2018年10月19日 11:02:49|来源:国际在线|编辑:最新频道
It#39;s often been suggested that the CEOs of the Fortune 500 are of above-average height. We#39;ve never done the number-crunching ourselves, but unofficial studies suggest the assertion has merit. Arianne Cohen, the 6#39;3#39;#39; author of The Tall Book: A Celebration of Life from on High, maintains there is a tangible correlation between height and success -- and offers up a variety of theories on why tall people tend to thrive in business and elsewhere. Fortune recently sat down with Cohen to talk about the role height plays in the workplace.经常会有人提到,《财富》500强企业的CEO身高都在平均线以上。我们从未亲自调查过相关数据,但是非官方研究表明这一说法并非空穴来风。身高超过1.9米(6英尺3英寸)的埃尔瑞娜#8226;科恩(Arianne Cohen)是《高个子之书:至高点的生命礼赞》(The Tall Book: A Celebration of Life from on High)一书的作者,认为身高和成功的确相关,并且提供了一系列理论说明为什么高个子的人更容易在商界和其他领域取得成功。《财富》最近采访了科恩,她就身高在职场中的影响发表了自己的意见。So there#39;s really a connection between height and success?身高和成功真的有关吗?It#39;s huge. Tall people make an average of 9 per inch per year (for every inch above a person of average height) and this has been shown repeatedly in a set of four large-scale salary survey studies over 50 years in both the U.K. and the U.S.关系很大。高个子的人每高出平均身高1英寸(2.54厘米)每年就多赚789美元。过去50年中这个数字在对英国和美国所做的四项大型薪酬调查研究中都反复出现。Numerous studies show that when bosses are given real and fictitious resumes of two competent employees, there#39;s about a 70% chance that bosses will pick the taller person for the job. In follow-up studies where the managers were asked to rate the employees coming in to the job, they gave flying color reviews to the tall people, which is hilarious because none of the employees had even done anything yet. The clear implication of this is that tall people are perceived as very competent before they ever display proof that they are.大量研究表明,当面对两个称职的求职者递来的有真有假的简历时,70%的情况下老板都会选择个子高的那一个。在后续调查中,每当经理被问及如何评价即将上任的员工,他们总会对高个子流露溢美之词。这点实在是很滑稽,因为这些员工还什么都没有做。从这不难看出人们先入为主地认为个子高的人能力也卓尔不群。Why is that the case?为何会如此?One reason tall people are successful is that they are very memorable. We are evolutionarily primed so that whenever somebody sizable walks in the room, everyone in the room glances, because millions of years ago the biggest person was either going to be a protection or a threat. Being memorable is a major boon if you#39;re doing great work, but it#39;s a double-edged sword: If your work is awful, everyone is going to know it; they won#39;t forget.个子高的人取得成功的一个原因是他们让人印象深刻,这点是在人类进化的过程中形成的看法。每当一个大个子进屋时,他会引起每一个人的关注,因为几百万年以前,块头最大的人要么是保护者要么是威胁者。给人留下深刻的第一印象是一把双刃剑:如果你表现出色,那会锦上添花;但如果你表现糟糕,那么也尽人皆知,因为人们都没有把你忘记。Tall people are also very good at guarding their personal space, and this pays off in spades in the workplace. When two friends are talking they tend to be 18 inches apart, when two coworkers are talking they tend to be about three feet apart. When a boss and an employee are talking they tend to be at least four feet apart. People always give tall people that full four feet. So when they do studies where they put a camera in an office floor and track the body language, tall people are related to by everyone in the room with that ;boss-space,; whereas with short people, coworkers crowd their personal space.身材高大者善于保护自己的私人空间,这使得他们在职场中容易获胜。两个朋友交谈时,大概相距0.45米;两个同事交谈时,相距大概0.9米左右;当老板和雇员交谈时,至少相距1.2米。和个子高的人交谈时,人们往往会保持1.2米左右的距离。根据放在办公室地板上的摄像机跟踪到的肢体语言记录,在和高个子同事交谈时,所有的人都与其保持着相当于和老板保持的距离,然而在和矮个子同事交谈时,则侵占了对方大量的个人空间。So how do you explain shorter CEOs like Jack Welch and Ross Perot?如何解释像杰克#8226;韦尔奇(Jack Welch)和罗斯#8226;佩罗(Ross Perot)这样身材相对矮小的CEO?These are broad statistics, and there are many short people who do succeed. But people of any height who are successful tend to display certain behaviors that correlate with success. Jack Welch#39;s wife actually told me that Jack thinks he#39;s really tall. And there are behaviors that correlate with success. Successful people, whether short or tall, are known and seen. You know when Barry Diller walks into a room, and Jack Welch commands his physical space. So shorter people who are powerful often display many of the same behaviors as tall people.有大量的数据表明许多身材矮小的人也取得了非凡的成就。但凡是那些获得了成功的人,无论身高几许,都会表现出和成功相关的行为特征。杰克#8226;韦尔奇的夫人告诉我,事实上杰克自认为很高大。成功人士无论高矮,其一举一动都容易引起公众注意。你知道巴瑞#8226;迪勒(Barry Diller)什么时候进屋,而杰克#8226;韦尔奇能控制自己的活动空间。换言之,大权在握的矮个子往往会表现出许多和高个子一样的行为。There are also a number of short CEOs who have succeeded by avoiding the corporate ladder and starting their own companies. This is definitely the case for Ross Perot, who is a self-made billionaire. Ron Perelman and Barry Diller also started their own companies instead of trying to move up from inside a company.还有很多身材低矮的CEO通过自己开公司取得成功,而不是通过在公司内部一个阶梯一个阶梯往上爬。罗斯#8226;佩罗就是一个典型的白手起家的亿万富翁。罗恩#8226;佩雷曼(Ron Perelman)和巴瑞#8226;迪勒也都是这样打出了自己的天下。What are the best and worst jobs for tall people?什么工作最适合高个子,什么最不适合?Tall people make more money and also tend to cluster in higher-paying fields. This is because they tend to thrive in fields in which social interactions take place, since they#39;re helped by their body language. So tall traits are going to shine in these kinds of jobs. For example, if I were a litigator, I would be able to use the full power of my tall body to command presence, whereas if I were a clerk sitting behind a desk, I would gain no benefit from being tall. Granted, plenty of tall people flock to other fields -- for example, there are a disproportionate number of tall people in police work, firefighting work, and physical work where being tall would be of value.高个子的人赚钱更多,也更容易聚集在高薪领域。这是因为得益于他们的身体语言,他们易于在社交互动性强的领域成功,也就是说高大的身材会在这类型的工作中发挥优势。例如,如果我是一名律师,我就能充分利用我身高的优势来把握我的表现,相反假如我是一个文秘,每天坐在桌子后面,那么我的身高就无用武之地。当然,还有很多高个子的人涌向其他的领域。例如在警察、消防员和其他一些能发挥身高优势的行业中,个子高的人占有极大的比例。What advice do you have for tall people in a job interview?对高个子在面试工作时有什么建议?They say that when you#39;re networking, your goal is to be liked. You want to make someone as comfortable as possible. To do this you need to adjust your body language and be hyper-aware of yourself. In my case, this means no hovering. I go out of my way to kill the dumb jock stereotype by being as verbally coherent as possible, and I always sit down as soon as I possibly can. I gain nothing by standing there flexing my physical might.有人建议说面试的时候要迎合对方的喜好,要尽可能的让对方感到舒。要达到这个目标,你需要调整自己的肢体语言并且高度注意自己的言行。对我而言,我不能拖泥带水,要当机立断。我的身材很容易让人把我当成一个笨拙的运动员,我会尽可能以清晰连贯的口头表达来消除这种成见,并且一有机会我就坐下,因为我不会从不断调整站姿中获得任何好处。Isn#39;t it sometimes better to be short than tall?是否有时候身材矮小比身材高大有优势?The big challenge for tall people is that they cannot hide. Tall people are always public, and this can be pretty tough. Short people and those of average height can camouflage and sort of disappear in a crowd when they choose to. It#39;s just a beautiful thing to be able to hide, and really stressful when you#39;re tall and not able to do this.对于身材高大的人而言,一个很大的挑战是不能隐藏。高个子的人总在人们注意之中,这其实是一件麻烦事。矮个子以及中等身材的人可以根据自己的需要在人群中伪装甚至消失在人们视线之外。能够隐藏是一件很美妙的事,可惜对于高个子来说,由于无法隐藏自我而总是活在压力之下。Have you ever wished you were shorter?你是否曾经希望自己变矮?Absolutely. In my first job, in consulting, we would sit around in the conference room and I would always be the one called out and asked questions -- especially when I hadn#39;t even had a chance to have my first cup of coffee. Now it#39;s not a matter of wishing I were short, but of wishing that I could make the awkwardness and all of the really god-awful body language just go away!当然!我的第一份工作是咨询,那时我们经常围坐在一个会议室里开会。有时候我都来不及喝第一杯咖啡就被点名发表意见。现在,重要的不是希望自己变矮,而是希望我可以避免做出笨拙和特别糟糕的肢体语言。 /201311/263738The story情况Gymnast Li Ning became a Chinese hero in 1984 when he won six medals at the Los Angeles Olympics, the country’s first appearance at a summer games in 32 years.体操运动员李宁在1984年成为中国人的英雄,当时他在洛杉矶奥运会上赢得6枚奖牌。那届奥运会是新中国时隔32年之后参加的首届夏季奥运会。By 1990 he had set up his own sportswear company, Li-Ning. It was an immediate hit, and in 1999 the company’s revenues in China reached Rmb700m, more than twice Nike’s Rmb300m and Adidas’s Rmb100m.到了1990年,李宁创立了自己的运动装企业李宁公司(Li-Ning)。李宁公司可谓一鸣惊人,1999年,该公司在华收入达7亿元人民币,是耐克(Nike)和阿迪达斯(Adidas)的两倍以上——这两家公司在华收入分别为3亿元人民币和1亿元人民币。The challenge挑战The growing spending power of China’s middle-class consumers and their appetite for foreign brands, combined with the surging popularity of basketball and football – with which Nike and Adidas were associated – helped the two overseas companies win more sales in China than Li-Ning.中国中产阶级消费者的消费能力日益增强,而且他们青睐国外品牌,再加上篮球和足球在中国的受欢迎程度急剧飙升(耐克主打篮球相关产品,而阿迪达斯主打足球相关产品),这让耐克和阿迪达斯的在华销售额超过了李宁公司。The strategy策略Initially, there was little overlap in the market segments targeted by Li-Ning and its foreign rivals. The Chinese company offered mass-market leisurewear and Nike and Adidas sold professional-standard athletic wear; Li-Ning was market leader in China’s second and third-tier cities, while Nike and Adidas were in Beijing and Shanghai.最初,李宁公司与国外竞争对手的目标市场重合度很低。李宁公司卖的是大众市场休闲装,耐克和阿迪达斯卖的是专业标准的运动装;李宁公司是中国二、三线城市的市场领军者,耐克和阿迪达斯是北京和上海的市场领军者。But after 2001, when China won the bid to host the 2008 Olympics, interest in sports reached new heights. Li-Ning tried to emulate its foreign rivals’ marketing tactics.但在2001年(那年中国赢得了2008年奥运会举办权)之后,中国人对体育的兴趣达到了新的高度。李宁公司试图效仿国外竞争对手的营销策略。Brand ambassadors: The overseas companies used celebrity athletes such as American basketball players Michael Jordan (Nike) and Kobe Bryant (Adidas). Nike also signed three of China’s globally successful sports stars: hurdler Liu Xiang, tennis champion Li Na and NBA star Yao Ming.品牌大使:海外公司聘请明星运动员作为品牌大使,比如耐克与美国篮球运动员迈克尔#8226;乔丹(Michael Jordan)签约,阿迪达斯与科比#8226;布莱恩特(Kobe Bryant)签约。耐克还与三名在全球取得成功的中国体育明星签约,他们是跨栏运动员刘翔、网球冠军李娜和美职篮(NBA)球星姚明。Because Mr Li was his brand’s biggest ambassador, consumers began associating Li-Ning only with gymnastics goods.由于李宁是李宁公司最重要的品牌大使,消费者一开始只将李宁品牌与体操用品联系起来。Sponsorship: Nike-sponsored activities focused on basketball, while Adidas did the same with football. Li-Ning sponsored sports where China traditionally dominated, such as diving and gymnastics, but these did not have the same youth appeal.赞助:耐克主要赞助篮球领域的活动,阿迪达斯主攻足球领域。李宁公司赞助的是中国传统的体育强项,比如跳水和体操,但这些运动对年轻人的吸引力没有足球和篮球那么大。After its 2004 initial public offering, Li-Ning bought the rights to use the NBA logo and players in its marketing and advertising in China. But it could only afford to sponsor lower profile teams and events.2004年进行首次公开发行(IPO)后,李宁公司购买了在华营销和广告中使用NBA标识及其运动员的权利。但它只赞助得起知名度较低的球队和活动。Mr Li lit the cauldron that signalled the opening of the 2008 Beijing Olympics, but Adidas won sponsorship of those games, which gave it the right to clothe the Chinese teams.李宁点燃了标志着2008年北京奥运会开幕的主火炬,但阿迪达斯赢得了那届奥运会的赞助权,这让该公司有权为中国队提供装。Logos and slogans: The “L” logo of Li-Ning bore a marked resemblance to Nike’s swoosh, while its “Anything is Possible” slogan was not so different from Nike’s “Just do it”.标识和广告语:李宁公司的“L”品牌标识与耐克的“旋风”(Swoosh)标识惊人地相似,同时它的“一切皆有可能”(Anything is Possible)广告语也与耐克的“想做就做”(Just Do It)没多大差别。In 2010, hoping to appeal to the “post-1990s-born” generation, Li-Ning launched a fresh campaign. But the new logo and slogan, “Make the Change”, did not excite the target audience and alienated its original, now older, customer base.2010年,为了吸引“90后”一代人,李宁公司启动了一项新的努力。但新的口号“来改变吧”(Make the Change)却没有激发目标受众的热情,而且还疏远了如今已上了岁数的原始客户群。Pricing: Li-Ning raised its prices in 2010 but premium-segment consumers found the quality of Nike and Adidas was still better, while lower and mid-price-segment consumers chose cheaper, local brands.定价:李宁在2010年提价,但高端客户发现耐克和阿迪达斯的品质仍然要更好一些,而中低端客户选择了其他价格更低的国内品牌。What happened结果Li-Ning grew from 3,373 outlets at the end of 2005 to 6,245 outlets three years later, including new stores in cities with Olympic venues. Although revenues jumped 54 per cent in 2008, moving Li-Ning ahead of Adidas, the latter had overtaken again by 2010.李宁公司在2005年末有3373家门店,三年后发展到6245家门店,包括在奥运项目举办城市开设的新门店。尽管李宁公司在2008年收入飙升54%、从而超过了阿迪达斯,但后者到了2010年又再次领先于李宁公司。Inflation and slower economic growth began to affect consumer sentiment and in 2011 growth in sportswear overall fell to 13 per cent from 20 per cent in 2010. Sales revenues in 2011 for Nike, Adidas and Li-Ning respectively were about bn, .7bn and .4bn. In the first half of 2012, Nike and Adidas had rising sales, whereas Li-Ning experienced declines .通胀和经济增长放缓开始影响消费者信心。2011年,运动装销售的整体增长从2010年的20%降至13%。耐克、阿迪达斯和李宁公司在2011年的销售收入分别为20亿、17亿和14亿美元。2012年上半年,耐克和阿迪达斯销售增长,而李宁公司销售下滑。The lessons教训Li NIng failed to adapt as the market developed, and the positioning confused consumers. Its logo and slogans were too similar to competitors’, which led consumers to think it was an imitator.李宁公司未能适应市场的发展,其定位让消费者困惑。该公司的标识和广告语与竞争对手过于相似,这让消费者认为它是一个模仿者。Brands must know their audience and innovate constantly to match consumers’ changing tastes. A brand that raises prices must make a corresponding increase in quality.品牌公司必须了解自己的受众,不断创新以迎合消费者不断变化的品味。一个品牌要想提价,必须相应提高其品质。The writers are, respectively, dean and vice-president, a former research assistant, and a visiting researcher at Ceibs本文作者分别是中欧国际工商学院(CEIBS)副院长兼教务长、前研究助理和客座研究员 /201306/245348

APPLE Inc yesterday announced it would ;thoroughly investigate; an accident in which a woman in northwest China was suspected of being killed by an electric shock when making a phone call with a recharging iPhone 5.苹果公司昨天宣布将“彻查”中国西北部一名女子怀疑用充电的iPhone 5打电话时遭到电击死亡的事故。Ma Ailun, 23, a former flight attendant for China Southern Airlines, was electrocuted in her home in the Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Changji in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region last Thursday, police said yesterday.23岁的马爱伦之前是中国南方航空公司的空,上周四在新疆维吾尔自治区回族自治州昌吉市的家里触电,警方昨天说。Police have not confirmed whether a mobile phone was involved as they continue to investigate the case.警察尚未实是否牵涉到移动电话,他们将继续调查这个案子。;We feel deeply saddened about the accident and send sincere condolences to her family. We will thoroughly investigate the accident and collaborate with the police investigation,; Apple China said in a statement yesterday.“我们对事故深感悲痛,对她的家人表达了诚挚的慰问。我们会彻底调查事故,协作警方的调查,”苹果中国昨日在一份声明中表示。The woman, who was planning her wedding on August 8, fell to the floor when making a call with her iPhone 5, which was being recharged at the time, Ma#39;s sister said on her microblog account.这位女子她的婚礼计划在8月8日,当她用充电的iphone5打电话时倒在了地板上,马爱伦的在她的微上说。Ma Ailun bought the iPhone in December at an official Apple store and was using the original charger to recharge the phone when the incident occurred, her sister said.马爱伦去年12月在一个苹果官方专卖店购买的iPhone,事故发生时使用的原装充电器给手机充电,她说。;I want to warn everyone else not to make phone calls when your mobile phone is recharging,; she tweeted.“我想提醒别人当你的手机充电时不要打电话,”她发布道。The sister#39;s tweet was reposted more than 3,000 times. It stirred a heated discussion on the Internet about whether it was unsafe to use mobile phones while recharging.的微被转发超过3000次。它在互联网上引发了一场关于使用正在充电的手机是否不安全的热烈讨论。Many experts said mobile phones have a low output of only 3 to 5 volts, which isn#39;t enough to harm the human body.许多专家说手机只有3至5伏低电压输出,这并不足以危害人体。People will feel an electric shock at about 36 volts.人们在约36伏的情况下会感到电击。;However, if the charger or the circuit has a problem, such as a broken wire, it can lead to a shock of 220 volts,; a senior physics teacher at a Nanjing high school was ed as saying in a media report.“然而,如果充电器或电路有问题,如断丝,它能导致220伏的休克,” 南京高中一位高级物理教师在媒体报告的说法被援引。In 2010, a man in northeast China was killed by an electric shock when making a phone call with a handset that was being recharged with an unauthorized charger, according to the China Consumers Association.2010年,中国东北一名男子用未经授权的充电器进行充电的手机打电话时被电击,根据中国消费者协会。 /201307/247883

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