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上海市玫瑰医院脱毛多少钱玫瑰李鸿君做膨体隆鼻怎样黄浦区第九人民医院打美白针价格费用 上海市长征医院美容中心

上海曙光医院治疗青春痘多少钱Science and technology.科技。Carbon capture and storage.碳的收集和储存。A shiny new pipe dream.闪亮的管子 崭新的梦想。Capturing the carbon dioxide from power stations is not hard. But it is. expensive. A new project in Norway aims to make it cheaper从发电站收集二氧化碳不难,但花费很高。挪威的一个新项目旨在降低碳捕捉的成本。AS Helene Boksle, one of Norways favourite singers, hit the high notes at the Mongstad oil refinery on May 7th, the wall behind her slid open. It revealed, to the prime minister and other dignitaries present, an enormous tangle of shiny metal pipes. These are part of the worlds largest and newest experimental facility for capturing carbon dioxide.五月七日挪威最受欢迎的歌手Helene Boksle 在蒙斯塔德炼油厂引吭高歌,她身后的大幕缓缓打开。首相和其他政要现身,一个巨大闪亮的金属管网也映入观众的视线。这是世界上最大最新的收集二氧化碳的试验装置的一部分。Such capture is the first part of a three-stage process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS) that many people hope will help deal with the problem of man-made climate change. The other two are piping the captured gas towards a place underground where the rocks will trap it, and then actually trapping it there. If the world is to continue burning fossil fuels while avoiding the consequences, then it will need a lot of CCS. There is no other good way to keep the CO2 emitted by power stations, and also by processes such as iron- and cement-making, out of the atmosphere. To stop global warming of more than 2°C-a widely agreed safe limit-carbon-dioxide emissions must be halved by 2050. According to the International Energy Agency, an intergovernmental body that monitors these matters, CCS would be the cheapest way to manage about a fifth of that reduction.很多人希望用三个阶段的这种碳收集储存(CCS)来应付人为的气候变化问题,这种收集是第一部分。其他两个部分用管道会把收集到的气体引入地下由岩石吸收,实际上接下来气体会被隔离在岩石里。如果人类继续燃烧矿物燃料并且避免其不利影响,将用到很多的CCS。没有其他的好办法来保存发电厂、钢铁厂和水泥厂排放到大气层的二氧化碳。为了阻止全球变暖超过2℃(被广泛认可的安全指标),必须在2050年以前把二氧化碳的排放量降低一半。按照国际能源署(监督这些事项的国际政府间组织)的说法,CCS能用最便宜的方式在降低碳排放中做出两成的贡献。To do this, the agency reckons, requires the building of 100 capture facilities by 2020 and 3,000 by 2050. Which is a problem, because at the moment there are only eight, none of which is attached to a power station. Another 28, mostly in North America, are under construction or planned. But some are likely to be cancelled-as happened on May 1st to a project in Alberta. CCS is thus having difficulty reaching escape velocity.为实现目标,国际能源署呼吁要在2020年以前建造100座收集装置,在2050年之前要建造3000座收集装置。这就是问题所在,因为目前只有八座,而且没有一座装置是联接发电厂的。其他28座装置大部分在北美,有的处于施工阶段,有的还在计划中。很有可能取消一些装置的建造,因为五月一日在亚伯达的一项工程中发现CCS在达到脱离速度方面存在难度。That is not because it is hard. Since 1996, for example, Statoil, Norways largest oil company, has captured and stored the CO2 which forms part of the natural gas extracted from the Sleipner field in the North Sea. Rather, the process consumes a lot of power that would not otherwise have to be generated-which is ironic, and also makes it expensive. Hence the need for experiments like those at Mongstad, to try to improve and cheapen it.这些并不是因为难度问题。比如自从1996年以来,挪威最大的石油公司(挪威国家石油公司)就从北海的斯莱普内尔气田开采的天然气里收集并储存二氧化碳。但是有讽刺意味的是这个过程成本高昂并且会消耗大量能源。因此需要做类似蒙斯塔的试验,做出改进,降低消耗。Burying bad news隐瞒坏消息The most common capture technologies involve running the gas to be processed through a solution of amines or ammonium carbonate. These react with CO2 to form soluble chemicals called carbamates and bicarbonates. The remainder of the exhaust (mostly nitrogen) can then be vented safely to the atmosphere. The carbon-rich solution, meanwhile, is treated in a separate vessel to release its burden of CO2, which can then be piped away and stored, and the amines or ammonium carbonate thus liberated recycled.最普通的收集技术是用胺类溶液或者碳酸铵处理这些气体。这些物质和二氧化碳发生反应生成氨基甲酸盐和碳酸氢盐(都是可溶的)。废气的剩余物(大部分是氮)可以安全地排到大气。与此同时,在单独的容器中处理含碳丰富的溶液,将其负载的二氧化碳释放,用管子排走并储存起来,离析的胺或碳酸铵可以被循环利用。All of which is fine and dandy except that, if rigged to the average coal-fired power station, this process might use a quarter of the energy the plant produces. According to Howard Herzog, a chemical engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has made a study of the matter, that implies a cost of between and 0 per tonne of carbon stored. Carbon dioxide can sometimes be sold to oil companies for injection into partially depleted wells, in order to force more petroleum out of them. For that use it fetches at most a tonne. But much CO2 is not produced near depleted oil wells-and anyway, the price would surely drop if CCS became widesp. In one way or another, then, the technology will need to be subsidised if it is ever to become important.如果普通的烧煤发电厂使用这些被赋予美好愿望的先进技术,这个过程会消耗电厂产生的四分之一的能源。麻省理工学院的化学工程师霍华德·赫佐格研究过这个事情,他说这意味着每储存一吨碳的成本在50到100美元之间。有时候可以把二氧化碳卖给石油公司,他们用来注入部分耗尽的油井,这样就能出更多的石油。每吨最多能卖到40美元。但是在这些将近开采殆尽的油井的周围不能生产更多的二氧化碳,总之一旦广泛采用CCS技术,这个价格一定会降下来。如果这项技术的重要性要得到提高,必须对其进行资助。There was a rush of interest in CCS in the late 2000s, including billion for it in Americas stimulus package of . But many projects are now being cancelled. Either the developers have lost confidence in government commitments to support them or their costs have turned out higher than expected. Mongstad-a billion-dollar development owned jointly by the Norwegian government and three oil companies, Statoil, Shell and Sasol of South Africa-is a rare exception that has actually opened. Hence the hoopla.二十世纪末,有一阵子人们对CCS感兴趣,年美国曾对其直接投入三十亿美元。但是很多工程现在被取消了。不是持工程的开发商对政府的承诺失去信心就是成本超出预期。蒙斯塔出人意料地联合挪威政府和三家石油公司( 挪威国家石油公司、壳牌和南非的萨索尔)开发的价值十亿美元的项目已经正式开工。关于CCS的争论更加激烈。The facility itself consists of two capture plants fitted with more than 4,000 instruments to monitor what is going on, and with a total capacity of 80,000 tonnes of carbon a year. These plants are connected to the exhaust flues of the refinery and also to a nearby gas-fired power station. That lets operators experiment with different flow rates and carbon-dioxide concentrations, which can be tweaked to be anything from 3.5% to 14% (roughly equivalent to those from a coal-fired power station).这个装置本身包括装配着两个收集设备,这两个设备里面安置了四千个用来监控设备运行的仪表,每年能收集八万吨碳。这些设备和炼油厂的废气管相连,而且附近就是一座燃烧天然气的发电站。操作人员可以用不同的流速和二氧化碳浓度进行试验,这些参数可以从3-5%调整到14%(和烧煤发电厂的大致一样)。The operators will also experiment with the capture technology itself. At one of the two plants Aker Clean Carbon, a Norwegian firm, will have 14 months to try out a new amine solution. At the other Alstom, a French concern, has 18 months to test the ammonium-carbonate process.操作人员也可以用设备本身的收集技术做试验。一家叫阿克清洁碳的挪威公司在其中的一台设备上用了十四个月的时间提炼出一种新的胺溶液。另一家法国公司阿尔斯通则用十八个月的时间测试碳酸铵工艺。Amine- and ammonium-carbonate-based CCS are not, however, the only ways to do things. Two other techniques, called gasification and oxy-combustion, work by reacting coal with pure oxygen rather than air, and thus produce exhausts that require little treatment before burial. The former uses coal, oxygen and steam to produce burnable hydrogen. The latter burns coal directly. Purifying oxygen and raising steam, however, both consume energy. And gasification also requires bespoke plants. Unlike the other processes it cannot be retrofitted to existing power stations.然而,基于胺和碳酸铵反应的CCS并不是唯一的方法。其他两种叫做气化和富氧燃烧的技术,用纯氧气而不是空气烧煤,这样产生的废气在掩埋之前几乎不用处理。以前用煤、氧气和蒸汽生产可燃氢气。以后可以直接烧煤。提纯氧气提升蒸汽都要消耗能量。气化也要专门的设备。不像其他的工艺,没有必要为了现有的发电厂对其实施改造。The upshot is that there is no free lunch. If people are serious about carbon capture and storage, they will have to pay for it. The best that facilities like Mongstad can do is make the meal as cheap as possible.天下没有免费的午餐。如果人们要认真对待碳的收集和储存,他们需要为此埋单。蒙斯塔德的设备是最好的,能让这顿大餐最省钱。 /201208/196371上海哪个医院治胸部比较专业 上海市第六人民医院美容中心

上海市闵行区中医医院美容整形科The majority of the civilian soldiers of the Western democracies, by contrast, just wanted to survive and return to normal life as soon as possible. That also meant that American and British generals had to eschew the dashing aggression of their Russian and German counterparts, who could squander lives with impunity. Thanks to the bloodbath in Russia, where the Wermacht was broken and nine out of ten German soldiers who died in the war met their end, they could permit themselves to be more cautious.相比之下,西方民主国家的民兵大都只想保住性命,尽快回归正常生活。这也意味着英美两军的将军不得不避开那些为了不受惩罚而不顾生死的好斗的俄国和德国士兵。幸好德国国防军在俄罗斯的大屠杀中被击溃,十个德国士兵中有九个牺牲,他们才能表现的这么谨慎。 Mr Hastings excessively admires two German field-marshals: Gerd von Rundstedt and Eric von Manstein, whereas only Bill Slim and George Patton rise above the general mediocrity of Allied field commanders. Luckily, the tactical virtuosity of the Germans and Japanese was more than matched by their strategic incompetence in declaring war against Russia and America. Less hubristic and more informed leaders would have realised that both countries had the manpower and industrial resources to prevail in a war of attrition.马克斯·哈斯丁极为敬重两位德国陆军元帅:格特·冯·伦德施泰特(Gerd von Rundstedt)和埃里克·冯·曼施坦因(Eric von Manstein),相比之下他认为盟军的将领中却只有比尔·斯里姆(Bill Slim)和乔治·巴顿(George Patton)非泛泛之辈。所幸,德日两国的战略水平远低于其战术素养,对美苏宣战在战略上筑成了大错。更谦逊、见识更为广的将领会意识到俄美两国都有足够的人力物力打赢一场消耗战。Close connections密切关联Overall, however, Mr Hastings does an admirable job of weaving together deeply personal stories with great events and high strategy. This raises the question of whether another book covering essentially the same ground is necessary. The answer depends on what the er is looking for. Mr Beevor, who is known for using the sometimes unbearably moving diaries and letters of ordinary soldiers to shed new light on old battles, is otherwise less generous than Mr Hastings in the space he gives to primary sources. He has written what is in many ways a more conventional military history. But where he is good, he is very good.不过总体上,马克斯·哈斯丁在将人物故事、重大事件与高层决策编纂成书方面十分出色。这就让人有以下疑问:是否有必要再出另一本题材一样的书。取决于读者的诉求。众所周知,安东尼·比弗用了普通士兵的日记和书信(其中一些十分感人)重新诠释过往的战役,但他引用的第一手资料却比马克斯·哈斯丁少。在很多方面他的书都更像一本传统的军事史。但在他所擅长的方面,简直一流。Mr Beevor is full of insight about the connections between things—he sets out “to understand how the whole complex jigsaw fits together”. Thus the relatively little-known Battle of Khalkhin-Gol, in which Japan’s plans to grab Soviet territory from its base in Manchuria were undone in the summer of 1939 by the Red Army’s greatest and most ruthless general, Georgi Zhukov, had profound consequences. The Japanese “strike south” party prevailed over the “strike northers”, ensuring that Stalin would not have to fight a war on two fronts when the Germans launched Operation Barbarossa in 1941. Mr Beevor decries the rebarbative “Bomber” Harris’s attempt to win the war by bringing death and destruction to every major German city as a moral and strategic failure. But he also points out that by forcing the Nazis to move squadrons of Luftwaffe fighters from Russia to defend the Fatherland, Harris’s campaign allowed the Soviet air force to establish vital air supremacy.安东尼·比弗对于事物之间的联系有很多想法——现在他打算解读“整个复杂的二战是如何进行的”。在他眼里,比较少人知道的诺门坎战役对整个二战有着深远的影响。日军计划利用这场战役以满洲为据点夺取苏联的领土,但却在1939年夏天被苏联红军中最伟大、最无情的将军朱可夫(Georgi Zhukov)破坏了。日军的“南进派”压倒了“北进派”,确保了在1941年德国进行巴巴罗萨计划时斯大林不必同时在两条前线开战。在安东尼·比弗笔下,讨人厌的“炸弹”哈里斯试图通过轰炸所有德国主要城市以赢得战争的做法是道德上和战略上的失误。但他也指出,哈里斯的轰炸迫使纳粹将大批空中战斗机调离俄罗斯以保卫本土,让苏联空军夺取了至关重要的制空权。 Mr Beevor also has a surer hand than Mr Hastings in describing how the great land battles of the war unfolded. Although his judgments are less waspishly entertaining than his rival’s, they are also more measured. He is notably more generous about Britain’s contribution to defeating Hitler, which Mr Hastings at times appears to think was mainly confined to the code-breaking centre at Bletchley Park and, after defeating the Luftwaffe in 1940, providing an “unsinkable aircraft-carrier” for the build-up of American military power.与马克斯·哈斯丁相比,安东尼·比弗对大型陆地战如何展开的描述更能令人信。尽管他的观点没他对手的那么尖刻,但却也更有分寸。尤其是谈及英国在打败希特勒方面所作的贡献时,他更加宽容;而马克斯·哈斯丁却似乎一再认为英国的功劳不过是建立了布莱切利园的密码破译中心,以及在1940年打败纳粹空军后为美军发展空军力量提供了一艘“不会沉没的航空母舰”。201207/189811 Going back, say, ten years ago, would you ever imagine that you would have been able to tell what colour any dinosaurs would have been?回首过去,比如十年前,想象一下,你还能辨别出每一种恐龙可能是什么颜色吗?No, I mean I think at that time I would have said that its one of the things we will never know. And so we just focus up and see what weve got here.不能。我想那时候我会说这件事我们永远不会知道。所以我们只是专注起来,看看我们在这里留下的。Using a scanning electron microscope, Mike can find clues about the pigmentation of these ancient fossil feathers. 在电子扫描显微镜的帮助下,迈克可以找到有关这些古老化石特征的线索。And if we just have a look at this, the required time amount of locations, thats 9,000 times.如果我们只是看这个,需要放大倍数为9000倍。All these sausage shapes then are melanosomes, and then a living feather.所有这些香肠形状都是黑素体,然后是逼真的羽毛。They would be full of the chemical melanin, which would in fact give the colour.他们会充满化学黑色素,这些才是真正有颜色的原因。And these sausage-shaped ones are a sure indicator of a particular kind of melanin, which is the one that gives a black or dark brown colour.这些香肠形状的东西是一个特殊黑色素的标志,也是羽毛显现出黑色或者棕色的原因。So in some cases like this, the field of views is completely packed with the sausage-shaped ones.所以在某些情况下,能看见这一块地方充满了香肠形状的物质。So we know this must have been intensely black. If they were more loosely spaced, we would know it was a paler colour, maybe dark brown or even gray.所以我们知道这里一定是密集的黑色。如果他们是比较松散的排列的,它就会呈暗淡的颜色,也许是深棕色或者是灰色。So is it just really the presence or absence of the black pigments that you are able to ascertain?那么你能够确定它是真的存在或缺少黑色的色素吗?Well, the wonderful thing is there is another form of melanin that gives a ginger colour.嗯,奇妙的是,还有一种形式的能够呈现出姜色的黑色素。And so, and it is packaged in a different shape of melanosome, not this kind of cigar-shaped or sausage-shaped one, but a spherical one, a little ball. Close it up. We get the vacuum going.所以,它存在于一个不同形状的黑色体中,不是这种雪茄型或者香肠型的,而是球形的,一个小球。这块地方还有很大的空间。A sample taken from a different fossil shows what the structures that carried this ginger pigment look like.从另一个化石中取得的样品看起来像姜的形状。Thats entirely different. This surface looks as if theyve taken a melon baller and scooped up lots of little spherical hollows.这是完全不同的。表面上看起来好像是他们搓球机在球的表面制作了很多凹槽。So what colour would these melanosomes have made?所以这些黑色素造成了什么颜色?This is definitely ginger. And if you look at this ginger hair from a man of our human being, thats what you see ourselves.很明显是姜黄色。如果你看到一个人的头发是姜黄色的,那么你看到的就是你自己。So is it relatively easy to compare your dinosaur feathers with whats aly known about, the feathers of a living bird, to get that comparison to know what colours you were looking at here?因此通过已知的存活的鸟类的羽毛去比较恐龙的羽毛相对容易些,这样你就可以知道你在这里看到的是什么?We can put the specimens in one after the other. There is the modern one. There is the fossil. Spot the difference.我们可以将标本一个接一个的摆放。有现代的,也有化石。观察它们的区别。No difference at all. And who on earth would have thought a dinosaur was close to a bird?一点差别都没有。到底谁会觉得恐龙会和鸟有相似之处呢?But here we are, you know, its kind of proved in the skeletons. And now if you like, proved in the melatonin of the feathers.但是我们会,你知道,在骨骼上这已经得到实。现在如果你还想了解,可以实在羽毛的褪黑激素里。201302/225772宝山治疗胎记多少钱黄浦区第九人民医院做祛眼袋手术价格费用

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