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黄浦区第九人民医院激光去痘手术价格费用上海中山医院修眉多少钱上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院疤痕多少钱 Woodpeckers puncture the bark of dead or dying trees,also known as snags, to find the wood-boring insects that makeup their diet, and some species also excavate cavities in thesetrees for their nests.啄木鸟啄破死树或垂死的树的树皮,觅得吃木头的昆虫为食。有些物种也会在这些树上筑巢。So where does the fungus come in?那么真菌是从哪来的呢?Well, scientists observed that the snags woodpeckersexcavate generally contain decayed wood, which is caused by wood-decay fungi.恩,科学家们观察到啄木鸟啄洞的断枝通常包含由木腐菌造成的蛀木。Right. And thisled them to wonder whether woodpeckers are attracted to certain types of decay, or if theyrethe ones actually sping the fungus that causes the decay.是的。而且这引起观察家们思考:是某些类型的腐烂吸引了啄木鸟,还是说啄木鸟实际上传播了引起腐烂的真菌呢?So what did come first?那么到底哪个在先?Well, it turns out that the relationship between the two is pretty complex.恩,事实明两者关系相当复杂。When woodpeckers puncture bark, they provide a way for airborne fungal spores to infect the wood.当啄木鸟啄树皮时,它们为空气传播的真菌孢子感染树木提供了方便,They also act as vectors, unintentionally picking up fungal spores and other microbes from onesnag and carrying them in their beaks to another.它们同时也是带菌者,无意中携带了真菌孢子和来自某根断枝的其他细菌,它们的喙载着这些细菌再传播给其他树木。And not surprisingly, species of woodpeckersthat nest in cavities carry a significantly larger number of these, which is synergistic, because the decay makes it easier for them to excavate.毫不奇怪的是,那些在树洞里筑巢的啄木鸟携带着更大量的真菌,它们是协同作用着的,因为腐烂使得啄木鸟啄洞更容易了。So even though we still dont know which came first, this also isnt merely an intellectual exercise.因此,即使我们不知道先有哪个,这也不仅仅是一种智力测验。Woodpeckers are pretty important ecologically because the sites they excavate are used forforaging, roosting, and nesting by many other species as well.从生态学的观点看,啄木鸟的角色相当重要,因为啄木鸟挖掘的树洞可以用于觅食,栖息,还可以被其他物种用来筑巢。And now that theres debate overwhether snags contribute to forest fires and should be removed, its especially important to studypotential ramifications.既然人们关于断枝是否会导致森林火灾而应该被移除争论不休,那么研究一下可能出现的后果就特别重要了。 201405/296982宝山区中西医结合医院做去眼袋手术价格费用

上海瑞金医院激光去斑多少钱Have you ever been driving down a pothole filled street, thinking, ;I wish the city, someone, anyone would fix the roads!; Soon, roads and streets may be able to fix themselves.你曾经开车走过满是坑洼是街道,并想着“我希望这个城市的有些人会修理这条路!”也许很快,路和街道就能自行进行修理了。Researchers at the University of Michigan have developed a type of concrete that heals itself when it cracks. Regular concrete is like ceramic when it breaks. It really breaks, opening a wide chasm that requires serious mending.如今,密歇根大学的研究人员研发出了一种破裂后可以自行修复的混凝土。普通的混凝土被打碎时就像陶瓷一样。破裂严重时会撕开一个大口,需要认真修补。Self healing concrete behaves more like metal.It bends without breaking thanks to special fibers holding it together. Bending or stressing the new concrete creates hairline fractures instead of gaping holes. All it takes to mend the tiny fissures is exposure to water and carbon dioxide. Chemicals in the concrete mix with water and carbon dioxide to form a healing scar.自我治愈的混凝土表现得更像金属。因为有一种特殊的纤维撑所以将这种混凝土弯曲之后仍然不会破裂。弯曲或者挤压这种新型的混凝土会产生发丝那么细的裂缝而不是漏洞。要修复细小的裂纹只需让其接触到水和二氧化碳。然后混凝土结合水和二氧化碳就会发生化学反应,填充裂痕。In the lab, the concrete was able to heal itself back to nearly full strength after a slab was stretched to three times its normal size. Self healing concrete could help cut costs for rebuilding not only new roads but also bridges and other structures that use the material.在实验中,混凝土板被拉伸至原尺寸的三倍时,混凝土就能够完全恢复。自愈混凝土能够帮助消减重建的成本,不论是新修的道路还是桥梁以及其它使用混凝土的结构。You wont find self healing concrete on roads just yet. The researchers are working on bringing it to market in the next few years. And when its y for widesp use, self healing concrete could make potholes a thing of the past.不过,你还不能在街上找到自愈混凝土。接下来几年,研究人员将致力于将这种混凝土推向市场。一旦被广泛应用,自愈混凝土会让凹坑变成历史。原文译文属!201305/240140上海玫瑰整形美容医院全身美白 长宁区同仁医院祛眼袋手术价格

上海岳阳医院修眉手术价格If you love your job, part of the reason may be that you freely chose the work that you do. 如果你喜欢你的工作,一部分的原因可能你轻轻松松就选定了你要做的工作。You were not forced to do it. But imagine a situation during wartime in which there were some soldiers or guards with guns standing above you, forcing you to do that same job. Suddenly it would not be pleasurable work anymore. 你不是被迫做的。但是假定这样一个情景:战争期间有很多士兵或一些带的警戒人员是你的顶头上司,强迫你去做那些完全相同的工作。刹那间你就会发现那些工作做起来并没有那么地令人舒心。The fear that you might be harmed if you did not work quickly and efficiently would be very stressful. 担心就是如果你没有快速而高效地做完工作,你可能会遭受惩罚,从而感到很有压力。There would be a sense of danger as you worked below the level where the gunmen were standing. 当你在持者的眼皮子底下工作的时候总会感到有一丝的危险。Working ;under the gun; of a watchful and hostile master would make anyone nervous. 在被监视、被敌方控制的极大压力下工作会令任何人紧张。Thus, although no one we can see nearby may have an actual gun, we use this idiom in any work situation where the workers are put under strong pressure to perform quickly and efficiently.因此,虽然我们身边没有任何一个有真的人,我们通常将这则谚语用在一种工作条件下,这个工作状态就是工人们要顶着巨大的压力,快速高效地执行任务。201307/248119 上海市浦东新区周浦医院激光祛痘多少钱上海第九人民医院整形科激光祛痣多少钱



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