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  • Stretching and toning are certainly important, but their benefitsare different from that of aerobic exercise.伸展和拉伸显然很重要,但是,对身体的益处有别于有氧运动。Surprisingly,aerobic exercise isnt just beneficial to your heart, it alsosharpens your mind.意想不到的是有氧运动不仅仅有益身心,还能灵活大脑。You dont have to be a jock to enjoy the brain benefits of aerobic exercise.享受有氧运动对于大脑健康的福利,并不一定要向运动员般剧烈运动。Moderateaerobic exercise is plenty.适度有氧运动就获益颇多了。Several studies involving older adultsdemonstrated that simply walking a mile or so three times a week,increases blood flow in the brainand strengthens connections between neurons, resulting in improved mental performance ontasks requiring attention.一些有关老年人的研究实,只需每周三次散步一英里左右就能促进大脑血液循环;增强神经元间的“互动”,提高注意力,从而提升智力。One of the studies divided a group of seniors into two different six-month exercise coursesonecourse consisting of aerobic exercise,the other consisting of stretching and toning.一项研究将老人们分为两组:一组做有氧运动;另一组做伸展和无氧拉伸半年的时间。Again, werenot talking about marathon-training here.但是,运动量都是适度的而非马拉松式。The aerobic-training course gradually built itsparticipants up to walking 45 minutes at a moderate pace three times a week.有氧运动组让老人们养成了每周三次45分钟正常步伐走路。At the end of the course, the people who completed the aerobic training showed significantimprovements in attention-related mental tasks.有氧运动训练完后,参加者在注意力相关的智能测试有显著提升。The stretching and toning group showed littleimprovement.而后一组受训前后并无明显差异。 201405/295948
  • Books and arts文艺A history of guerrilla warfare游击战的历史How the weak vanquish the strong以弱胜强之道Fighting an insurgency requires patience, restraint and a good public-relations strategy平定叛乱需要耐心,克制和良好的战略公关Invisible Armies: An Epic History of Guerrilla Warfare from Ancient Times to the Present.《看不见的军队》:一部述说古今游击战的史诗。By Max Boot. Liveright; 750 pages; .作者:Max Boot. Liveright;750页,定价35美元。To be published in Britain in February by W.W. Norton; 25.W.W. Norton将于2月份在英国出版;定价25英镑。Buy from Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk可以在英国亚马逊网上书城购买。LIKE the poor, guerrilla armies have, it seems, always been with us.游击队就像穷人一样,似乎一直都伴随在我们左右。From the nomadic rebels who brought down the Roman empire to the internet-savvy, plane-exploding jihadists who triggered Americas ill-conceived global war on terror, irregular forces are a constant factor in the history of warfare.游牧叛乱武装打垮了罗马帝国;互联网专家,爆炸飞机的圣战分子使美国开启了思谋不周的全球反恐战争,非正规部队是战争历史中的一个永恒元素。And fighting them has become tougher than ever.现在对付游击武装比以往更棘手。Plenty of literature gives advice on how to beat such maddening foes.很多文献给都教你如何击败这些令人发狂的敌人。Max Boot, a neoconservative American military historian, has done something different.属于新保守派的美国军事历史学家Max Boot做了一些不同的工作,Invisible Armies is a narrative history of guerrilla warfare and terrorism, ranging from what he describes as its origins, in bringing down the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia in the 22nd century , to the present day.《看不见的军队》叙述了从古至今的游击战和恐怖行动。他认为这种战争起源于公元前22世纪,美索不达米亚的阿卡德帝国就是被游击战摧毁的。The author moves quite quickly over the first 4,000 years or so and only really gets going in the 18th century, with its revolutionary wars of independence.作者很快讲完了前4000年的历史,从18世纪的独立革命战争切入,这大概是真正游击战的发端。Among the many liberal insurgencies he considers are the American revolution; the struggle against Napoleon in the Iberian peninsula; Greeces war for independence against the Ottomans; the wars of unification in Italy and various uprisings against colonial powers, such as the slave revolt against the French that led to the foundation of the Republic of Haiti.在很多自由起义中,他思考了美国革命,伊比利亚半岛反对拿破仑的斗争,希腊人反抗奥斯曼人独立战争,意大利统一之战以及各种反抗殖民势力的起义,如反抗法国的奴隶起义引发了海地共和国的成立。In the 20th century Mr Boot examines the impact of irregular forces in the two world wars; the contribution to insurgent theory of Mao Zedongs seminal work On Guerrilla Warfare, gleaned from his experiences in the Chinese civil war; the very different French and British responses to rebellions against their fading empires; the radical chic revolutionaries of the 1960s and the rise of radical Islamism.Boot先生仔细观察了非正规部队对20世纪两次世界大战的影响;毛泽东那部给起义理论做出贡献的有开创性的著作《论游击战》,这是他从中国内战中收获的经验,不同于逐渐衰落的英法帝国处理叛乱事件;上世纪60年代激进派时髦的革命和极端伊斯兰分子的叛乱。If this sounds a bit like a list, it is because of the way the book is organised. Mr Boot picks a theme, for example, The End of Empire, and then hoovers up into that section all the conflicts that can be made to fit that description.上面的内容有点像开列清单,因为这是本书的组织方式,Boot先生选择一个主题,例如帝国的终结,然后把所有符合主题的斗争收录到这个部分。Each one gets a few pages of lively narrative and a brief analysis of why one side prevailed over the other.每个主题都占据几页篇幅,叙述的很生动,并且简要地分析了一方为何能战胜另一方。The formula works rather well. Even when the author is rattling through fairly familiar territory, such as the failures of the French against the Vietminh, he usually finds something fresh or pithy to say.这种方式的效果很好。即使述说大家熟悉的事情,作者也能讲出点新鲜东西和独到见解。Take, for example, Vo Nguyen Giap, the brilliant Communist general who succeeded in expelling first the French and then the Americans from Vietnam.例如杰出的共产党将领武元甲成功地把法国人和美国人先后赶出越南。Giap closely followed the teachings of Mao in planning a three-stage struggle,first localised guerrilla war, then war of movement and finally general uprising,which he waged with a three-tier force of village militias, full-time guerrillas and a regular army.武元甲密切遵循毛泽东的教导,制定了一个包含三个阶段的斗争—先是局部的游击战,接着实施运动战,最后发动大起义 —他投入了三种力量:民兵、专职游击队和正规军。But where Mao was always cautious to avoid confrontations with more powerful forces, Giaps tendency to roll the dice on premature offensives in 1951, 1968 and again in 1972 could have proved fatal each time had it not been for the psychological and political frailties of the other side.毛泽东总是谨慎地避免和更强大的力量发生对抗,但是武元甲愿意为过早攻击孤注一掷。1951年,1968年和接下来的1972年他都用了这种方法,要不是对方存在着心理上和政策上的弱点,这三次作战就不会造成致命的影响。In guerrilla warfare, what matters most is the ability to shape the story, not the facts on the ground.在游击战中,最重要的是推动战争向前发展的能力,而非战场上的实际情况。This is how guerrillas are able to win wars even as they lose battles.这就是游击队即使战斗失利的情况下仍然能够赢得战争。Because insurgencies pit the weak against the strong, most still end up failing.因为这些起义以弱势抗强敌,大部分还是以失败告终。Between 1775 and 1945 only about a quarter achieved most or all of their aims.Boot先生说,从1775年至1945年,只有四分之一的起义完成了自己的大部分或全部目标。But since 1945 that number has risen to 40%, according to Mr Boot.但是自1945年以来,成功率增长到了40%。Part of the reason for the improving success rate is the rising importance of public opinion.成功率的提高部分原因是公众舆论的重要性日益突出。Since 1945 the sp of democracy, education, mass media and the concept of international law have all conspired,自1945年以来,民主、教育、大众媒体和国际公法的概念得到推广,to sap the will of states engaged in protracted counter-insurgencies.这都削弱了应对长期叛乱的国家意志。In the battle over the narrative, insurgents have many more weapons at their disposal than before.战斗过程中,可供叛乱分子使用的武器比以前多得多。Mr Boot does not conclude that counter-insurgency in the 21st century is a losing game.Boot先生没有推断在21世纪镇压叛乱是徒劳之举。But to prevail requires an understanding of the games rules.然而获胜之前要理解游戏的规则。He is a powerful advocate for the so-called population-centric approach pioneered by the British during the 12-year post-war Malayan Emergency, which lasted until 1960, and rediscovered by American generals,such as David Petraeus and Stanley McChrystal in Iraq and Afghanistan,only after things there had gone disastrously wrong.他极力鼓吹所谓以民众为中心的方法,这是战后英国在应对马来亚12年危机时倡导的理论,美军将领如分别在伊拉克和阿富汗的局势,严重恶化之后对此做出重新发现。The first principle is to abandon conventional military tactics.第一原则是放弃常规战术。Clear and hold beats search and destroy.清除和控制胜过搜寻和破坏。To defeat an insurgency you must provide enough security for ordinary people to live their lives.要平息叛乱,必须给普通民众的生活提供充足的安全保障。The second is that legitimacy is vital for both sides: corrupt or excessively violent governments will always struggle,第二合法性对双方来说都是重要的:腐败或过于暴力的政府一直会引发斗争,but so too will guerrillas who terrorise their own people.但是游击队也会威胁本国人民。The third is staying power.第三是耐力。Firepower is no substitute for patience and boots on the ground.在战场上火力不能取代忍耐力和士气。The people you need on your side must believe that you are in it for the long haul.必须要让你争取的民众相信你会长期和他们在一起。The fourth is that most counter-insurgency campaigns abroad are lost at home.第四大部分在海外开展的镇压叛乱的战斗都输在国内。Liberal democracies have short attention spans, low tolerance for casualties and other calls on their cash.自由主义的民主国家对于需要花钱的重大伤亡事故和其他征召不大关注,容忍度也不高。Unless voters believe that an intervention is necessary for their own security they will quickly withdraw support for it.除非选民认为有必要采取干涉措施才能保障自身的安全,否则他们会很快放弃对这种行动的持。All of which explains why things are not going well in Afghanistan.以上情况都可以解释为什么阿富汗的事情进展不顺。The population-centric approach—and the troop surge needed to realise it came late in the day and with a foolishly rigid deadline.实行以民众为中心的方法和增加部队都来的太晚,而且愚蠢地附带着严格的时限。The Afghan government has some popular legitimacy, but not enough in the places where the insurgency is resilient.阿富汗政府在一定程度上拥有广泛的合法性,但是在叛乱行动回弹的地方该政府的合法性还是不足。Nor has it been possible for American forces to deny the Taliban their sanctuary in Pakistan: insurgencies with outside support are much harder to beat.美国人不可能容忍塔利班在巴基斯坦避难:得到外部持的叛乱更加难以平息。Voters in America and Europe are not prepared to spend any more blood or money on what most presume is a lost cause.美国和欧洲的选民还不想在大部分人看来要注定失败的行动上流更多的血,花更多的钱。Few think that what happens in Afghanistan will affect their own safety.几乎没有人意识到发生在阿富汗的事情会影响到自己的安全。Counter-insurgency may be out of fashion again, but it remains necessary to know how to do it.镇压叛乱可能又过时了。但是我们还需要如何应对叛乱。Mr Boot offers a timely reminder to politicians and generals of the hard-earned lessons of history.Boot先生及时地向军政要人提醒了这个得来不易的历史教训。 /201403/282539
  • DON:Im trying to write a poem to my sweetheart.唐:我想给我的爱人写首情诗。Can you think of a good metaphor for love?你有没有一个好的爱情隐喻呢?YAEL:How about hunger or thirst?雅艾尔:牵扯挂肚或饥渴难耐怎样呢?DON:I dont know about that.唐:我不是很明白。I was thinking something like love is a rose, except less cliche.我在想爱情是玫瑰之类的东西,除了少些陈词滥调。YAEL:You must be talking about a later stage of romantic love because that metaphor is entirely off target when its very early love that were talking about.雅艾尔:你必须谈论浪漫的爱情后期,因为隐喻是完全偏离早期我们谈论的爱情。DON:And hunger or thirst IS on target for early love?唐:那饥饿或口渴是爱情伊始时的目标?Are you saying that our need for love is as basic as our needs for food and water?你是在说我们对于爱情的需求是基本的,就像我们对于食物和水的需求吗?YAEL:Something like that.雅艾尔:就是这样的东西。When were craving things like food, water, or drugs, or anticipating getting them, two areas deep within the brain, the ventral tegmental area and caudate nucleus, are active.当我们渴望诸如食物、水、药品,或期待得到它们,大脑深处两个区域的腹侧被盖区和尾状核就会呈现活跃状态。A neurochemical called dopamine is released from the ventral tegmental area into the caudate nucleus.一种名为多巴胺的神经化学物质被从腹侧被盖区释放出来进入尾状核。Neuroscientists have produced brain scan images of the brains of people falling in love,神经科学家已经扫描坠入爱河之人的大脑影像,when theyre feeling the passion of a very new relationship that has yet to become comfortable and secure.当他们感到尚未到来的一段非常新的关系会舒适和安全。What they found is that the brain in love looks a lot like the brain craving or anticipating things like food or drugs.科学家发现恋爱中的大脑看起来很像大脑对于诸如食品或药品等的渴望或预测。The same areas of the brain are active.相同的大脑区域都是活跃状态。Interestingly, this region is located in a different area of the brain from the region associated with determining physical attractiveness.有趣的是,这一地区位于不同的大脑区域,与决定外貌的区域有关。DON:You mean that our brain makes a distinction between simply finding someone attractive and being mad about them, as they say?唐:你的意思是,就像他们所言,我们的大脑在简单找到有吸引力的人及并为之疯狂之间做出区分?YAEL:Yes. That these emotions activate completely different parts of the brain suggests that romantic love doesnt just feel different than sexual attraction,雅艾尔:是的。这些情绪完全激活大脑的不同部分表明浪漫的爱情不只是相对于性吸引力感觉不同,but that our brains register these as two different urges. 但是,我们的大脑会记录下这两种不同的冲动。 201310/260673
  • In books and movies like Call of the Wild, huge, vicious huskies pull sleds for hundreds of miles over the Alaskan tundra. A Moment of Science wonders, what kind of dogs are sled dogs?在书里或者在像《野性的呼唤》之类的电影里,巨型凶猛的哈士奇在阿拉斯加的冻原上可驰骋数百英里。《科学一刻》栏目想知道,到底什么样的是雪橇呢?Most champion sled dogs are not pure husky: in fact, the “Alaskan Husky” isn’t really a breed at all: it’s a mix of various breeds. Although not pure bred, every sled dog must be carefully bred for life on the trail.大多数冠军雪橇都不是纯种哈士奇:事实上,所谓的“阿拉斯加哈士奇”根本就不是一个品种,而是由多个品种杂交而成。尽管并非纯种,每条雪橇在其拉雪橇的生涯中都需精心喂养。The dogs need heavy coats to protect them from the cold, and tough feet to prevent injuries. Unlike the tough dogs in the movies, dogs with softer feet wear booties when they run.们需穿戴厚重的保暖以免受寒,以及拥有强健的足部以防止受伤。与电影里面强壮的不同, 足部柔软的在奔跑时会穿上短靴。The dogs also need compact bodies to maximize endurance. The sled dogs’ remarkable endurance is thanks to their large heart-to-body ratio, and their ability to carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, which is about three times that of a human being们需要结实的身躯以使自身耐力最大化。雪橇耐力持久,主要是因为它们的心脏对比其身体而言相当之大,并且它们将肺部的氧气供给给肌肉的能力是人类的三倍。On film, large dogs seem powerful, but their size decreases their ability to use oxygen efficiently. In competitive dog-sledding, dogs usually weigh less than 55 pounds and can comfortably trot over 70 miles a day.在电影里,体型巨大的看起来很强壮,而事实上它们的体型弱化了它们利用氧气的能力。在雪橇竞技当中,通常体重在55磅以下的每天能够轻松地慢跑70英里。A sled dog also needs the right temperament. They must love running and be sociable and obedient. Like wild dogs, each team has a hierarchy, but the dogs struggle for position by taking aggressive or submissive postures such as squealing and rolling. Real dogfights are rare because the dogs are carefully introduced and trained before going out on the trail.雪橇需性情温和。他们必须热爱奔跑,温顺友好。正如野一样,每个群都有头,但是们通过极具侵略性的长吠或者表达顺从的滚地等动作来获取位置。们混战的机率较小,因为在进入雪橇队之前他们就已经受到了良好的引导和训练。The careful crossing of northern dogs, like Malamutes, with southern breeds like Greyhounds produces dogs with the right stuff to be sled dogs.北方的爱斯基与南方品种如长腿猎等交配得当,那么他们的后代将具备成为雪橇的优良基因。 /201306/245609
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