明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年12月14日 04:17:03
This may look like a safari through the African savanna. In fact its a theme park in Florida. And it allows people to experience a world outside their own. In some ways, they are visiting a land from another time. 这可能看起来像穿越非洲大草原的远征队。但事实上,这是在佛罗里达的一个主题公园。在这里,人们可以感受他们生活圈子外面的世界。换言之,他们在参观一片异界大陆。 14 thousand years ago, large parts of North Americas landscape and wildlife were just like the savanna of modern Africa. 14000年前,北美大陆的大部分地区和野生生物就想是如今的非洲大草原With the stretch our imagination, we can still put ourselves in the shoes of the first people who explored that vast dramatic landscape and encountered giants never seen before.随着我们移民的扩张,我们还可以继我们先人的路来继续探索大片未发现的大陆,并会发现很多以前没发现的大型动物。 In this series we have seen how fossil bones and other evidence can provide clues to that distant past, and that evidence has helped to recreate a continent no longer exists, a lost wild new world. 在本系列中,我们已经知道了如何用化石等线索探索哦我们遥远的过去,通过这些线索,我们重新创造在了一个早已不复存在的大陆——一个遗失的野生动物世界。And you can find out more about the wild new world and the wildlife of prehistoric North America right now. Put your questions to the programmes producers, live at www.bbc.co.UK/nature.现在,你可以找到更多有关野生动物新世界以及史前北美野生动物的信息。将你的问题发给我们节目的主编,请登录www.bbc.co.UK/nature。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201401/273844

Business商业报道Facebook and the under-13s脸谱和那些13岁以下的孩子们Kid gloves小心孩子Small children are a big headache for the social network小孩子们现在是社交网络的一个头疼问题ONE American in three aged 65 or older uses social networks, says a new report by the Pew Research Centre, a think-tank.美国智库皮尤研讨中央的一份新报告显示,65岁或是65岁以上的人中,有三分之一的人在使用社交网络。But it is the small surfers, not the silver ones, who are currently making waves.但是在社交网络,如今兴得起风做得了浪的还是年轻的一代,在这里,年龄不是什么优势。Facebook is examining ways to allow children under the age of 13 to use its service, with some form of parental supervision.脸谱现在正在研究一些方法,好让年龄在13岁以下的孩子们享受脸谱的务,当然了,这要在家长的监督之下进行。If this happens—and Facebook stresses that it has not yet decided whether to go ahead—it would be a venture into uncharted territory.如果这种情况发生—脸谱强调,他们现在还没有决定要不要这么做—向这片未知领域进军,那将是一种冒险。Critics howl that young children lack the maturity to cope with social networks.家们怒嚎,小孩子们太嫩,对付不了社交网络。They also worry that Facebook will find devious ways to make money from naive children or, more likely, their parents.他们还担心,社交网络会不会采取一些见不得光的手段,从天真的孩童身上捞钱,或者,更准确点讲,是从孩子们的父母身上捞钱。We would be giving the keys to the chicken coop to the fox, says Doug Fodeman of ChildrenOnline.org, a pressure group.为了防止狡猾的狐狸,我们要给鸡舍上锁,道格?佛德曼说。道格?佛德曼是儿童在线集团的人,儿童在线集团是一个关于儿童压力的组织。There is also the thorny question of how Facebook could comply with the Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act in America,还有一个棘手的问题,脸谱要怎么做,才能让其行为符合美国保护儿童在线隐私法。which was designed to protect children under 13 as they use the internet.保护儿童在线隐私法,是为了让13岁以下的孩子,在上网的时候得到保护。The law stipulates that online services with youngsters among their customers must obtain the consent of the childrens parents before collecting data from them.它规定,如果网络务的对象时13岁以下的孩子,那么在向孩子们收集资料的时候,必须得到孩子父母的同意Parents also need to be able to review their childrens data and have these deleted if they so wish.。父母也需要检查孩子的资料,如果父母觉得这些资料应该予以删除,那么父母就有权删除这些资料。The onerous nature of these and other COPPA provisions explains why social networks have tended to shun the young.些规定,还有COPPA的规定,真的是好烦的,这也是为什么社交网络都避开孩子的原因。Facebook insists that you have to be 13 to use its service.脸谱强调,想要享受脸谱的务,那么等你长到13岁吧。The snag is that children fib about their age.难的是孩子们对自己的年龄撒谎。A study by Consumer Reports found that 5.6m children under 13 were using Facebook in America alone.消费者报告的一份研究显示,单单只是美国,就有560万13岁以下的孩子在使用脸谱。Another survey of American parents found that adults often knew that their children were less than 13 when they joined Facebook.另一份关于美国父母的调查发现,孩子们在小于13岁的时候,就已经加入脸谱了,而对这件事,大人们通常都知道。In many cases, the parents helped them to set up their accounts.甚至在很多情况下,父母帮着孩子建立账号。Regulators have noticed.管理者们已经注意到这一点了。Facebooks current musings may reflect the fear that the firm will run into trouble if it does nothing.目前脸谱正在深思这一问题,如果公司跟没事人似的,问题肯定会有的,早晚的事。It aly has slightly more robust privacy settings for children between the ages of 13 and 17.现在针对13岁到17岁之间的孩子,在隐私设置这一块,他们已经稍微做了些还算可靠的举措。But it would need a far tighter regime for younger children, says Sarah Downey of Abine, an online consumer-privacy company.在线隐私公司的负责人萨拉·唐尼说,对于年轻的小辈们,措施还需更为严厉些。In spite of its plummeting share price, Facebook has oodles of cash from its recent stockmarket flotation.虽然股份持续下降,脸谱还是从最近的股票上市中捞了一大笔钱。So it could easily hire the extra staff needed to support parents and their youngsters, as well as to ensure compliance with COPPA.所以雇佣更多的人员来应对父母,孩子,并且还要保符合儿童在线隐私保护法案,这对脸谱来说,倒不是件难事。Mark Zuckerberg, the social networks boss, has said he believes childrens education should start early.马克·扎克伯格,社交网络的老大,曾今说过,他相信教育要从娃娃抓起这件事。Now he has a chance to prove that he means it.现在历史给他一个机会,明自己的时刻到了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201307/246416

  Not much is clear.不是非常清楚。Spending time with him has been an opportunity to relish.与他共同度过一段时光已经是一次释怀的机会。So often is the traveler experiences can seem a little package,所以旅行者的经历通常被看作是一个小包裹,but as Jaco leads me up the bare rocks to our final viewpoint,但是随着领导杰科带我跋山涉水最终来到一处景点。theres no doubting what a wild and unpackaged destination South Africa can be.毫无疑问南非就是野生及天然的理想目的地。Look at these views!看看这些美景!One of my favourite places.这是我最喜欢的地方之一。Not difficult to see why.美不胜收。Look there, you can see the camp.Yeah.看那里,你可以看到营地。You can see the was staying.你可以看到。Best of all, you can see all just voluntary area.最好的是,您可以看到所有的自愿地区。You know, its just less.你知道,这只是更少。This vast vista untouched by the modern world is the pinnacle of my journey into the wilderness.这片现代世界未曾涉足的巨大的地区就是我到野外去的旅程。201308/253632


  Science and technology科学技术Cryptography密码术The solace of quantum量子之慰Eavesdropping on secret communications is about to get harder现在想窃听秘密联系会越来越难CRYPTOGRAPHY is an arms race between Alice and Bob, and Eve.艾莉斯,鲍伯和伊芙之间正在进行一场密码术的军备竞赛。These are the names cryptographers give to two people who are trying to communicate privily, and to a third who is trying to intercept and decrypt their conversation.这里所说的艾莉斯,鲍伯和伊芙是译解密码者的代号,前两位在努力进行秘密联系,而第三位伊芙则试图阻止他们的联系,并且在尽力破解他们的联系密码,希望能够知道联系的具体内容。Currently, Alice and Bob are ahead—just.目前,艾莉斯和鲍伯只是暂时领先,But Eve is catching up.但是伊芙正在迎头赶上。Alice and Bob are therefore looking for a whole new way of keeping things secret.因此,艾莉斯和鲍伯正在寻找另一种全新的联系方式,以保他们联系的秘密性。And they may soon have one, courtesy of quantum mechanics.借助于量子力学,他们可能很快就会找到。At the moment cryptography concentrates on making the decrypting part as hard as possible.眼下,密码系统正集中力量让解密部分尽可能地难以实施。The industry standard, known as RSA , relies on two keys, one public and one private.被称为RSA的行业标准,取决于两种密钥,一种是公开密钥,另一种是秘密密钥。These keys are very big numbers, each of which is derived from the product of the same two prime numbers.这此密钥都是非常庞大的数字,每一个都来源于两个相同素数的乘积。Anyone can encrypt a message using the public key, but only someone with the private key can decrypt it.任何人都可以使用公开密钥加密消息,但只有拥有秘密密钥的人才能解密。To find the private key, you have to work out what the primes are from the public key.为了找到这个秘密密钥,人们不得不进行大量的运算,从公开密钥中找到这两个素数。Make the primes big enough—and hunting big primes is something of a sport among mathematicians—and the task of factorising the public key to reveal the primes, though possible in theory, would take too long in practice.虽然,从理论上讲,1、要保素数足够大—发现大的素数是数学家们热衷的一种游戏,2、对公开密钥进行因式分解希望找到这些素数,这两项任务是可能的,但是在实际中将会花费很长时间。Since the 1970s, though, the computers that do the factorisation have got bigger and faster.但是,从二十世纪七十年代以来,能够进行因式分解的电脑越来越大,速度越来越快。Some cryptographers therefore fear for the future of RSA.一些密码破译者因此开始担心RSA的未来。Hence the interest in quantum cryptography.因此,他们把眼光放到了量子密码术上。Alice, Bob and Werner, too?艾莉斯,鲍伯,沃莫也这样吗?The most developed form of quantum cryptography, known as quantum key distribution, relies on stopping interception, rather than preventing decryption.量子密钥分配是量子密码学最流行的方式,它主要是依靠阻止拦截,而不是防止解密上。Once again, the key is a huge number—one with hundreds of digits, if expressed in the decimal system.这个系统的密钥还是一个庞大的数字—如果以十进制表示的话,一个就有几百个数字。Alice sends this to Bob as a series of photons before she sends the encrypted message.艾莉斯在发送加密信息之前,会先发送一系列的光量子给鲍伯。For Eve to this transmission, and thus obtain the key, she must destroy some photons.因为伊芙要想读到这个信息,从而获得密钥,她必须要破坏一些光量子。Since Bob will certainly notice the missing photons, Eve will need to create and send identical ones to Bob to avoid detection.因为鲍伯肯定会注意到这些消失的光子,伊芙就必须创造并向鲍伯发送相同的光子,才能不会被发觉。But Alice and Bob can stop that by using two different quantum properties, such as the polarities of the photons, to encode the ones and zeros of which the key is composed.但是艾莉斯和鲍伯通过将两种不同属性—比如不同极性的光子--的量子转译成1和0,以阻止伊芙的拦截。According to Werner Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle, only one of these two properties can be measured, so Eve cannot reconstruct each photon without making errors.根据海森堡的不确定性原理,伊芙只能捕捉到这两种不同属性光子中的一种,所以她无法完全再造出一模一样的光子。If Bob detects such errors he can tell Alice not to send the actual message until the line has been secured.如果鲍伯发现这种错误的话,他就会通知艾莉斯,在通信渠道安全之前,不要发送真正的信息。One exponent of this approach is ID Quantique, a Swiss firm.运用这种编码方式的典型代表是一家叫ID Quantique的瑞士公司。In collaboration with Battelle, an American one, it is building a 700km fibre-optic QKD link between Battelles headquarters in Columbus, Ohio, and the firms facilities in and around Washington, DC.在与一家名称巴特尔的美国公司合作过程中,该公司在巴特尔位于俄亥俄州哥伦布市的总部,和该公司在华盛顿特区附近及市区的工厂之间,建立了一条700公里的光纤量子密码的链接。Battelle will use this to protect its own information and the link will also be hired to other firms that want to move sensitive data around.巴特尔将使用这个光子链接来保护它的自身信息,同时这个链接也会在其它打算频繁交换信息的公司中使用。QuintessenceLabs, an Australian firm, has a different approach to encoding.一家名叫QuintessenceLabs的澳大利亚公司的编码方式却不一样。Instead of tinkering with photons polarities, it changes their phases and amplitudes.这家公司并没有在光子的极性上做文章,而是改变了它们的相位和振幅。The effect is the same, though: Eve will necessarily give herself away if she eavesdrops. Using this technology, QuintessenceLabs is building a 560km QKD link between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which organises many of NASAs unmanned scientific missions, and the Ames Research Centre in Silicon Valley, where a lot of the agencys scientific investigations are carried out.但是结果却是一样:如果伊芙窃听的话,她肯定会露出马脚的。该公司正使用这个技术,在加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳市的喷气推进实验室—该实验室组织了多次美国航空航天局无人驾驶的科研任务,和进行大量机构科学调查的硅谷艾姆斯研究中心之间建立一条560公里的QKD链接。A third project, organised by Jane Nordholt of Los Alamos National Laboratory, has just demonstrated how a pocket-sized QKD transmitter called the QKarD can secure signals sent over public data networks to control smart electricity grids.量子运用于密码术上的第三个项目,则是由洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室的简-纳德特组织的。这个项目演示了,一个口袋大小的称为OKarD的QKD发报机是如何捕捉发送到公共数据信息网的信号,来控制智能电网的。Smart grids balance demand and supply so that electricity can be distributed more efficiently.智能电网可以平衡电力供应与需求,从而让电力分配更有效。This requires constant monitoring of the voltage, current and frequency of the grid in lots of different places—and the rapid transmission of the results to control centres.这需要对不同地区电网的电压,电流和频率进行不间断地监测,同时监测结果要快速地传回到控制中心。That transmission, however, also needs to be secure in case someone malicious wants to bring the system down.然而,也需要确保这种传输的安全,以防某些人恶意地破坏这个系统。In their different ways, all these projects are ambitious.虽然他们防止窃听的方式不一样,但是这些项目都充满着远大的抱负。All, though, rely on local fixed lines to carry the photons.但是,它们都要依靠当地固定的线路来传送光子。Other groups of researchers are thinking more globally.另外一些研究者的思维则更加全球化。To do that means sending quantum-secured data to and from satellites.要想达到这些研究者的要求,就必须通过卫星来传送量子安全信息。At least three groups are working on this: Thomas Jennewein and his team at the Institute for Quantum Computing in Waterloo, Canada; a collaboration led by Anton Zeilinger at the University of Vienna and Jian-Wei Pan at the University of Science and Technology of China; and Alex Ling and Artur Ekert at the Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore.现在至少有三个研究团体都在进行着这方面的研究。分别是加拿大滑铁卢的量子研究所托的马斯-詹内怀恩和他的团队,维也纳大学的安东-塞林格和中国科技大学的潘建国为首的合作团队,还有新加坡量子技术中心的阿莱克斯-林和阿图-恩科特团队。Dr Jenneweins proposal is for Alice to beam polarisation-encoded photons to a satellite.詹内怀恩士的计划建立在以艾莉斯为基础上的,她计划发送偏振编码的光子给卫星。Once she has established a key, Bob, on another continent, will wait until the satellite passes over him so he can send some more photons to it to create a second key.一旦她建立起一个密钥,那么当卫星运行到位于另一个大陆的鲍伯附近时,鲍伯就可以发送更多的光子给它,就建立起了第二个密钥。The satellite will then mix the keys together and transmit the result to Bob, who can work out the first key because he has the second.卫星届时会把这两个密钥混合起来,再把结果传输给鲍伯,拥有第二个密钥的鲍伯就可以解开第一个密钥。Alice and Bob now possess a shared key, so they can communicate securely by normal terrestrial networks.艾莉斯和鲍伯则会拥有一个共享密钥,所以他们能够通过正常的地面网络进行安全地联系。Dr Jennewein plans to test the idea, using an aircraft rather than a satellite, at some point during the next 12 months.詹内怀恩士计划在未来一年内的某个时候,用飞机,而不是卫星测试一下这个想法。An alternative, but more involved, satellite method is to use entangled photon pairs. Both Dr Zeilingers and Dr Lings teams have been trying this.一个更复杂的卫星方法是运用混杂在一起的光子对。塞林格士和林士所领导的两个团队一直专攻于这个方向。Entanglement is a quantum effect that connects photons intimately, even when they are separated by a large distance.量子缠结是一种即使光子相隔很远也能快速连接的量子效应。Measure one particle and you know the state of its partner.如果能测到一个粒子,你就能知道它同伴的状态。In this way Alice and Bob can share a key made of entangled photon pairs generated on a satellite.通过这种方式,艾莉斯和鲍伯能够共享一个在卫星上产生的,缠结光子对组成的密钥。Dr Zeilinger hopes to try this with a QKD transmitter based on the International Space Station.寒林格士希望能够用国际空间站的QKD发射器进行这项试验。He and his team have been experimenting with entanglement at ground level for several years.他和他的团队在地面上进行这种缠结试验已经几年了。In 2007 they sent entangled photon pairs 144km through the air across the Canary Islands.2007年,他们利用空气让光子对穿过了加那利群岛,传输了144公里。Dr Lings device will test entanglement in orbit, but not send photons down to Earth.林士的设备将会在轨道上测试缠结效应,但是不会把光子传回到地球。If this sort of thing works at scale, it should keep Alice and Bob ahead for years.如果这方面工作的规模不断扩大,那么艾莉斯和鲍伯将会保持领先很多年。As for poor Eve, she will find herself entangled in an unbreakable quantum web.对于可怜的伊芙来说,她会发现自己身陷于一个牢不可破的量子网中无法解脱。 /201311/265455


  Science and technology科学技术Astronomy天文学The cosmic boogie-box宇宙中的摇滚乐The sky, it seems, is filled with unexpected radio signals看上去,太空中充满了我们意想不到的无线电讯号WHISPER it not, but doing science can sometimes be a bit tedious.可能你会在背后小声议论,但是科学本来就有些单调乏味。Traditionally, a researcher postulates an idea, devises an experiment to test it and then reports the results.一般说来,一名研究人员会做出一个假设,设计出一个实验来验其正确性,然后再报告实验结果。Sometimes those results confirm the postulate; sometimes they confound it.有的时候这些结果和假设相符,有的时候与其相悖。Occasionally, though, something unexpected happens, and that is when the tedious gets exciting.但是,在极少数的情况下,会发生一些意想不到的事情;这时,单调乏味的科学就变得振奋轰动了。One such shock was the discovery in 1964 of the cosmic microwave background, by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson,一个轰动的例子就是1964年宇宙微波背景的发现。当时射电天文学家阿诺.彭齐亚斯和罗伯特.威尔逊正在对接收器进行测验,a pair of radio astronomers who were testing a receiver they planned to use to search the sky for localised sources of microwaves.他们计划用这部接收器来探寻局部的微波源。The hiss they found at one particular frequency turned out to be evidence for the then-controversial idea that the universe had been born in a Big Bang.这过程中,两位天文学家发现了某一特定频率的嘶音,恰好明了当时争议不断的大爆炸理论。A similarly strange result was reported this week by stargazers gathered at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Long Beach, California.本周在加州长滩举行的美国天文学会上,我们听到了一个有些类似的奇怪结果。Some of them reckon that, besides microwaves, the sky reverberates with the din of radio waves as well.其中一些天文学家认为,除了微波之外,宇宙还同辐射波的杂音一起发生反射。If they are right, something very odd indeed is going on in the universe.如果这种观点正确,那么宇宙中就存在一些非常不可思议的事情了。The astronomers in question work for NASA, America’s space agency.这些天文学家都在美国国家航天航空局工作:Michael Seiffert is based at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and Alan Kogut at the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland.迈克尔.赛佛来自加州帕萨迪纳市的喷气动力实验室,艾伦.科格特来自马里兰州的哥达德太空飞行中心。The postulate they had planned to test was that the first stars to form after the Big Bang would have left some signs of themselves in the form of radio waves.原本,他们是为了验大爆炸之后形成的第一批星球以辐射波的形式保留下了一些迹象;Their experiment was designed to find these signs.其设计的实验也是为了寻找这些迹象。Their search used radio telescopes launched to the edge of the atmosphere on special balloons from a site in Palestine, Texas.研究在德克萨斯的帕勒斯坦地区展开,他们把射电望远镜置于一些特殊的气球上,发射到大气层边缘。The result they got was not, however, what they were looking for.然而,所得的结果却并非他们的初衷。The microwave background is the earliest snapshot of the universe, taken a mere 300,000 years after the Big Bang and almost 700,000 years before the first stars are thought to have coalesced.微波背景是宇宙最早的形态,它发生在大爆炸之后仅仅300,000年;一般观点认为,其700,000年后第一批星球就已经结合。It reveals the newborn universe to have been a remarkably uniform fireball.这就说明,新生的宇宙是一个非常均匀的火球。Dr Seiffert and Dr Kogut wanted to identify the point at which things stopped being so smooth and the universe started to develop the structures—galaxies, stars, planets and dust—that fill it today.赛佛教授和科格特教授希望能够找出是从何时开始,宇宙开始从均匀的状态转变,发展成今天的多样结构——,星球,还有尘埃。It was for this reason that they were searching for signs of stars.因此,他们一直在寻找星球的迹象。What they found, however, was a background hiss of radio noise, reminiscent of the hiss noticed by Dr Penzias and Dr Wilson.但是,他们却发现了射电噪声的一种背景杂音,这让人联想到彭齐亚斯士和威尔逊士当时注意到的嘶声。After ruling out nearby sources of radio waves, they concluded that their own hiss also comes from beyond the Milky Way and thus constitutes a cosmic radio background.赛佛教授和科格特教授排除了附近辐射波的干扰,认为这种杂音同样来自之外,构成了一个辐射背景。Four papers describing the telescopes, the observations and their possible interpretation have been submitted to the Astrophysical Journal.他们写了四篇论文,对望远镜、观测结果以及有可能的解释进行描述,递交了《天体物理学杂志》。Why a cosmic radio background should be there remains a mystery.为什么那里会存在一个宇宙辐射背景呢?这还是一个谜。It does not appear to be coming from the primordial stars sought by the astronomers—indeed, it completely drowns out any signs of the early stars that were the object of the original quest.但是这看起来不像是天文学家所探寻的原始星球;实际上,这一背景的声音淹没了科学家意图探寻之星球的一切迹象。Nor are there enough radio galaxies around to account for it.周围也没有任何射电星系能够达到这一效果。It looks, therefore, like the sign of a previously unknown phenomenon.因此看起来,这是一个从前不为人所知现象的表现。Of course, some as-yet unidentified error could have been made. In that case, it will be back to the tedium.当然了,在这过程中也可能出现了一些迄今未被识别的错误。倘若如此,科学又回到了单调乏味。But Dr Seiffert, Dr Kogut and their colleagues are hoping that will not be the case, and that their discovery really will turn out to be worth making a noise about.但是赛佛教授、科格特教授以及他们的同事们不希望真的会有什么错误;他们希望,这一发现最终能够名声大“噪”。 /201305/238937

  School reform校制改革How to tame a Trojan horse如何驯一只害群之马Extremism in Birmingham schools poses a conundrum for reformers摆在改革者面前的难题是伯明翰学校中的极端主义PETER CLARKE, who used to spot terrorist plots for Londons Metropolitan Police, has confirmed that something ugly has been happening in Birmingham, too. In a report on July 22nd he showed that teachers at several mostly Muslim schools in the city had exchanged messages on a mobile app disparaging gays, Israel and the West; they had also discussed how to foster an intolerant Islamist culture. Mr Clarkes is the third report on this subject—and the one that, almost certainly, signals a partial retreat for the governments bold education reforms.彼得·克拉克曾经为伦敦警察局侦查恐怖阴谋,他确信,在伯明翰也有一些肮脏的事情发生。他在7月22日的一份报告中说,伯明翰穆斯林居多的学校中,有一些老师在一款诋毁同性恋、以色列以及西方国家的手机应用上相互交流;他们还讨论如何形成一个排除伊斯兰教徒的文化氛围。克拉克先生的报告是第三份关于这个主题的报告,还几乎是一份政府正大胆进行的教育改革有所退让的信号。Since 2010 the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition has freed some 2,500 schools from local-authority control, including some of the ones that went awry in Birmingham. Though all remain under the control of the Department for Education and must submit to inspections by Ofsted, the schools watchdog, head teachers have considerable power to shape the curriculum. In addition to these “academies”, parents have been encouraged to set up “free schools”. Institutionally, it is the coalitions most successful public-sector reform: by contrast, changes to policing, health and welfare have been slow and troubled. But the education reforms have ruffled feathers, and posed a knotty question.2010年,保守党—自民党联合政府让2500所学校脱离地方当局的管控,这包括其中一些出问题的伯明翰学校。即使所有的学校仍然在教育部的管理之下,并且必须从教育标准局的审查。因为学校的监管者——校长,有相当大的权力来修改课程。除了这些“学术型学校”,家长们还被怂恿去建立“免费学校”。在制度上,这是联合政府最成功的一次有关国营部门的改革:相比之下,在治安、医疗和福利方面的改变显得进程缓慢,而且困难重重。但这次的教育改革民怨难平,问题棘手。How can the desire to give schools more autonomy be squared with the desire to enforce liberal values? Sir Michael Wilshaw, Ofsteds boss, fought a battle with Michael Gove—until July 15th the combative education secretary—over whether the burgeoning number of academy chains and free schools should be overseen by a new layer of commissioners. Mr Gove feared that such a move would slow down reform. But Sir Michael has succeeded in instating a group of eight regional commissioners and Birmingham is to get its own commissioner.怎样才可以在保学校自主权的同时,又加强自由主义价值观?教育标准局局长迈克尔·威尔肖爵士和迈克尔·戈夫曾有过争论,后者在7月15日之前一直任教育部长,且非常好斗。他们争论的焦点是,蓬勃发展的学院链和免费学校的数量是否该被新的领导层监管。戈夫担心,这样的举动会使改革放缓。但迈克尔爵士已经成功任命一个八人区域专员小组,而且伯明翰也将要有自己的地区专员。Tristram Hunt, Labours education spokesman, backs more muscular oversight for all English schools. He wants new “schools-standards directors” to keep a beady eye on what happens in classrooms. But achieving that without crushing innovation or reproducing the mediocre uniformity imposed by local authorities will not be easy. Nobody seems sure whether they should be elected or not, or how large their fiefs ought to be.特里斯特拉姆·亨特是工党教育方面的发言人,他对所有的英语学校都有强势的监管。他想要新的“基于学校标准的负责人”,睁大眼睛关注教室中的一举一动。但是想要实现这个目标并非易事,因为要同时不压制创新,抑或重现地方当局实行成效平平的一致化。似乎没人能够肯定,他们自己是否该被选上,或者自己的管辖区域到底该多大。The puzzle of how to combine freedom with accountability bedevils education reforms far beyond the English Midlands. Many of Americas charter schools are brilliant: a report by the University of Arkansas concluded that they deliver a greater return on investment than other secondary schools by almost 3% per student for every year enrolled in school. Yet an alarming number have self-inflicted problems. Michigan has just announced that it will step up oversight of over 700 charter schools after revelations of waste.如何把教育自由和问责制相结合,这个难题给教育改革带来的困扰要远远超过英国中部地区。相比之下,美国很多的特许学校就很聪明:阿肯色大学的一份报告总结出,每年学校录取的学生中,每名有近3%的投资回报会超过其他初级中学。然而,有非常多自身造成的问题。在滥用职权被披露后,密歇根州已经宣布,将会对超过700所特许学校建立监管体制。Swedens free schools, often cited as a bracing innovation by Conservative reformers in Britain, have also performed poorly. Swedens ranking in standardised tests fell steeply between 2002 and 2012; faults have been found with its inspection and oversight system. But centralisation often works no better. France, which firmly keeps religion out of education, has many indifferent schools and does a poor job of educating children of north African origin.瑞典的免费学校常常被英国保守党改革者当作一个令人振奋的改革创新,却也推行困难。瑞典的标准化测试排名在2002年到2012年间急剧下降;其检查及监管体制已经找到了错漏之处。但中央集权也无甚成效。法国一直坚定的把宗教排除在教育之外,现在有许多低档学校,这些学校在教育北非裔的孩子时非常的不上心。One sobering lesson from Birmingham is that academic results are often a poor guide to the health of a school. Park View School was rated “outstanding” by Ofsted in January 2012—a glaring misjudgment. Nor was parent power much use. Some Muslim families seem to have been happy with the social conservatism of the school.伯明翰是一个非常令人警醒的教训,学业成绩经常不能正确反映出学校的好坏。2012年一月,园景学校曾经被教育标准局评级为“杰出”,这是一个非常明显的误判。家长监管的权利也没有得到使用。一些穆斯林家庭似乎对学校的社会保护主义非常满意。Increased local oversight for Englands schools now looks inevitable. Deciding what the new overseers should do—and just as importantly, what they should not do—will test the ingenuity of all school reformers.如今看来,加强英格兰学校的当地监管是不可避免的。现在,决定监管者应该做什么和不该做什么一样重要,这就会考验所有学校改革者的独创精神。 /201408/318055

  Its now late summer and four months since Samus birth.现在是夏末,莎木已经快4个月大了。Shark numbers are still at their peak.鲨鱼的数量还是很多。Across the Bay, theyve been feasting on scores of dugong and dolphin corpse.它们在鲨鱼湾里屠杀儒艮和小海豚。Has Samu survived his first, most critical moments?在这最关键的几个月里莎木会存活下来吗?Janet is out on patrol, looking for Puck and her baby.珍妮特外出寻找帕克和它的孩子。She catches up with the family on the Monkey Mia Flat.它和家庭成员在蒙克米亚海滩。I am just really anxious to see them, you know! Oh, look, theres Samu.我真的很想见到它们,看,那是莎木!And finally she sees Samu. Not only is he thriving, but he has a new playmate.她见到莎木了,莎木有了新玩伴,This is exciting, we have the whole Puck family here.太激动了,整个帕克家庭都在这里。Here it come the kids. Hello!孩子们过来了。Samu is now almost a meter long.莎木现在差不多有一米长。He is looking very strong. His young playmate was born shortly after him.看起来很强壮,它的新玩伴,比它迟了一点点出生。Look at them.看它们玩的。Thats Pals.它们是最好的朋友。here thats Pals.它们是最好的朋友。 201406/305374。

  Schumpeter熊彼特Love on the rocks恋情告急The romance of a merger of equals rarely lasts long来自对等合并的浪漫很难持久PARIS and champagne. What better way to celebrate an engagement? But that was last July. On May 9th a terse joint statement from their bosses confirmed that Publicis and Omnicom, two advertising giants, would not be getting married after all. Instead, although they “maintain a great respect for one another”, the two companies have “jointly decided to proceed along our independent paths.” The only thing missing was a Gwyneth Paltrow-esque reference to “consciously uncoupling”.巴黎和香槟。还有比这更好的庆祝订婚的方法吗?但是这是去年六月的情况。五月九号,Publicis 和 Omnicom 这两家广告巨头的老板发表简短的联合声明,称两家公司最终不会结合在一起。相反,尽管他们“对另一方保持有相当的尊重”,但两家公司“一致决定沿着各自的方向发展”。唯一欠缺的是格温妮丝·帕特罗式引用的“有意识的分开”。Anyone connected with the two firms should probably count himself lucky that they uncoupled before rings were exchanged. Corporate marriages often go wrong, but mergers of equals—in which two firms of roughly similar size combine, there is neither buyer nor target and typically no cash changes hands—account for a disproportionate share of the most notorious failures. Before making a comeback as the latest merger wave gathered force, they had deservedly gone out of fashion after some disastrous couplings around the turn of the century.两家公司的相关人员都应该庆幸双方没有在交换戒指之后分手。合作婚姻常常步入歧路,但是两个拥有近乎同等规模的公司之间没有买家也没有目标方并以无现金易手为特征的平等合并,在最臭名昭著的失败案例中占据着一个不成比例的份额。还没从积蓄着力量的最大的并购潮中恢复过来,这些公司在经历了世纪之交进行的一些灾难性结合后,理所当然地落伍了。When Travelers and Citibank unveiled their merger of equals in April 1998, Sandy Weill, one co-chief executive of the aspiring financial powerhouse, Citigroup, pledged to share with his co-boss, John Reed, the “lucky” office fireplace he insisted on having built. There was not to be much toasting of marshmallows together. Barely a year later Robert Rubin, a former treasury secretary, was hired to make peace between the feuding couple. In February 2000 Mr Reed quit thisménage à trois. Large chunks of Citigroup have since been offloaded, as if to confirm that the merger should never have been consummated in the first place.当旅行家集团和花旗在1998年4月公布它们的对等合并后,这家有抱负的金融集团—花旗集团的联席执行官Sandy Weil承诺和他的合伙人John Reed 分享他强调已经建好的“幸运”办公室壁炉。蜜月期并未持续多久。仅仅一年,前任财政部长Robert Rubin 被雇来调解这长期不和的一对。2000年1月,Reed先生退出了这一三角家庭。大部分花旗集团资产被转卖,似乎为了实这一并购当初就不该达成。In May 1998 Daimler and Chrysler announced their union, creating a giant German-American carmaker. Two years later Jürgen Schrempp, by now in sole command, having seen off Robert Eaton, the former boss of Chrysler, claimed that the term “merger of equals” had been used only for “psychological reasons”. The marriage struggled on until May 2007, when a divorce was announced. Worst of all was the merger in January 2000 of Time Warner, a media giant with 70,000 staff and revenues of billion, with AOL, an internet firm whose 12,000 employees generated less than billion. To symbolise their devotion to power-sharing, Steve Case, boss of new-economy AOL, wore a tie to the press conference celebrating the deal while Gerald Levin, boss of old-economy Time Warner, turned up without one. Months later the dotcom bubble burst, making a fool of Mr Levin, who announced his retirement in December 2001. In AOL was spun off. Jeff Bewkes, Time Warners current boss, calls the merger the “biggest mistake in corporate history”.1998年五月 戴姆勒和克莱斯勒宣布了它们之间的联合,形成了一个德美汽车制造巨头。两年后,目睹了克莱斯勒前老板罗伯特·伊顿离开的约尔·施伦普现在大权独揽,称“对等合并”条件只适用于“心理原因”。这场婚姻挣扎到了2007年5月,直到被宣判离婚。最糟糕的并购是2000年1月发生在拥有70,000员工、270亿美元资产的传媒巨头时代华纳和拥有12,000员工以及不超过50亿美元资产的互联网公司美国在线之间之间。为了表示它们之间相互扶持的决心,新经济型公司美国在线公司的老板斯蒂芬·凯斯打了一条领带出席了庆祝交易成功的媒体发布会,而老牌经济型公司时代华纳的老板杰拉尔德·莱文则没有打领带。几个月后互联网泡沫破灭,嘲讽了2001年12月退休的莱文先生。年美国在线被踢出局。时代华纳的现任老板杰夫·比克斯称此次并购为“公司史上最大的失误”。Although the deals have since been smaller and fewer, the tales of woe have continued. After failing in 2001 to complete a merger because they could not agree on how to share power, Alcatel, a French telecoms-equipment firm, and Lucent, an American rival, eventually tied the knot in 2006. The combined firms share price has slumped through a series of bosses. Now there is talk of a possible merger with Nokia, a Finnish rival. In February 2012 Glencore and Xstrata, two mining giants with headquarters in Switzerland, agreed on a merger of equals, only for Glencore to change its tune before the deal went through and insist that its boss, Ivan Glasenberg, take sole charge of the combined firm. Duke Energy behaved even more brazenly after completing its merger with Progress Energy in July 2012. As part of the deal, Jim Rogers, Dukes boss, had agreed that William Johnson, Progresss boss, would run the combined firm, and he would be executive chairman. That was honoured for roughly two hours, before the board that had just appointed Mr Williams as chief executive fired him and gave Mr Rogers the job. Lesson for any boss considering a merger of equals: ensure your firm gets at least half of the members of the new companys board.尽管交易变得越来越少、越来越小,悲伤的故事依旧在继续。在2011年因为无法达成如何共享资源而并购失败之后,法国电信设备公司阿尔卡特和美国竞争者朗讯公司最终在2006年喜结连理。联合公司的股价在经历了一系列的老板之后下跌。现在有关于芬兰对手诺基亚公司存在可能的并购者的言论出现。2012年2月两个总部在瑞士的矿业巨头嘉能可和斯特拉塔集团达成了对等合并,只是要求嘉能可在交易进行前改变它的调子并坚持它的老板伊凡·格拉森格独掌联合公司。杜克能源在2012年6月完成了与Progress Energy的并购之后表现得更加无耻。作为交易的一部分,杜克公司的老板吉姆·罗杰斯同意Progress公司的老板威廉·约翰逊运行联合公司,并且他会成为执行主席。这是只有两个小时的荣耀,刚刚任命威廉先生作为首席执行官的董事会开除了他并把这一职务交给罗杰斯先生。每一位考虑对等合并的老板都要考虑一个教训:确保你的公司拥有至少一半的新公司董事会成员。The aggregate data on mergers of equals reinforce the message of these sorry tales. On average, mergers have a mixed record, rewarding sellers shareholders a bit more than they hurt buyers. But equity deals and large deals tend to do worse, notes Steven Kaplan of the University of Chicago: “Mergers of equals are both large and typically done with stock rather than cash.”对等合并的综合数据实了这些令人遗憾的故事。通常,并购者有一个混合记录,损害买方的利益来给予卖方股票持有者更多的好处。但是对等交易和大宗交易更加糟糕,芝加哥大学的斯蒂芬·卡普兰提到:“对等合并方规模都很大,并且典型的是用股票替代现金来交易。”From Omnicom to Omnishambles从宏盟集团到一团糟So why does anyone enter into such a deal? Both firms tend to be big and similar, which holds out the possibility of lots of lucrative cost-saving. Yet their similar size makes it hard for either boss to make a convincing case for taking sole charge. Bosses tend to have planet-sized egos, believing they can make anything work, including the combination of incompatible corporate cultures. That proved a task too far for Omnicom and Publicis. The bosses even convince themselves they can share power—or each believes that, if not, he can see off the other. Yet all too often, merger of equals “effectively translates into rudderless behemoth,” says Peter Clark, one of the authors of “Masterminding the Deal”, a book on how to execute mergers. “Everything has to be checked so many times to ensure that everyone is on board, and competitive speed is lost.”那么为什么人人都想进入这样的交易中呢?双方企业规模都很大并且相似,这就会提供很多可能有利的成本缩减。然而他们相似的规模使得任意一方的老板都很难令人信地获得独控权。老板们的自我意识都很强,相信自己可以使得一切运转自如,包括公司文化矛盾的整合。这对于宏盟集团和阳狮集团来说是一项不可能完成的任务。老板们甚至说自己相信,他们能够分享权力—或者说每个人相信,如果不是的话,他会让别人离开。因而对等并购常常像《策划交易》一书作者之一彼得·克拉克所说的那样—“有效地变成无领导的庞然大物”。“所有的事情都必须要好好检查很多次确保每一个人都在船上,这样竞争速度就丢掉了。”The rare merger of equals that succeeds, such as the creation of Lockheed Martin, a defence firm, in 1994, or of ConocoPhillips, an oil giant, in 2001, tends to have a detailed integration plan agreed in advance, and one boss who is eager to retire as soon as possible. Typically, neither is the case. Their record is so bad that any talk of a merger of equals should set alarm bells ringing. You have been warned, shareholders of Lafarge and Holcim (two European cement firms that agreed such a deal last month). Forget the romance of power-sharing; when it comes to the tricky business of making a merger work, someone must be in charge.少数几个对等并购成功的例子,例如1994年的洛克希德马丁防御武器公司和2001年的石油巨头康菲公司趋向于提前达成一个详细的综合计划,并且其中一个老板迫切的希望尽快退休。典型的,没有一个是这样的例子。他们的记录很糟糕,以至于任何有关于对等并购的话题都会敲响警钟。你已经被警告了,拉法基公司以及霍尔希姆公司的股权人。忘记权力分享的浪漫吧;当涉及到狡猾的使并购进行的事项中时,必须有人来掌控局面。 /201405/300217


  Science and technology科学技术Flu流感How to make bird flu fly, part one怎样让禽流感在人间传播:步骤一The first of two controversial research papers is published两个关于禽流感研究的论文一直备受争议,现在其中之一已经公开发表了ON APRIL 27th, after much toing and froing, the Dutch government gave Ron Fouchier of the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam permission to submit his paper on bird flu to Science.今年4月27日,经过长久的等待之后,荷兰政府批准了罗恩·富希恩在《科学》杂志上发表他关于禽流感研究的论文。罗恩·富希恩效力于鹿特丹的伊拉兹马斯医学院中心。Dr Fouchier is the head of one of two groups studying how bird flu might become transmissible between people.富希恩士是两个研究禽流感如何变得可以在人间传播的团队的领导者。In December the authorities in America and the Netherlands prevented both his group and the other, led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, from publishing their findings, lest they get into the wrong hands.去年12月,美国和荷兰有主管部门,由于担心被误用,而不允许了他的团队和另一个由威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校的河冈义裕领导的团队发表他们的研究成果。This official fear stemmed from the deadly nature of bird flu.官方的恐惧来自于自然界禽流感的致死性。Of the 602 human cases reported since 2003, 355 have been fatal.从2003年起,已有602例人感染禽流感的安全,其中355人已经死亡。The factor that has stopped the death toll being worse is that people have to catch the virus directly from a bird.为了阻止死亡人数增长,人们一不得不直接从鸟类身上提取病毒,这一点使得恐惧加深了。It rarely, if ever, passes from one person to another.尽管禽流感在人间传播的情况十分罕见,但并非没有。Science has yet to publish Dr Fouchiers manuscript, but its rival Nature has gone ahead and published Dr Kawaokas.《科学》杂志已经公开了富希恩士的手稿,但这之前它的老对手《自然》杂志已经抢先公开了河冈士的论文。This paper got clearance from the American authorities on April 20th.美国的主管部门于4月20日发出了放行令。So it is now possible to see what all the fuss was about.因此我们现在可以了解其中的争论是些什么。Dr Kawaoka was interested in the role a protein called haemagglutinin plays in the transmission of avian influenza.河冈士关注一种称为血凝素的蛋白质在禽流感传播中的作用。HA is the viral equivalent of a grappling hook:HA处于病毒一方,像一个锚一样:it lets the virus latch onto a cell by binding to substances called sialic acids that are found in receptors on the cells surface.它通过绑定受体细胞表面的唾液酸,使得病毒抓紧细胞。This done, the virus infects the cell with its DNA.这样做,接下来病毒就可以以其DNA感染细胞了。But because the sialic acid found in birds is chemically different from that in mammals,但是由于禽类身上发现有唾液酸在化学成份上不同于哺乳类的,and because bird flu has evolved to recognise only the avian variety, it cannot stick easily to mammalian cells,也由于禽流感进化得只能识别禽类变种,所以HA吸附到哺乳类动物细胞上不那么容易,limiting its ability to infect people.也就是说它感染人类的能力十分有限。The researchers wanted to know what it would take to enhance that ability.研究人员想要了解HA怎样才能提高这种能力。They took the HA gene from avian influenza viruses found in Vietnam and made millions of mutant versions, each of which was spliced back into a copy of the original virus.他们将在越南发现的禽流感病毒中的HA基因提取出来,并制造了数百万个变种,又把每一个插回到原来的病毒当中。They then screened 2.1m of these mutant viruses to see which bind to sialic acid of the mammalian variety.之后,他们扫描了二百一十万个变种病毒,看看它们中的哪一个可以与哺乳动物的唾液酸绑定。Just eight can do so, and just one of those has become, in effect, a mammalian specialist, because it can no longer bind to avian cells.其中只有8个能这样,而且只有其中之一实际上变得不再能绑定禽类细胞,而变成了专门绑定哺乳动物品种。Dr Kawaoka decided to concentrate his efforts on this specialist. Further tests revealed that two mutations in its HA gene, called N224K and Q226L, were responsible for its characteristics.河冈士决定集中精力研究这个特别的品种。进一步的测试显示,其中有两种HA基团的变种,N224K和Q226L,是它们决定了HA的特性。It is here that things get complicated.此时情况变得复杂起来。Instead of looking at the doubly mutated gene in bird flu, the team transplanted it into the virus that caused the human-flu pandemic of .这个团队将这种基因引入年引起人禽流感传播的病毒中,而不仅仅是去评判那些成倍变异的禽流感基因。By doing so, they virtually guaranteed they would make a virus that could pass between mammals.这样,使得他们实际上能够制造出测定哺乳动物间传播的禽流感病毒。And so it proved.最终,这也得到了实。When they tested it on ferrets, it passed through the air from one animal to another.当他们在雪貂身上进行测试后,病毒经过空气从一只传到另一只。Moreover, closer inspection showed that two other mutations, N158D and T318I, had spontaneously got tangled up in the mix.此外,进一步检测显示,另外两种变种,即N158D和T318I,同时也紧紧纠缠于病毒中。What all this means, then, is slightly obscure.实验的结果看起来有点晦涩。Dr Kawaokas purpose was to study how the mammalian-transmission mutations worked.河冈士的目的是研究哺乳动物间传播的变种如何起作用。In this, he succeeded.在这一点上他成功了。He found that N224K, Q226L and N158D all control areas in the head of the HA protein—ie, the hook—and probably help it attach to the mammalian flavour of sialic acid.他发现了N224K、Q226L和N158D位于HA蛋白头部的控制区,它们有可能帮助HA偏好于哺乳动物的唾液酸。T318I controls part of HAs stem and may help to stabilise the protein as it injects viral DNA into cells.T318I控制HA的根部,使得HA能在病毒向细胞中注入DNA时保持稳定。By transferring the genes into a virus that was known to be good at moving between mammals,通过将这些基因转录入病毒,使其易于在哺乳动物间传播。Dr Kawaoka has shown that the HA gene is not itself an obstacle to bird flu gaining that ability, though its other genes may be.这样,河冈士实了HA基因本身并不是禽流感病毒获得这种能力的障碍,尽管其他基因或许是。Perhaps Dr Fouchiers paper will shed more light on the matter.或许富希恩士的论文将会为此提供线索。 /201307/248479

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