时间:2018年11月15日 13:58:39

But the next day I went to Soweto,第二天 我去了索韦托the poor town just southwest of Johannesburg,约翰内斯堡西南面一个很贫穷的城镇that had been the center of the antiapartheid movement.曾经反种族隔离运动的中心It was a short distance from the city into the township,这座城镇离约翰内斯堡主城区并不远but the entry was sudden, jarring and harsh.但进入索韦托后 我立刻感受到了强烈的视觉冲击I passed into a world completely unlike the one I came from.它和我之前看到的完全是两个世界My visit to Soweto became an early lesson in how naive I was.到索韦托后 我才刚开始意识到 原来自己有多天真Microsoft was donating computers and software to a community center there.微软当时将计算机和软件捐给当地的社区中心The kind of thing we did in the ed States.这同我们在美国所做的一样But it became clear to me, very quickly, that this was not the ed States.但我很快意识到 南非并不是美国I had seen statistics on poverty,我之前看过关于贫困的统计数字but I had never really seen poverty.但却从没真正看过什么叫贫困The people there lived in corrugated tin shacks当地人住在简陋的金属棚里with no electricity, no water, no toilets.没有电 没有水 没有厕所Most people didnt wear shoes.大多数人连鞋都没有穿的They walked barefoot along the streets,赤脚在街上走except there were no streets, just ruts in the mud.其实那里根本就没有街 不过只有一些泥巴路The community center had no consistent source of power.社区中心连持续的电力供应都没有201411/342429

This should be one of the hard-earned lessons of Iraq and Afghanistan where our military became the strongest advocate for diplomacy and development这是伊拉克和阿富汗的艰苦经历告诉我们的我们的军队已经成为外交和发展最有力的倡导者They understood that foreign assistance is not an afterthought something nice to do apart from our national defense, apart from our national security他们知道 对外援助并不只是锦上添花并不只是同国防无关 同国家安全无关的添饰It is part of what makes us strong而是让我们强大的重要因素之一Ultimately, global leadership requires us to see the world as it is with all its danger and uncertainty最终 全球领导要求我们认清世界是怎样的认清所有的危险和不确定性We have to be prepared for the worst prepared for every contingency我们必须为最坏情况做好准备提前备好一切应急措施But American leadership also requires us to see the world as it should be此外 美国领导还要求我们认清世界应该是怎样的a place where the aspirations of individual human beings really matters where hopes and not just fears govern这个世界中 人类个体愿望的重要性应当得到体现人们不能只被恐惧配 人们应当拥有希望where the truths written into our founding documents can steer the currents of history in a direction of justice我们建国文献中铭刻的真理应当将历史的潮流引向正义的方向And we cannot do that without you要实现这些 我们需要你们的力量Class of 2014, you have taken this time to prepare on the quiet banks of the Hudson2014届毕业生 你们在静静的哈德逊河畔做好了准备You leave this place to carry forward a legacy that no other military in human history can claim你们将带着伟大遗产离开这里 这些是人类历史上其它任何军队都没有的You do so as part of a team that extends beyond your units or even our Armed Forces你们将参与的团队将不再只是作战团队for in the course of your service you will work as a team with diplomats and development experts你们在役期间将会同外交官和发展专家一同工作Youll get to know allies and train partners你们将认识盟友 训练伙伴201506/381789

And, as I have tried to show, democracy is in deep trouble in America. The financial crisis has inflicted hardship on a population that does not like to face harsh reality. President Obama has deployed the ;confidence multiplier; and claims to have contained the recession. If there is a double dip the population will become susceptible to all kinds of fear mongering and populist demagogy. If President Obama fails, the next administration will be sorely tempted to create diversions from troubles at home and that could be very dangerous for the world.此外,正如我要说明的,美国民主已深陷泥潭。金融危机使得一部分不思面对残酷现实的美国民众陷入了困境。奥巴马总统采用了“鼓舞士气”的做法,声称经济衰退已得到控制。如果经济再次下滑,人们会极易受到各种蛊惑人心的谣言的影响的。如果奥巴马总统下台,那么,下届政府将只能通过制造激烈的事端来转移人们对国内问题的注意力,这将对世界和平构成威胁。President Obama has the right vision, but he needs to be more far-sighted. He believes in international cooperation rather than the Bush-Cheney idea of might is right. But he is preoccupied with many pressing problems. Reinventing the international financial system is not high on his agenda. Some of his economic advisers still seem to believe that the efficient market hypothesis is valid, except once in a hundred years. The financial institutions that have survived are in a stronger competitive position than ever before and they will resist a systematic overhaul that would curb their powers. What is lacking is a general recognition that the system is broken and needs to be reinvented. That is why it would be so important that the theory of financial markets I have outlined in these lectures should gain wider acceptance.奥巴马总统的视角是对的,但眼光不够长远。他相信的是国际合作,而不是布什—切尼政府所信奉的强权就是公理的观点。但他的头脑正在被其他很多紧迫的问题所困扰,而重塑国际金融体系在他的议事日程似乎排不上名次。他的一些经济顾问似乎仍然相信绝大多数情况下有效市场假说的正确性,除了百年难遇的情况。那些幸存下来的金融机构比以往更有竞争优势,它们会抵制全面的改革,因为那样会限制它们的权力。现在所缺乏的是一种普遍的共识,即人们应该认识到旧有的体制已经瓦解,需要重建。我今天所讲的关于金融市场的理论受到更广泛接受是很重要的,原因正在于此。201410/332709

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