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赣州祛疤医院飞度云专家

2018年10月18日 06:19:43
来源:四川新闻网
光明互动

The global public health emergency involving deformed babies emerged in 2015, the hottest year in the historical record, with an outbreak in Brazil of a disease transmitted by heat-loving mosquitoes. Can that be a coincidence?2015年,全球出现了涉及婴儿畸形的公共卫生紧急情况。这一年也是有历史记录以来最热的一年。这种由喜热的蚊子所传播的疾病在巴西爆发,是否可能只是巧合?Scientists say it will take them years to figure that out, and pointed to other factors that may have played a larger role in starting the crisis. But these same experts added that the Zika epidemic, as well as the related sp of a disease called dengue that is sickening as many as 100 million people a year and killing thousands, should be interpreted as warnings.科学家称,要确定是否属于巧合需要进行多年的研究。他们指出这次危机可能另有原因。但是,这些专家还补充说,兹卡的疫情以及与之相关的登革热的传播应该被视为一种警告。后者一年最多能感染1亿人,并造成数以千计的人们死亡。Over the coming decades, global warming is likely to increase the range and speed the life cycle of the particular mosquitoes carrying these viruses, encouraging their sp deeper into temperate countries like the ed States.在未来几十年,全球变暖可能造成那些携带这些病毒的特殊种类的蚊子的活动范围扩大和生命周期加快,进而促使这些疫病向美国等温带国家扩展。Recent research suggests that under a worst-case scenario, involving continued high global emissions coupled with fast population growth, the number of people exposed to the principal mosquito could more than double, to as many as 8 billion or 9 billion by late this century from roughly 4 billion today.近期的研究表明,最糟糕的一种情况是,随着全球温室气体的大量排放和人口的高速增长,有可能接触这种蚊子的人口将翻番,目前是40亿左右,到本世纪末将多达80亿或90亿。“As we get continued warming, it’s going to become more difficult to control mosquitoes,” said Andrew Monaghan, who is studying the interaction of climate and health at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. “The warmer it is, the faster they can develop from egg to adult, and the faster they can incubate viruses.”“随着全球变暖,控制蚊子将越来越困难。”安德鲁·莫纳甘(Andrew Monaghan)说。安德鲁在科罗拉多州尔德的美国国家大气研究中心(National Center for Atmospheric Research)研究气候与健康的互动关系。“天气越热,蚊子从孵化到成年的速度就越快,病毒繁殖的速度也就越快。”Aly, climate change is suspected — though not proven — to have been a factor in a string of disease outbreaks afflicting both people and animals. These include the sp of malaria into the highlands of eastern Africa, the rising incidence of Lyme disease in North America, and the sp of a serious livestock ailment called bluetongue into parts of Europe that were once too cold for it to thrive.人们怀疑,气候变化是人畜感染一系列疾病的一个原因,尽管这一点尚未得到实。这些疾病包括东非高原地区的疟疾,北美莱姆病的发病率升高,欧洲部分地区的牲畜出现的严重的蓝舌病疫情,那些地区之前因为太冷,很少出现这些疾病。In interviews, experts noted that no epidemic was ever the result of a single variable.在访谈中,专家指出没有任何一种传染病是仅由一个变量引起的。Instead, epidemics always involve interactions among genes, ecology, climate and human behavior, presenting profound difficulties for scientists trying to tease apart the contributing factors. “The complexity is enormous,” said Walter J. Tabachnick, a professor with the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, a unit of the University of Florida in Vero Beach.相反,传染病常常涉及基因、生态、气候、人类行为等多种因素的互动,所以科学家很难把单个因素分离出来。“原因极为复杂。”佛罗里达大学(University of Florida)位于维罗比奇(Vero Beach)的佛罗里达医学昆虫学实验室的教授瓦尔特·塔巴奇尼克(Walter J. Tabachnick)说。The epidemics of Zika and dengue are cases in point. The viruses are being transmitted largely by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. That creature adapted long ago to live in human settlements, and developed a concomitant taste for human blood.兹卡和登革热就是典型的例子。这些病毒主要是由感染黄热病的伊蚊传播。这种生物早已适应了在人类聚居地生存,并因此喜好人类的血液。Cities in the tropics, the climate zone most favorable to the mosquito, have undergone explosive growth: Humanity passed a milestone a few years ago when more than half the population had moved to urban areas. But spending on health care and on basic public health infrastructure, like water pipes and sewers, has not kept pace. Mosquito control has also faltered in recent decades.热带是最适合蚊子生存的气候带,而那里的城市正在经历迅猛的增长:几年前人类就跨过了一个里程碑:一半以上的人口已迁居到城市地区。但是公共医疗和公共卫生基础设施的投入,比如水管和下水设施,仍是滞后的。近几十年对蚊子的控制也出现了放松。The mosquito lays its eggs in containers of water, of a sort that are especially common in the huge slums of Latin American cities. With unreliable access to piped water, people there store water in rooftop cisterns, buckets and the like. Old tires and other debris can also become mosquito habitat.蚊子在盛水的容器中产卵,这种容器在拉丁美洲城市的大型贫民窟中尤其常见。由于没有可靠的管道用水,那里的人们会把水存放在屋顶的水箱、水桶和类似的容器中。旧轮胎和其他垃圾也可能成为蚊子的栖息地。Water storage near homes is commonplace in areas where Zika has sp rapidly, like the cities of Recife and Salvador in northeastern Brazil, and where dengue experienced a surge in 2015, like S漀 Paulo, Brazil’s largest state.在兹卡病毒迅速传播的区域,比如巴西东北部城市累西腓和萨尔瓦多,以及2015年出现登革热病例激增的巴西最大州圣保罗,都有在民宅附近存水的习惯。Altogether, dengue killed at least 839 people in Brazil in 2015, a 40 percent increase from the previous year. Worldwide, dengue is killing more than 20,000 people a year.2015年,巴西共有至少839人死于登革热,比上一年增加40%。而全世界一年有超过2万人死于登革热。 多名专家在访谈中称,疾病爆发的一个主要原因很可能是城市化、人口增长和跨国旅行造成受风险人口增加。他们认为气候变化只是压垮骆驼的最后一根稻草。Several experts said in interviews that a main reason for the disease outbreaks was most likely the expansion of the number of people at risk, through urbanization, population growth and international travel. They see the changing climate as just another stress on top of a situation that was aly rife with peril.多名专家在采访中说,疾病爆发的一个主要原因很可能是随着城市化、人口增长和跨国旅行,面临风险的人群扩大了。他们认为在已经有重重危险的局面中,气候变化只是其中的一重压力。While they do not understand to what degree rising temperatures and other weather shifts may have contributed to the outbreaks, they do understand some of the potential mechanisms.虽然他们并不知道气温升高和其他气候变化因素,对疫情爆发的作用有多大,但是他们明白其中一些潜在的机制。The mosquitoes mostly live on flower nectar, but the female of the species needs a meal of human blood to have enough protein to lay her eggs. If she bites a person infected with dengue, Zika or any of several other diseases, she picks up the virus.蚊子大多以花蜜为生,但是雌性蚊子为了产卵,需要吸人血来提供充足的蛋白质。如果它叮了已感染登革热、兹卡或其他几种病的人,它就携带了该种病毒。The virus has to reproduce in the mosquito for a certain period before it can be transmitted to another person in a subsequent bite. The higher the air temperature, the shorter that incubation period. Moreover, up to a point, higher temperatures cause the mosquitoes to mature faster.病毒需要在蚊子的体内繁殖一段时间,才能在下一次叮咬时传播给他人。温度越高,病毒繁殖所需的时间就越短。而且在某个限度以内,温度越高,蚊子的成熟就越快。With rising temperatures, “You’re actually speeding up the whole reproductive cycle of the mosquitoes,” said Charles B. Beard, who heads a unit in Fort Collins, Colo., studying insect-borne diseases for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. “You get larger populations, with more generations of mosquitoes, in a warmer, wetter climate. You have this kind of amplification of the risk.”温度上升“实际上会加速蚊子的整个繁殖周期,”查尔斯·B·彼尔德(Charles B. Beard)说,“人口增加了,在更潮湿、更炎热的气候里,存活的蚊子世代也增多了,这就放大了风险。”彼尔德领导着一个位于科罗拉多州科林斯堡的团队,为亚特兰大的疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta)进行昆虫传播疾病研究。In principle, the risk from continued global warming applies not just to temperate countries, but to cities at high altitude in tropical countries. Researchers are keeping a close eye on Mexico City, for instance.理论上,全球持续变暖所带来的风险,不仅涉及温带国家,还涉及热带国家的高海拔城市。比如,研究人员正在密切关注墨西哥城。With 21 million people in the city and its suburbs, Mexico City is the largest metropolis of the Western Hemisphere. While the lowlands of Mexico are plagued by yellow fever mosquitoes and the viruses they transmit, the country’s capital sits on a mountain plain that has — up to now — been too cold for the mosquitoes.墨西哥城的城区和郊区一共有2100万人,它是西半球最大的都市。虽然在墨西哥的低地,感染黄热病和其他病毒的蚊子到处肆虐,但是墨西哥的首都位于较寒冷的山顶平原,至少目前蚊子还无法在那里生存。But temperatures are rising, and the mosquitoes have recently been detected in low numbers near Mexico City.但是随着气温的升高,墨西哥城附近最近发现了少量的蚊子。“The mosquito is just down the hill, literally,” Dr. Monaghan said. “I think all the potential is there to have virus transmission if climatic conditions become a bit more suitable.”“蚊子已经来到山脚下了,”莫纳甘士说。“我觉得只要气候条件再合适一点,病毒就有可能开始传播。” /201602/427713江西省中心人民医院隆鼻多少钱Russia gets on board the Hyperloop: Government invests in Elon Musk#39;s high speed transport system俄罗斯登上超级高铁:政府投资马斯克的高速运输系统A Kremlin-backed Russian investment fund has invested in the team building Elon Musk#39;s Hyperloop, it has been revealed.据披露,一家克里姆林宫持的俄罗斯投资基金已经对马斯克的建造超级高铁的团队进行了投资。The Russian Direct Investment Fund, which was launched with support of the Kremlin in 2011 with the goal of attracting investment to Russia, made the undisclosed investment during an April fundraiser along with General Electric and the French railway company SNCF.俄罗斯直接投资基金在四月份的一次资金筹集活动上同通用电气以及法国国营铁路公司一起进行了这项秘密的投资。俄罗斯直接投资基金2011年在克里姆林宫的持下成立,其目标是吸引对俄投资。The amount in question was #39;very modest,#39; the fund#39;s chief Kirill Dmitriyev said in televised remarks, but the goal was to implement the project in Russia.该基金负责人在电视上说其中所涉及金额并不庞大,但目标是在俄罗斯实施该项目。 /201606/451074赣州俪人医院徐凯做双眼皮好不好赣州整形医院名单

赣州祛斑价格多少赣州整形美容医院去疤怎么样When Brazilian police arrested 12 men last month on suspicion of planning a terrorist attack during the Olympic Games, the country reacted in the only way it knew how: by cracking jokes on Twitter.上月,巴西警方逮捕了12名涉嫌策划在奥运会(Olympic Games)期间发动恐怖袭击的男子。对此,这个拉美国家以它唯一知道的方式做出反应:在Twitter网站上编段子。“God, even terrorists in Brazil are lazy!” scoffed one student, ridiculing the group for never having met in person but using WhatsApp to communicate instead.一名学生打趣道:“天哪,就连巴西的恐怖分子都这么懒!”借此取笑该团伙从未当面会晤,而是通过WhatsApp应用相互联系。Others poked fun at them for being “amateurs”. According to Alexandre de Moraes, justice minister, the suspects participated in an online Isis initiation ceremony, discussed taking martial arts lessons and tried to buy an AK-47 assault rifle from Paraguay over the internet.其他人则嘲笑他们“太业余”。根据巴西司法部长亚历山大#8226;德莫赖斯(Alexandre de Moraes)的说法,嫌疑人参加了一个网上的“伊拉克与黎凡特伊斯兰国”(ISIS)入会仪式,讨论过参加武术方面的课程,并试图通过互联网从巴拉圭购买一AK-47突击步。“Sounds more like [martial arts actor] Chuck Norris,” tweeted one Brazilian. Others mocked them for leaving their preparations for the Olympics to the last minute. “I bet you the AK-47 is still stuck in customs, along with the aftershave I ordered,” another quipped.一名巴西人在Twitter发消息称:“听起来更像是(功夫明星)查克#8226;诺里斯(Chuck Norris)。”其他人则嘲笑他们把针对奥运会的“筹备工作”拖到了最后一刻。还有一位讽刺道:“我打赌,那AK-47仍和我订的刮胡水一起卡在海关呢。”Brazilians’ light-hearted reaction to a potentially horrific attack is no surprise. Osama bin Laden masks are popular at carnival — proof that the concept of Islamist terrorism is alien to this outwardly pacifist country. The operation carried out ahead of this month’s games was Brazil’s first under its new antiterrorism laws.对于一场原本可能十分可怕的袭击,巴西人轻松的回应方式并不让人意外。奥萨马#8226;本拉登(Osama bin Laden)的面具在狂欢节上大受欢迎——明对这个外表上和平主义的国度来说,伊斯兰恐怖主义的概念仍然十分陌生。在本月奥运会前发起的收网行动,是巴西根据新的反恐法采取的首次反恐行动。The ridicule aimed at Brazil’s authorities over the operation is worrying. “The whole thing doesn’t really make much sense — if you want to get hold of a rifle you can hire one in Brazil for just R,000 (8),” says Rafael Alcadipani, a researcher at the Getulio Vargas Foundation in S#227;o Paulo, who studies the police. The operation was, he says, a media spectacle staged by the government to show the world Brazil is taking the threat of terrorism seriously.围绕这次行动对巴西当局的嘲笑则令人担忧。专门研究巴西警方的圣保罗图利奥#8226;瓦尔加斯基金会(Getulio Vargas Foundation)研究人员拉斐尔#8226;阿尔卡迪帕尼(Rafael Alcadipani)表示:“整件事并不能自圆其说——如果想弄步,在巴西只要3000雷亚尔(合918美元)就可以租一。”他说,这次行动是巴西政府自导自演的一场媒体秀,以便向全球展示巴西认真对待恐怖主义威胁。Endemic corruption and rule-breaking have left Brazilians resolutely cynical, and the recent political crisis has eroded their trust in the establishment further still. Some have suggested federal police set up the arrests to get one up on ABIN, Brazil’s intelligence agency. Others believe they invented the whole plot.大面积的腐败和违规现象令巴西人什么都不信。近期的政治危机进一步侵蚀了他们对体制的信任。有人暗示,联邦警察炮制这场收网行动,以便盖过巴西情报局(ABIN)的风头。其他人则相信他们虚构了整个情节。Then there are the bloggers who say Rio de Janeiro is simply not worth attacking. In one skit that went viral on Facebook, two terrorists try to blow up the city’s Christ the Redeemer statue. After they lose their luggage — and then get robbed, stuck in traffic and caught up in a favela shootout — they give up. “They weren’t sure if destroying Rio would be an act of terrorism or charity,” concludes the post.还有客文章表示,里约热内卢根本不值得发动袭击。在一个在Facebook网站上病毒式传播的小品中,两名恐怖分子试图炸掉该市的救世基督像。两人在行动中先是丢了行李,接着遭遇了抢劫,然后被堵在路上,最后遭遇贫民窟发生的战,结果只好放弃。该贴最后声称:“他们无法确定,毁掉里约热内卢是恐怖行为还是慈善行为。”The problem exemplifies for some the country’s “complexo de vira-lata”, or “mongrel complex”, a term coined by writer Nelson Rodrigues to denote the feeling of inferiority that is considered a defining feature of the national psyche. Brazil, according to this belief, is not a “serious” country — in this case, not taken seriously even by terrorists.对某些人来说,这个问题体现了巴西的“混血情结”(complexo de vira-lata)。这个表述是作家内尔送#8226;罗德里格斯(Nelson Rodrigues)发明的,用来表示被认为是巴西民族基本心理特征的自卑感。按照这一观点,巴西不是一个“认真”的国度——在这个例子里,就连恐怖分子都不把巴西当一回事。However, perhaps the most sinister explanation for Brazilians’ nonchalant approach to terrorism is that they face terror on a daily basis. In the state of Rio alone, 13 people are murdered each day on average. Macabre crimes fill the newspapers. Take last Thursday as an example: there were reports of a woman who crushed a baby with a quad bike, a teenager who stabbed her boyfriend to death during sex, a 15-year-old who bottled a child and dumped him in a canal, a firefighter who shot dead a teacher in her classroom and numerous violent robberies. A normal day in Brazil.不过,就巴西人对恐怖主义的淡定态度而言,也许最阴暗的解释是他们天天面对恐怖。仅里约一个州,每天平均就有13人被谋杀。报纸上充斥着令人毛骨悚然的犯罪。以上周四为例:有报道称,一名女子用一辆四轮托碾压一名婴儿,一位十几岁的少女在做爱时将其男友捅死,一名15岁的孩子将一名幼童装入桶内扔进运河,一名消防员在教室里杀了一位女教师,还有关于大量暴力抢劫活动的报道。这是巴西的平凡一天。“I still believe that domestic crime is a more concerning issue than the question of terrorism,” Mr de Moraes said last week about the games. Even though lone wolf terrorist acts should not be ruled out, he may have a point. In the past two weeks in Rio, the mother-in-law of Bernie Ecclestone, the Formula 1 boss, was kidnapped (and freed by police), a group of transvestites attacked an Australian television crew and a New Zealand ju-jitsu champion says he was abducted and robbed by armed police.上周,德莫赖斯在谈到奥运会时表示:“我仍然认为国内犯罪是比恐怖主义更令人担忧的问题。”即使不该把独狼恐怖分子的活动排除在外,他的话也是有些道理的。过去两周在里约热内卢,一级方程式赛车(Formula One, F1)老板伯尼#8226;埃克尔斯通(Bernie Ecclestone)的岳母遭到绑架(后来被警方解救),一群异装癖袭击了一个澳大利亚电视摄制组,还有一名新西兰柔道冠军表示他曾被武装警察绑架和抢劫。Rio’s gangs should leave visitors alone, at least. Grenade-wielding drug lords are feared worldwide but are likely to be focused on their core business during the Olympics. Last week, police even seized bags of cocaine bearing the Rio 2016 logo. In a sign that Brazil’s dark humour is shared by all, they came with the tongue-in-cheek warning: “Keep out of the reach of children.”按理说,里约的黑帮至少不会打扰外来游客。动不动就扔手榴弹的毒枭在全世界都让人害怕,不过他们在奥运会期间很可能专注于自己的核心业务。上周,警方甚至截获了多袋印有里约2016(Rio 2016)标识的可卡因。出于巴西人都有的黑色幽默,这些可卡因带有搞笑的警告:“置于儿童拿不到的地方。” /201608/458415赣州医院哪里整形比较好Air quality is so poor in Beijing that on bad days it’s hard to see buildings across the street. Strategies to live more safely in such an environment abound and no wonder: The journal Nature recently found that air pollution leads to the premature death of three million people every year mainly in Asia. 北京的空气污染非常严重,在天气不好的时候甚至连对街的建筑都看不到。为应对这类天气,人们也想出各种方法。而最近登在Nature 上的研究表明,亚洲每年有300万人因为空气污染而提前死亡。 In addition to pervasive face masks kids in the capital’s international schools play sports under protective domes. A British artist based in Beijing created a wacky-looking “breathing bicycle” which filters air as the rider pedals delivering it through a tube that snakes up to a breathing mask.除了孩子带着口罩在安装了防霾圆顶帐篷的国际学校内活动外,一个在北京的英国设计师发明了一种看起来很奇怪的“呼吸自行车”——车手通过蹬踏板以过滤空气用作呼吸。One of the latest in this array of pollution problem solvers is a tower that takes in smog and releases clean air. Last week the Dutch designer Daan Roosegaarde debuted his “Smog Free Tower” in Beijing’s 798 arts district a former industrial zone. Set among old smokestacks the metal tower reaches 23 feet and looks like what it is: an enormous version of a home air purifier.最近又新出现了一种塔式空气净化器,上周荷兰的设计师Daan Roosegaarde 在前身是工业区的北京798艺术区,首次展示“雾霾净化塔”。这个塔是金属材质,23英尺(7m)高,树立在老旧烟囱之间,看起来像一个巨大的家用空气净化器。The tower works by sending positive ions into the air which attach to fine particles including PM 2.5 the particulate matter that is especially hazardousto our health. A negatively charged surface (called a counter electrode) then brings the ions and their attached particles back in to the tower where they are collected and stored. The tower subsequently spews out cleaner air through vents. (Roosegaarde uses the collected particles to make “Smog Free Jewelry” in the form of rings and cufflixs.)这个塔的工作原理是向空气中释放正离子,依附在微粒上,包括对健康影响很大的PM2.5微粒。塔的内表面带负电荷(称为反电子),把正离子和其所依附的微粒吸回塔里,进行收集和储存。塔随后通过通风口喷出清洁的空气(Roosegaarde用搜集的微粒制作烟雾首饰,包括戒指和cufflixs)。Roosegaarde told Motherboard that the air surrounding the tower has up to 70 percent fewer pollution particles after it’s been cleaned. And since installing the tower in Beijing he reported to CNN that it collects in one day what it brought in over the course of two weeks of testing in the Netherlands.Roosegaarde告诉Motherboard,经过清洁后,在塔周围的空气已经减少了百分之70的污染颗粒。他向美国有线电视新闻网报告,安装在北京的清洁塔在一天内收集的东西,和在荷兰两个星期搜集的一样多。The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection is supporting Roosegaarde’s venture and has asked him to take the tower on a tour of four other cities in the coming year. Roosegaarde hopes that this is only the beginning. He aims to install 800 of his towers in public parks across China not only to create pockets of cleaner air but to bring more awareness to what is admittedly a huge problem that a giant air purifier—or even 800 of them—can’t begin to solve.中国环保部持Roosegaarde 的创举,并要求他来年携带净化塔到另外四个城市巡游。Roosegaarde 希望这才是开始。他的目标是在中国各地公园安装800座净化塔,不仅是为了产生更干净的空气,而是要引起对空气污染的更多警醒,这个公认的巨大问题不是靠巨大的空气净化器就能解决的——哪怕800个都不行。“We need a bottom-up effort both with citizens and governments actively working for change” Roosegaarde told CNN. “My hope is that one day in 10 or 15 years we’ll look back at [the tower] and find it obsolete.”“我们需要市民和政府上下双方的积极行动以取得改变”Roosegaarde告诉CNN.“我希望10年或15年后的一天,我们再回看(净化塔)时,发现它过时了”。 /201610/470574赣州法令纹去除

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