovereignty over Nansha Qundao.. 1933年,法国曾经一度侵入南沙群岛部分岛礁,发布政府公报宣告“占领”,制造了“九小岛事件”中国各地各界反应强烈、群起抗议,纷纷谴责法国的侵略行径居住在南沙群岛的中国渔民也在实地进行抵抗,符洪光、柯家裕、郑兰锭等人砍倒法国在太平岛、北子岛、南威岛、中业岛等岛上悬挂法国国旗的旗杆. In 1933, France invaded some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and declared “occupation” of them in an announcement published in Journal Officiel, creating the “Incident of the Nine Islets”. The French aggression triggered strong reactions and large scale protests from all walks of life across China. The Chinese fishermen living on Nansha Qundao also took on-site resistance against the French aggression. Chinese fishermen Fu Hongguang, Ke Jiayu, Zheng Landing and others cut down the posts flying French flags on Taiping Dao, Beizi Dao, Nanwei Dao, Zhongye Dao and others.5. “九小岛事件”发生后,中国外交部发言人表示,南沙群岛有关岛屿“仅有我渔人居留岛上,在国际上确认为中国领土”,中国政府就法方侵入九小岛提出严正交涉同时,广东省政府针对法国诱骗中国渔民悬挂法国国旗,命令各县长布告,禁止在南沙群岛及海域作业的中国渔船悬挂外国旗帜,并给渔民发放中国国旗,要求悬挂5. Shortly after this Incident happened, the Chinese Ministry of eign Affairs made clear through its spokesperson, referring to the relevant islands of Nansha Qundao, that “no other people but Chinese fishermen live on the islands and they are recognized internationally as Chinese territory”. The Chinese government made strong representations to the French government against its aggression. And in response to the French attempt to trick Chinese fishermen into hanging French flags, the government of Guangdong Province instructed that administrators of all counties should issue public notice bidding all Chinese fishing vessels operating in Nansha Qundao and relevant waters from hanging eign flags, and Chinese national flags were distributed to them to be hung on Chinese fishing vessels.6. 由外交部、内政部、海军部等部门组成的水陆地图审查委员会,专门审定中国南海诸岛各岛、礁、滩、沙名称,并于1935年编印并公布了《中国南海各岛屿图6. China’s Committee the Examination the Land and Sea Maps, which was composed of representatives of the Ministry of eign Affairs, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of the Navy and other institutions, reviewed and approved the names of individual islands, reefs, banks and shoals of Nanhai Zhudao, compiled and published Zhong Guo Nan Hai Ge Dao Yu Tu (Map of the South China Sea Islands of China) in 1935.7. 日本在侵华战争期间曾非法侵占中国南海诸岛中国人民对日本的侵略进行了英勇抵抗随着世界反法西斯战争和中国人民抗日战争的推进,中、美、英三国于193年月发表《开罗宣言郑重宣布,日本必须将所窃取的中国领土归还中国195年7月,中、美、英三国发表《波茨坦公告,其中第8条明确规定,“开罗宣言之条件必将实施”7. Japan invaded and illegally occupied Nanhai Zhudao during its war of aggression against China. The Chinese people fought heroically against the Japanese aggression. With the advance of the World’s Anti-Fascist War and the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, China, the ed States and the ed Kingdom solemnly demanded in the Cairo Declaration in December 193 that all the territories Japan had stolen from the Chinese shall be restored to China. In July 195, China, the ed States and the ed Kingdom issued the Potsdam Proclamation. That Proclamation explicitly declares in 8: “The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out.”. 195年8月,日本宣布接受《波茨坦公告无条件投降196年月至月,中国政府指派林遵上校等高级军政官员,乘坐“永兴”、“中建”、“太平”、“中业”艘军舰,分赴西沙群岛和南沙群岛,举行仪式,重立主权碑,派兵驻守随后,中国政府用上述艘军舰名对西沙群岛和南沙群岛的个岛屿进行重新命名. In August 195, Japan announced its acceptance of the Potsdam Proclamation and its unconditional surrender. In November and December 196, the Chinese government dispatched Colonel Lin Zun and other senior military and civil officials to Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao to resume exercise of authority over these Islands, with commemorative ceremonies held, sovereignty markers re-erected, and troops garrisoned. These officials arrived at these islands on four warships, namely Yongxing, Zhongjian, Taiping and Zhongye. Subsequently, the Chinese government renamed four islands of Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao after the names of those four warships.9. 197年3月,中国政府在太平岛设立南沙群岛管理处,隶属广东省中国还在太平岛设立气象台和电台,自6月起对外广播气象信息9. In March 197, the Chinese government established on Taiping Dao Nansha Qundao Office of Administration and placed it under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province. China also set up a meteorological station and a radio station on Taiping Dao, which started broadcasting meteorological inmation in June of that year.30. 在对南海诸岛重新进行地理测绘的基础上,中国政府于197年组织编写了《南海诸岛地理志略,审定《南海诸岛新旧名称对照表,绘制标有南海断续线的《南海诸岛位置图198年月,中国政府公布《中华民国行政区域图,包括《南海诸岛位置图30. On the basis of a new round of geographical survey of Nanhai Zhudao, the Chinese government commissioned in 197 the compilation of Nan Hai Zhu Dao Di Li Zhi Lüe (A Brief of the Geography of the South China Sea Islands), reviewed and approved Nan Hai Zhu Dao Xin Jiu Ming Cheng Dui Zhao Biao (Comparison Table on the Old and New Names of the South China Sea Islands), and drew Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands) on which the dotted line is marked. In February 198, the Chinese government officially published Zhong Hua Min Guo Xing Zheng Qu Yu Tu (Map of the Administrative Districts of the Republic of China) including Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands).31. 199年6月,中国政府颁布《海南特区行政长官公署组织条例,把“海南岛、东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛及其他附属岛屿”划入海南特区31. In June 199, the Chinese government promulgated Hai Nan Te Qu Xing Zheng Zhang Guan Gong Shu Zu Zhi Tiao Li (Regulations on the Organization of the Office of the Chief Executive of the Hainan Special District), which placed Hainan Dao, Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and some other islands under the jurisdiction of the Hainan Special District.3. 中华人民共和国199年月1日成立后,多次重申并采取立法、行政设治、外交交涉等措施进一步维护对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益中国对南海诸岛及相关海域的巡逻执法、资源开发和科学考察等活动从未中断过3. Since its founding on 1 October 199, the People’s Republic of China has repeatedly reiterated and further upheld its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea by measures such as adopting legislations, establishing administration and making diplomatic representations. China has never ceased carrying out activities such as patrolling and law encement, resources development and scientific survey on Nanhai Zhudao and in the South China Sea.33. 1951年8月,中国外交部长周恩来发表《关于美英对日和约草案及旧金山会议的声明指出,“西沙群岛和南威岛正如整个南沙群岛及中沙群岛、东沙群岛一样,向为中国领土,在日本帝国主义发动侵略战争时虽曾一度沦陷,但日本投降后已为当时中国政府全部接收”,“中华人民共和国在南威岛和西沙群岛之不可侵犯的主权,不论美英对日和约草案有无规定及如何规定,均不受任何影响”33. In August 1951, eign Minister Zhou Enlai, in his Statement on the ed States-British Draft Peace Treaty with Japan and the San Francisco Conference, pointed out that “as a matter of fact, just like all the Nan Sha Islands, Chung Sha Islands and Tung Sha Islands, Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nan Wei Island (Spratly Island) have always been China’s territory, occupied by Japan some time during the war of aggression waged by Japanese imperialism, they were all taken over by the then Chinese Government, following Japan’s surrender”, “Whether or not the ed States-British Draft Treaty contains provisions on this subject and no matter how these provisions are worded, the inviolable sovereignty of the People’s Republic of China over Nan Wei Island (Spratly Island) and Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) will not be in any way affected.”. 1958年9月,中国发布《中华人民共和国政府关于领海的声明,明确规定中国领海宽度为海里,采用直线基线方法划定领海基线,上述规定适用于中华人民共和国的一切领土,包括“东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他属于中国的岛屿”. In September 1958, China promulgated the Declaration of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on China’s Territorial Sea, explicitly providing that the bth of China’s territorial sea shall be twelve nautical miles, that the straight baselines method shall be employed to determine the baselines of territorial sea and that such provisions shall apply to all territories of the People’s Republic of China, including “Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and all the other islands belonging to China”.35. 1959年3月,中国政府在西沙群岛的永兴岛设立“西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛办事处”;1969年3月,该“办事处”改称“广东省西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛革命委员会”;1981年月,恢复“西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛办事处”的称谓35. In March 1959, the Chinese government set up, on Yongxing Dao of Xisha Qundao, the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao. In March 1969, the Office was renamed the Revolutionary Committee of Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao and Nansha Qundao of Guangdong Province. In October 1981, the name of the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao was restored.36. 1983年月,中国地名委员会受权公布南海诸岛部分标准地名,总计7个36. In April 1983, China Committee on Geographical Names was authorized to publish 7 standard geographical names part of Nanhai Zhudao.37. 198年5月,第六届全国人民代表大会第二次会议决定设立海南行政区,管辖范围包括西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛的岛礁及其海域37. In May 198, the Sixth National People’s Congress decided at its Second Session to establish the Hainan Administrative District with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant maritime areas, among others.38. 1988年月,第七届全国人民代表大会第一次会议决定设立海南省,管辖范围包括西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛的岛礁及其海域38. In April 1988, the Seventh National People’s Congress decided at its First Session to establish Hainan Province with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant maritime areas, among others.39. 199年月,中国颁布《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法,确立了中国领海和毗连区的基本法律制度,并明确规定:“中华人民共和国的陆地领土包括……东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛以及其他一切属于中华人民共和国的岛屿”1996年5月,第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十九次会议决定,批准《联合国海洋法公约,同时声明“中华人民共和国重申对199年月5日颁布的《中华人民共和国领海及毗连区法第条所列各群岛及岛屿的主权”39. In February 199, China promulgated the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, establishing China’s basic system of territorial sea and contiguous zone. This Law explicitly states: “The land territory of the People’s Republic of China includes […] Dongsha Qundao; Xisha Qundao; Zhongsha Qundao; Nansha Qundao; as well as all the other islands belonging to the People’s Republic of China.” In May 1996, the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People’s Congress made the decision at its Nineteenth Session to ratify UNCLOS, and at the same time declared that, “The People’s Republic of China reaffirms its sovereignty over all its archipelagoes and islands as listed in of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone which was promulgated on 5 February 199.”0. 1996年5月,中国政府宣布中国大陆沿海由山东高角至海南岛峻壁角9个领海基点和由直线相连的领海基线,以及西沙群岛个领海基点和由直线相连的基线,并宣布将另行公布其余领海基线0. In May 1996, the Chinese government announced the baselines of the part of the territorial sea adjacent to the mainland which are composed of all the straight lines joining the 9 adjacent base points from Gaojiao of Shandong to Junbijiao of Hainan Dao, as well as the baselines of the territorial sea adjacent to Xisha Qundao which are composed of all the straight lines joining the adjacent base points, and declared it would announce the remaining baselines of the territorial sea at another time.1. 1998年6月,中国颁布《中华人民共和国专属经济区和大陆架法,确立了中国专属经济区和大陆架的基本法律制度,并明确规定:“本法的规定不影响中华人民共和国享有的历史性权利”1. In June 1998, China promulgated the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, establishing China’s basic system of exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. This Law explicitly states: “The provisions in this Law shall not affect the historic rights that the People’s Republic of China enjoys.”. 年6月,国务院批准撤销海南省西沙群岛、南沙群岛、中沙群岛办事处,设立地级三沙市,管辖西沙群岛、中沙群岛、南沙群岛的岛礁及其海域. In June , the State Council approved the abolition of the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the simultaneous establishment of prefecture-level Sansha City with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant waters.3. 中国高度重视南海生态和渔业资源保护自1999年起,中国实施南海伏季休渔制度截至年底,中国在南海共建成国家级水生生物自然保护区6处,省级水生生物自然保护区6处,总面积达69万公顷;国家级水产种质资源保护区7处,总面积达8万公顷3. China attaches great importance to ecological and fishery resource preservation in the South China Sea. In 1999, China began to ence summer fishing moratorium in the South China Sea and has done so since that time. By the end of , China had established six national aquatic biological nature reserves and six such reserves at provincial level, covering a total area of .69 million hectares, as well as seven national aquatic germplasm resources conservation areas with a total area of 1. million hectares.. 自世纪50年代以来,中国台湾当局一直驻守在南沙群岛太平岛,设有民事务管理机构,并对岛上自然资源进行开发利用. Since the 1950s, the Taiwan authorities of China have maintained a military presence on Taiping Dao of Nansha Qundao. a long time, they have also maintained civil service and administration bodies and carried out natural resources development on the island.(三)中国对南海诸岛的主权得到国际社会广泛承认iii. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is widely acknowledged in the international commy5. 第二次世界大战结束后,中国收复南海诸岛并恢复行使主权,世界上许多国家都承认南海诸岛是中国领土5. After the end of the Second World War, China recovered and resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao. Many countries recognize that Nanhai Zhudao are职业模特的生活是怎样的? --9 :3: 来源: 俗话说,外行看热闹,内行看门道对于外行人而言,模特是一个光鲜亮丽的职业,那他们的生存现状究竟如何呢?一起来跟着三位职业模特,了解他们的工作和生活 Recently the lid has been lifted a little on an industry that aly has a reputation being tough on vulnerable young women.模特行业对脆弱年轻女孩的摧残早已人尽皆知,近日公众对这一行业又产生了新的关注Not only was it announced that five of the UK’s top modelling agencies are being investigated fixing prices but one of those agencies, FM London, has gone into liquidation with dozens of models potentially affected.这不仅仅由于英国五家顶尖的模特公司因规定价格而接受调查,而且其中一家名为“FM伦敦”的公司已破产,数十名模特可能受到影响That’s unlikely to break the stride of the industry’s most high-profile models, the Cara Delevingnes and Kate Mosses of this world.这件事情并不会阻挡业界知名度较高的模特的脚步,如Cara Delevingnes和Kate MossesBut there are thousands of young women and men working in the industry with a much lower profile and income. And questions are being raised over how well these jobbing models are being treated by the agencies who are supposed to represent their best interests.然而,这个行业中还有成百上千的年轻男女拿着微薄的收入,毫无名气可言很多人开始质疑,这些本应维护职业模特权益的公司究竟如何对待他们的员工We asked three London-based models what it is like trying to make a living in the industry.我们采访了三位在伦敦工作的模特,他们讲述了职业模特的生活"Lauren" is and has been modelling five years. She doesn’t want to give her real name as she fears her agency would offer her less work if she speaks out. She says pay rates have fallen in recent years.“Lauren”今年岁,已经当了五年模特她不愿透露真实姓名,因为担心如果说出了实情,模特公司给她的工作机会就更少了她说近些年工资水平一直在下降All the first jobs I did were free. When you do a commercial job a High Street brand or a big ad campaign they pay money, but editorials - everything you see in industry magazines - you don’t get paid those at all. It’s an unwritten rule in the industry that you have to do them to get your profile up.我所有的第一份工作都是没有报酬的比方说你去给一个大众品牌或大型广告活动做商业宣传,虽然他们会付钱,但是你在行业杂志里看到的所有-你一分钱也拿不到这是业内不成文的规矩,你必须靠这个来提高知名度You’ve got quite a lot of girls who can’t afd to live and are going to the agencies to ask advances on money and are getting into debt. The bookers laugh at them asking handouts.周围有很多女孩子无法维持生计,只能向公司要求提前付工资,使自己身负债务经纪人还会嘲笑她们请求施舍的行为They try to discourage you from collecting your money and put you off asking it.他们搜刮你的钱,在你要钱时却赶你走,让你深受打击When you get your money it comes with a statement and there are always uneseen charges on the statement. It’s never set out what they’re charging you and the more you’ve earned the more weird charges there are on your .拿到工资时会有一张清单,上面总有一些莫名其妙的手续费,但是从未写明到底因为什么收费,而且你挣得越多,账上扣掉的莫名其妙的费用就越多Agencies pick and choose. If they don’t like you that week then they won’t put you ward the job. I’ve been in the agency when they’ve actually said not to put certain girls in certain packages because the girls have been annoying them or they’ve been asking money.公司很挑剔如果这周他们对你有意见,就不会给你提供工作机会我在公司就听到过他们说不要给某某女孩提供某某工作机会,因为她们惹恼了公司或者是向公司开口要钱Some agencies are really good, they pay their girls every Friday, but in my agency we have to message our ant every month to find out if any money has come in. Half the time they lie to us and say the money hasn’t come in even if the client has told us they’ve aly paid the invoice.有些公司真的很好,他们每周五准时发放薪水,但在我们公司,我们得每月给会计发短信问客户有没有付款通常他们会撒谎说没有钱进帐,即使客户告诉我们他们已经付了费用It’s quite sad because when you join an agency you like to think it’s like a family, but they’re out to make a profit. You have to bear that in mind and not get sucked into the idea that they have your best interests at heart. They don’t when it comes down to it.这一点令人伤心,因为你加入一家公司,你会希望它像一个大家庭,但是他们心中只有利益你必须牢记这一点,不要认为他们真心为你的利益着想,归根结底他们只认钱"Pippa" started modelling when she was and living abroad. She went back to it aged 18 and back living in the UK, to help pay her law degree. She says the first agency she worked treated her very badly.“Pippa”岁就开始从事模特职业,一直在国外生活18岁回到英国后,她重操旧业来付法律学位的学费她说她工作的第一家模特公司对她特别差Modelling is a really horrific industry to work in if you don’t have anything else going you.如果你没什么过人之处,模特这一行业真的很恐怖There’s constant pressure over weight control: it’s a m of control and grooming.体重控制是一个持续存在的压力:它是一种控制和修饰I was 5’" and size 8- and they told me I had to lose 3cm off my hips.我曾经5’",尺寸是8-,他们却告诉我臀部仍需减掉3cmThey phoned me up every day and asked me what I had eaten that day. I’d go in a chat and they’d measure me and say you need to lose this much more weight.他们每天打电话问我吃了什么我和他们交谈时,他们会测量我的三围,告诉我需要减掉多少重量They said I had to get a personal trainer, which was pounds0 four sessions, and made me dye my hair. They said I had to go to the hairdresser they picked and it was pounds00. After three months they said, you’ve just got to lose two more centimetres [off your hips] and you can be on our main board in Paris.他们说我必须请个私教,每四期课程0英镑;他们要我染头发,还让我去他们挑选的发型师那里做头发,要花费00英镑三个月后他们说,你只要再减掉cm(臀部)就可以进入我们巴黎的核心团队了They’d send me out test shoots to men’s apartments on my own and it was really unsafe. One time the man was really weird and kept trying to make me take my clothes off.他们把我一个人送到男性的私人公寓做试拍,真的很不安全有一次那个男人非常古怪,一直让我脱掉衣There was a casting a lingerie company. My agent said, you have to do it. I said, I don’t want to do that because if I’m on an ad spanking someone I won’t get a job in law. They pressured me. So I quit.还有一次,有个内衣公司的广告要拍,公司让我必须去我不想接这个工作,因为如果我出现在一个有打屁股镜头的广告里,我没可能得到一个法律相关的工作他们给我施加了很大压力,最后我辞职了I was eight months with that agency and I didn’t make any money.我在公司待了八个月,一分钱没挣到"Pippa" says she worked two further agencies where she wasn’t happy, and earned around pounds,000 a year. But she is now with an agency she is very happy with and is earning pounds800 a day and getting regular work.“Pippa”说,她后来又去了两家模特公司,但都做的不开心,每年挣1万英镑她在现在的模特公司做得很开心,每天挣800英镑,有固定工作Rebecca Pearson is happy to give her real name because her experiences have been mostly positive, although earlier in her career she also encountered late payment. She has been modelling more than a decade.Rebecca Pearson乐于给出真名,因为她的经历大多都是积极正面的,虽然她早期职业生涯中也曾遇到过拖欠工资她从事模特行业已经十多年了It can be a harsh industry full of rejection. But I’m really glad I modelled. It gave me a lot of confidence. It bought me a flat and put me through university.这是个残酷的行业,可能会四处碰壁,但我很高兴我坚持下来了,它为我带来了满满的自信我买了房子,还上了大学But I’m glad I started when I did.我真的很开心我一开始就从事这个行业There were so many more clients, there was so much more money in advertising. The fees you could get a commercial were huge.那时候有很多客户,广告费很高,参加商业活动的出场费也非常高I don’t think regular working models now are getting the opporties I had at that stage. I did campaigns most of the shops on the High Street but now it’s celebrities who do the High Street campaigns and magazine covers that we used to get.现在的职业模特就没有我那时候那么多的机会大多数商店的大众品牌代言都是我做的,而现在这些代言以及杂志封面都换成明星来做了I did a big campaign New Look and was in all of their shops. It must have totalled around 35,000 pounds over about seven years. Now I’d say most regular models are getting paid less and less more and more work.我为New Look做过一个大型代言,遍布他家所有的分店七年左右的时间总收入约35000英镑现在的模特挣得越来越少,工作却越来越多You’re expected to do longer hours and do the whole social media thing. If you have fewer than ,000 followers on Instagram you’ll lose the job to someone with more followers, as they can give the brand a broader advertising reach.你需要工作更长时间,而且要维护社交媒体如果你Instagram上粉丝低于1万,你可能会丢饭碗,而那些粉丝更多的人会得到工作,因为他们能够为品牌做更广泛的宣传There are so many new agencies and so many more models than there used to be, many agencies get undercut by smaller ones and there’s always someone who’ll do it less.现在模特公司和模特越来越多,很多公司被其他的小公司低价恶性竞争,总有人愿意以更低的价格成交There is a groundswell of people speaking up from within the industry. People have been reluctant to bee because they didn’t want to be seen as a moaner, it can lose you work.行业内敢于说出真相的人越来越多之前人们不愿意说出真相,因为他们不想被看作抱怨者,而且这可能会丢掉饭碗And as those outside the industry, they say, ugh, she’s being a princess. They assume we’re all Linda Evangelistas not getting out of bed less than $,000, but that couldn’t be further from the truth.对于业外人士而言,人们会说,哇她简直是个公主他们认为我们都像Linda Evangelistas,出价低于1万美金就不起床,但那和现实相距十万八千里The average is probably around ,000 pounds to 30,000 pounds per annum. We’re not moaning, we’re just calling regulation in certain areas, especially because many models are so young.实际上模特行业平均年薪在-3万英镑我们并非抱怨,只是希望某些领域能够加强管理,尤其这个行业有这么多年轻人中国公司就“种族歧视”广告道歉 -- :18:7 来源:chinadaily 因“上海雷尚化妆品有限公司”下属的“俏比洗衣溶珠”的一则视频广告涉嫌种族歧视,被西方媒体广泛报道和转载日前,该公司在新浪微发表声明,表示对于广告内容引发争议表示遗憾,称绝不会推卸责任请看相关报道:#0;还扒出这则广告创意并非原创,而是抄袭了意大利的一则广告#0;根据去年新修订的《广告法,任何包含或暗示有关国家、种族、宗教和性别歧视的内容都禁止在广告中出现(any content containing or implying national, racial, religious and gender discrimination is prohibited in adverts),否则将受到处罚“俏比洗衣溶珠”制造商在微声明中表示:“对于广告内容引发的争议我们表示遗憾,但绝不会推卸责任”(We express regret that the ad should have caused a controversy. But we will not shun responsibility controversial content.)“因广告的传播及舆论的过份渲染,对非洲裔人群造成的伤害,在此,我们表示歉意,也真诚希望广大网友和媒体不要过份解读”(We express our apology the harm caused to the African people because of the sp of the ad and the over-amplification by the media. We sincerely hope the public and the media will not over- it.)声明中表示,已经终止广告投放(cancelled the distribution of the ad),删除了部分网上视频链接(deleted the links to the ),也希望网友及媒体不要再传播(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)“软禁”35年 行刺里根者将获释 --9 :: 来源: 1981年里根遇刺案震惊全球,但是犯人却因为患有精神病而被免于处罚,而今35年过后,这名手即将被释放 John Hinckley Jr, the man who tried to assassinate US President Ronald Reagan, is to be released from a psychiatric hospital next month after 35 years.小约翰·欣克利--这名曾经试图行刺美国总统罗纳德·里根的男人--在精神病院度过了35年之后,他将于下个月被释放Mr Reagan and three others were injured in the shooting outside a hotel in Washington in March 1981.这场行刺行动发生在1981年3月,地点在华盛顿一家酒店外,当时里根和其他三人受伤Mr Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity but was sent treatment to a Washington hospital.因为精神失常,所以欣克利当时被判无罪,但是他被送进华盛顿一家医院里接受治疗He has aly been spending days a month at his mother’s home in Virginia under strict conditions.他此前每月都要在他母亲于弗吉尼亚的家里住天,条件非常严苛A judge ruled that Mr Hinckley, now 61, could reside full-time there on "convalescent leave" from 5 August.一名法官裁决欣克利(今年61岁)可以从今年8月5日起在那里全职休“疗养假”Restrictions, including a ban on talking to the media, will remain in place.包括禁止和媒体交谈的禁令还将继续存在The shooting, just weeks into Ronald Reagan’s presidency, shocked the world.当时那起击事件发生在里根总统上任仅仅几周之后,全世界都而震惊Mr Reagan was shot in the lung, but recovered.里根当时被击中了肺部,但是他后来恢复了过来His press secretary James Brady was shot in the head, suffered brain damage and used a wheelchair the rest of his life.里根的新闻秘书詹姆斯·布拉迪被射中了头部,他的大脑受到了损失,在轮椅上度过了余生Mr Brady’s death in at the age of 73 was ruled to be a homicide, but no further charges against Hinckley were brought.詹姆斯·布拉迪于年去年,享年73岁当时他的死被裁定为他杀,但是却没有对欣克利提出进一步的指控Two law encement officers suffered less serious injuries in the shooting.在那起击事件中还有两名执法人员受伤,但是他们的伤没有布拉迪那么严重US District Judge Paul Friedman’s judgement points to medical assessments which showed that Mr Hinckley had had "no symptoms of active mental illness" since 1983.据美国联邦地区法院法官保罗·佛里德曼的判决指出,医学评估显示,约翰·欣克利从1983年起患有“无症状积极性精神病”He had shot the president in an apparent bid to impress the actress Jodie Foster, with whom he had an obsession and whom he had subjected to what would now be termed stalking.他行刺里根总统的目的很显然是为了给演员朱迪·福斯特留下一个深刻的印象欣克利非常迷恋朱迪·福克斯,他还曾经跟踪过她Ordering his release, the judge said Mr Hinckley no longer poses a danger to himself or others.法官做出了释放约翰·欣克利的命令,并且表示说他再也不能够对自己和他人造成危险了

恢复死刑可能意味着断送土耳其加入欧盟的希望 -- 18::59 来源: 土耳其政变余波依旧荡漾近日,德国总理默克尔警告土耳其总统埃尔多安,引入死刑即意味着终结入欧谈判我们一起来了解下吧! Turkey has been warned by Germany that it will kill its chances of joining the European Union it reinstates the death penalty in the wake of a failed military coup.土耳其已被德国警告,若土方在未遂军事政变后再次引入死刑,那么它将断送土耳其加入欧盟的希望World leaders have also threatened the country with expulsion from Nato.世界各国领导人也扬言要将土耳其逐出北约More than 6,000 people, mainly military personnel and workers in the interior ministry have been arrested since the coup plotters sent warplanes firing on key government installations and tanks rolling into major cities on Friday night.自星期五晚间政变策划者派出战机在主要政府驻地上空开火,同时还出动坦克进入主要城市以来,已有6000余人遭逮捕,其中主要是军事人员和内政部官员But the rebellion wasn’t supported by the military’s top brass and was quashed by loyal government ces and masses of civilians who took to the streets. At least 9 people were killed and more than 1,00 wounded.但是政变未能得到军方要员的持,随后即被效忠政府的军队和大批涌上街头的民众给镇压下去此次政变至少造成9人死亡,另有00余人受伤After the Turkish government said they had took back control of the country, they pledged to severely punish those responsible the uprising.在土耳其政府宣布已重新控制国家局面后,他们誓言将严惩政变相关人员And while responding to crowds of supporters calling the death penalty the plotters on Sunday, President Tayyip Erdogan said such demands could not be ignored.然而,塔伊普·埃尔多安总统在周日回应呼吁对策划者执行死刑之时表示,他不会对该诉求置之不理However in Berlin today, German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s spokesman said Turkey’s bid on joining the EU would end if Ankara restored the death penalty.然而,德国总理安吉拉·默克尔的发言人今日在柏林表示,若安卡拉恢复死刑,那么这将意味着终结土耳其的入欧谈判Steffen Seibert told reporters that the EU is a commy of values, theree the institution of the death penalty can only mean that such a country could not be a member.斯蒂芬·赛贝特向记者表示,欧盟是一个价值观共同体,,一个存在死刑制度的国家只能意味着不能成为欧盟的一员 the moment, he says that Germany and other EU countries are watching the internal Turkish debate on whether to institute the death penalty, but that the EU’s position is clear.他还表示,目前德国及其它欧盟国家正在关注土耳其国内就是否制定死刑所展开的辩论,但欧盟的立场相当明确“In the first hours after the failed coup, we witnessed revolting scenes of caprice and revenge against soldiers on the streets. That cannot be accepted.”“在此次未遂政变后的第一时间里,我们便关注了混乱的叛乱现场及在街道上对士兵发起的报复行动这是不可接受的”“We categorically reject the death penalty and an institution of the death penalty would mean an end to the negotiations to join the EU,” he added.他还补充道,“我们坚决杜绝死刑,死刑制度即意味着终结入欧谈判”While US Secretary of State John Kerry called on Turkey to uphold democracy and human rights as it pursues the military officers and anyone else involved in the plot.美国国务卿约翰·克里呼吁土耳其在缉拿政变军官和其它参与人员的同时要遵守民主原则和保护人权The top American diplomat said Turkey must ’uphold the highest standards the country’s democratic institutions and the rule of law.’美国高级外交官表示,土耳其必须“遵守国家民主制度和法制的最高标准”

肯德基推出能舔的炸鸡味指甲油 -- :7: 来源:chinadaily If you can't seem to kick that awful nail-biting habit, you might as well get some flavor out of it with KFC's new chicken-flavored edible nail polish. It comes in two different flavors – "Original" (beige), and "Hot #38; Spicy" (red), and is quite literally "Finger Lickin' Good"!如果你改不了啃指甲的坏习惯,也会从中尝到一些美味肯德基新推出了炸鸡味可食用指甲油,有两种口味——“原味”(浅褐色)和“香辣味”(红色),这可真的是“吮指”原味鸡了!The product was developed by marketing firm Ogilvy #38; Mather KFC Hong Kong, in collaboration with the company that provides KFC's blend of herbs and spices. "Yes, it's actually a real thing," confirmed Ogilvy #38; Mather employee Anna Mugglestone. "It takes like chicken. It's crazy."这款指甲油是奥美广告公司联合肯德基酱汁调料供应商为香港肯德基推出的新产品奥美广告公司员工安娜bull;马格尔斯通实了这一消息,“是的,真的有这种指甲油味道和鸡肉很像挺疯狂的主意”Each "flavor" of nail polish comes packaged in a "designer bottle and box" (no bucket, sadly). Customers can paint their nails with the product and proceed to lick their fingertips "again and again and again," to enjoy the flavors of KFC anytime, anywhere. And if you're worried about safety, the chain claims that the product is "sourced from natural ingredients".每种“味道”的指甲油都包装在“设计师设计的瓶子和盒子”(可惜没有桶)里,消费者们用这款产品涂了指甲之后,就可以“一遍一遍又一遍”地舔手指,任何时候、任何地点都能享受到肯德基的美味并且,如果你担心安全问题,肯德基已经说了,这款产品“由天然原料制成”"The recipe our edible nail polish is unique and was specifically designed to hold the flavor, but to also dry with a glossy coat similar to normal nail polish," said Ogilvy #38; Mather creative director John Koay. "This campaign is designed to be intriguing and fun to increase excitement around the KFC brand in Hong Kong."奥美创意总监约翰bull;郭说:“我们的可食用指甲油配方独特,是专门为保留鸡肉味道设计的,但干了之后也会像普通指甲油一样形成一层光滑的膜我们旨在策划一场新奇有趣的推广活动,增加香港肯德基品牌带给人的兴奋体验”Not everyone is impressed with the idea, though, going by the comments on social media following the product announcement. "Just when you thought KFC couldn't possibly come up with something more disgusting than the Double Down Dog," a Twitter user wrote.然而,社交媒体上指甲油广告下方的表明,并不是每个人都佩这个想法一位推特用户写道:“就在你还以为肯德基不可能再推出比双降热(见下图)还恶心的产品的时候,它又出了个能舔的指甲油”"That is so disgusting," wrote another, in response to the company's promotional music on YouTube. "Bet it will lead to an outbreak of something. There is so much nastiness on people's hands, esp the nails! People do not wash their hands as often as they should."看了肯德基在YouTube的音乐广告视频后,另一位推特用户写道,“真是太恶心了我打赌它一定会导致某种疫情爆发人们手上的脏东西太多了,特别是指甲!人们本该经常洗手,但没人会洗得那么勤”Vocabularybeige: 浅褐色,米黄色glossy: 光亮的,光滑的intriguing: 有趣的;迷人的肯德基麦当劳还推出过哪些奇葩产品?一起来看看:肯德基粉墨汉堡:近看恶心得一塌糊涂,哪里还会有食欲被戏称为“粉刺堡和黑头堡”麦当劳也推出了同样的一款黑暗料理,包装盒上是可爱的史努比,然而打开包装后,吃客的内心是崩溃的……据说这个汉堡吃起来就像加了洗洁精的干柴肯德基石榴派:血淋淋有木有肯德基方便面汉堡:光看名字就醉了麦当劳“麻麻黑”甜筒冰淇淋:混凝土水泥般的色泽,冷冻汤圆馅一样的味道英文来源:odditycentral译者:实习生孙美真审校#38;编辑:丹妮

你还认得早晨喝咖啡前海绵宝宝么? -- :3:8 来源:sohu 我们都知道一个人在早上没喝咖啡前的状态,所以,我发挥想象力,绘制了很多著名卡通人物刚起来、没喝咖啡的样子年,我在社交网站上发布这些新作,立刻吸引了众多粉丝,我的作品可是让他们开怀大笑,您呢? I painted zany portraits of famous cartoon characters bee they've had their caffeine fix in the morning. We all know somebody who looks like this in the early hours of the day. In I started to post a lot of new content on my social media s which quickly saw an incredible bunch of followers gather together to laugh about my art. 尤达 Yoda 皮卡丘 Pikachu 天线宝宝 Teletubbies 崔弟 Tweety Bird 凯蒂猫 Hello Kitty 海绵宝宝 Spongebob 巴特;辛普森 Bart 兔八哥 Bugs Bunny 霍默;辛普森 Homer 蓝精灵爸爸 Papa Smurf 才华横溢的读者能来几幅中国人物的么?孙悟空啊,黑猫警长啊,小编给你准备礼物哈 English Source: Boredpanda

为什么不能把钱包放在后口袋 -- 18:1:33 来源: those who prefer to travel light and keep everything in their pockets, there's some bad news.那些喜欢轻装上路、把所有东西都塞在口袋里的人,有些坏消息你们必须得听听If your wallet is jam-packed with old receipts, coupons - maybe even a bit of money - it might be time to invest in either a man-bag, a handbag or a sturdy rucksack.如果你的钱包被旧收据和各种券塞得鼓鼓的,甚至还装了不少钞票,那么是时候给自己购进一个男士手提包或是一个结实的背包了The reason being, keeping your wallet in your back pocket is putting you at risk.原因是,把钱包放在你的后口袋里会让你陷入风险But this time, it's not about being an easy target pick-pockets (although do be wary of them too).不过这次,我们要说的不是你会很容易变成扒手的目标(尽管你也得防着他们)New York City-based chiropractor Dr Arnie Angrist warns keeping a ;fat wallet; in your back pocket is doing your back, hips, neck, pelvis and even your bottom potentially a lot of harm.在纽约工作的脊椎师阿尼bull;安格瑞斯特医生警告说,把鼓鼓的钱包放在后口袋里将对你的后背、髋部、颈部、骨盆甚至臀部产生很多潜在危害How?危害如何产生?The doctor explains how sitting on a wallet ;creates an asymmetry or imbalance that distorts your pelvis and hips.;这名医生解释说,坐在钱包上;产生的不对称性会扭曲你的骨盆和髋部;Having one hip sat higher than the other causes the back and neck to compensate the unevenness, which, in turn can lead to problems in these areas.一半屁股坐得比另一半高导致后背和颈部相应地扭曲来弥补这种不平衡,从而导致这些部位也出现问题But that's not all.但这并不是全部A professor of clinical sciences at University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic, Dr Chris Good also bore more bad news.桥港大学脊骨神经医学院临床科学系的教授克里斯bull;古德医生也带来了一些坏消息He explained how sitting on a wallet can cause the spine to become tilted, or the body to compensate the tilt.他解释道,坐在钱包上会导致脊柱倾斜,或者让身体其他部位来平衡这一倾斜Over time, this could lead to serious problems spinal joints, muscles and discs, resulting in serious pain and even failure.时间久了,这将会导致脊柱关节、肌肉和椎间盘产生严重问题,最终导致严重的疼痛甚至行动困难As our posteriors, according to Dr Good, a wallet in a back pocket ;could cause irritation to a number of important structures in the buttocks; including damage to nerves, muscles, arteries and veins.古德医生指出,至于我们的臀部,放在后口袋的钱包;将会刺激臀部的好几个重要组织;,并对神经、肌肉、动脉和静脉造成损伤Vocabularyrucksack: (帆布)背包chiropractor: 脊椎师pelvis: 骨盆

少女原味脚皮?揭秘淘宝奇葩买卖 -- 18:6:1 来源:sohu 滴滴代注册、明星分手险、渣男测试、人皮面具、卖脚皮、出租男女朋友、脑残片......近日,淘宝首次公布“奇葩勾当”排行榜,揭露了八种突破法律红线或违反社会伦理道德的奇葩行为据了解,阿里“神盾局”内部有一“禁限售商品管理”团队,仅年上半年就删除此类违法、违禁、扰乱平台秩序的商品链接高达万余条 China's largest e-commerce platm Taobao has published a list of weird goods or services offered on the website the first time recently. The Safety and Security Intelligence Center of Alibaba Group has a team that manages the banned and restricted goods. It has deleted over . million links selling illegal goods or goods that disturb the order of the platm in the first half of . 首先,下面让我们来盘点一下都有哪些奇葩勾当上线 1.What are they? 1)滴滴代注册:这一务主要是为用户提供代理注册务,商家在收费50至0元不等后,保障司机即使在不合符注册条件的情况之下,仍可在滴滴平台上注册成功因滴滴注册自身有注册门槛要求,所以,这一代理行为违背企业安全诚信标准,日后存在未知风险 Help customers register Didi drivers: If a driver wants to register as a Didi driver on cab hailing app Didi Dache, he or she must meet certain standards. example, his car must be in good condition, and he himself must be a good driver, etc. However, some drivers cannot meet the requirements set by Didi. Theree, they turned to Taobao help. Some Taobao shops charge the drivers from 50 to 0 yuan to help them get registered quickly. And if the they register the driver is blocked, they can help them get a new free. 而就目前来看,这一代理行业最大的风险就是一旦不符合注册标准的司机成功注册,并开始接单进行务后,在过程中会给叫车的乘客带来极大的风险和困扰比如:实际车辆与乘客在叫车软件上预定的车号牌不符、型号不符,或司机根本不是同一人等 Reason stopping it: Drivers not meeting the standardsmay not be able to offer qualified service to customers. When customers hail a car on the app, they may find that the car going to take them may have a different number plate or the driver may be a different person, which may be quite dangerous. )分手险:泰勒和抖森新恋情曝光,淘宝网的部分商家趁机推出了与二人恋情相关的专属「分手险」,该险种明显带有对明星私生活的调侃性质另外,此虚拟险种,也涉及非法集资诈骗 Break-up insurance: After Taylor Swift started dating with Tom Hiddleston this June, there's a break-up insurance the two appearing on Taobao. Each bet costs 1 yuan(<牛人_句子>.). If the pop singer 'breaks up' with the new boyfriend within a year then the buyer will get double their bet which is directly paid into their bank . One seller says that there have been 53 transactions. While another seller said that the highest amount someone has spent was 00 yuan. 这项务所提供的险种本是就是不存在的,看似好笑,单笔交易也不过一元左右,而事实上它涉及非法集资诈骗在零成本的基础上,卖家可以盈利几千元之多 Reason stopping: There's no break-up insurances. This business could be suspected of involving fraudulent fund-raising. Although it’s sold at 1 yuan each, the seller may collect several thousand yuan or even more. It’s illegal fund-raising. 经过严格的筛查和监管,分手险和类似商品已在淘宝下架详情请点击查看:分手险系非法集资已遭下架 3)渣男测试:买家花钱购买后,就会有年轻女性以陌生女孩的身份,根据客户所提供的资料,通过QQ或微信来帮助客户鉴定另一半对自己是否忠诚 Fidelity tests: After you buy the service, there will be a young female using the inmation you give to seduce your boyfriend, testing whether he is loyal enough or not. 这一“勾当”其实严重扰乱了社会公共秩序更有潜在非法性交易和发生强奸犯罪的隐患 Reason stopping: it violates public order and fine customs. There’s also a risk of potential sex trade or rape cases (because of seducing), just like renting a boyfriend or girlfriend to satisfy worrying parents. )人皮面具:高度仿真人脸,其脸部皮肤纹理、色泽与真人极度相似 Skinmask: Skinmask that looks similar to genuine human faces in skin texture and color. Many people love to use such tools to make practical jokes, or frighten somebody fun. Or they may just want to imitate what people in TV dramas do and want to make some fun with the mask. 这一奇葩商品给了犯罪分子可乘之机,它们可以通过这些面具在作案时隐藏身份,逃避警察追捕 Reason stopping: Some criminals may also buy the mask, and use it as a tool to hide their identity while committing a crime, which may hinder the police from finding the criminals. 5)代骂挨骂务:协助他人提供报复、发泄性质的骂人和被人骂务 Revenge service: It was quite easy to find such service sold online. The seller charges customers money according to the time the seller spent in making phone calls to scold others them. 福建的律师邓长昌表示,根据法律规定,每个人都有人权,且都应得到尊重随意辱骂他人是严重伤害他人人权的行为买卖双方都属于侵犯他人权利 Reasons stopping: Deng Changchang, a lawyer in Fujian, said this behavior is illegal. According to the law, everyone has his or her right of personality, which should be respected by others. Scolding others will violate their right of personality. Those who scold others customers and customers who hire them infringe others' rights together. 6)脚皮、新鲜大便等无厘头商品:淘宝上出现“少女原味脚皮”等怪异商品,并持续热销,奇葩商品引发社会舆论和广泛关注 Dead skin from the foot of a virgin or feces: Some sellers sell original flavor of dead skin from the foot of a virgin or feces as snacks, which even became a huge hit on Taobao. 这一商品必须叫停的原因 奇葩商品吸引奇葩取向的顾客,造成负面社会影响 没有严格的检疫,这类商品极有可能携带病毒细菌 那么多人在买“少女”的这,“少女”的那如此大的销量,哪来那么多少女脚皮?或者,这也许根本不是你心中的“少女”?细思极恐 Reason stopping: These could attract some people with weird hobbies, and bring some negative social influences. Is that edible? There's no healthstandard that, which may sp some insects. There are a lot of people buying that. So are there so many girl's dead foot skin sales? Are these dead skins really from girls?7)脑残片:商家对普通糖果进行伪装,为了取眼球和恶搞而冠上脑残片等怪异名称 Pills stupid people: These are candies in fact. But sellers use a fancy package to pack these candies, and name it pills stupid people (脑残片). People may buy it prank use, like making fun of others by giving them the pills to cure their brain damage. 我国对于网络渠道销售药品食品是设有十分严格而明确的规章制度的而“脑残片”既不属于食品,也不属于药品,这就意味着它很有可能既不符合食品规定也不属于药品规定,所以对消费者健康而言,这类怪异药片有着不可预知的风险 Reason stopping: there is strict quality control in selling drugs or food on the internet. Such pills are neither food nor drugs, which may neither meet the requirements of food nor drugs. So it may be risky to customer's health. 那么,究竟是何原因导致市面上出现这些奇奇怪怪的“勾当”呢? .Why is there such weird business? 1)为了吸引消费者 许多年轻人喜欢标新立异,从而显示出自己的与众不同许多黑心商家利用法律漏洞,销售一些奇奇怪怪的商品,以此来取年轻人的眼球,从而盈利 To attract customers:Many young people love to show their individuality, and differentiate from others. Theree, many sellers make use of the loopholes of the law, and make their goods appear weird and special in order to stand out on the online shopping website to attract these young people to buy. )一个愿打一个愿挨--需求刺激供给 以滴滴打车为例,随着滴滴这款app越来越火爆,许多私家车司机也想从中捞一桶金而然部分司机不符合滴滴审核的标准无法注册为了迎合这一需求,淘宝的一些黑心商家就提供虚假信息帮助他们在滴滴上完成注册 There's demand stimulate the supply: As the Didi Dache app becomes popular, many drivers want to join in to make extra money. However, not all of them qualify the registry requirements. Theree, some Taobao sellers charge them money to help them register with false inmation. 3)监管的缺乏 由于淘宝这一平台自身的开放性和丰富性,人们似乎可以在淘宝上售卖任何东西这就使那些不法卖家可以披着万众创新的外衣,在这一平台上销售自己那些奇葩商品而且由于淘宝平台的复杂性,在监管团队查出他们之前,还有时间可以大赚一笔 Lack of supervision: Due to Taobao's qualities of abundance and openness, people seem to sell everything, real or virtual online. Theree, it’s easy people to start a business on the platm to sell these weird things, under the name of innovation. And it's highly possible that they can make money bee Taobao team found their business improper, and blocked their shops or links. )利用“名人”效应 分手险就是随着霉霉和抖森恋情曝光而出现的奇葩商品黑心商家利用广大中国粉丝对霉霉的关注和喜爱,积少成多,从中盈利 Make use of celebrity's gossip: Those who sell break-up insurance just want to make use of the relationship between Taylor Swift and Tom Hiddleston. Because the singer is very popular and has many fans in China, there must be fans focusing on the development of their relationship, and want to buy the insurance which only costs 1 yuan each. 最后,针对这些奇葩“勾当”,我们应该做些什么呢? 下面是几点小建议 3. What should be done 1)提醒广大消费者 Remind customers )与有关监管部门取得联系 Contact related departments 3)设立热线举报平台 Set up hotlines or reporting platm )屏蔽“奇怪”关键词 Block more key words

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