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上海玫瑰女子韩式隆鼻多少钱上海中山医院打玻尿酸多少钱上海玫瑰整形激光去痣多少钱 Two new studies offer signs that this could be changing quickly. One offers a new way to produce solar cells more cheaply and safely than current methods. The other indicates that concentrating solar power, which uses the sun’s energy to heat up a liquid that drives a turbine, could supply “a substantial amount of current energy demand.”两项新研究提供的迹象表明,这种状况有可能会迅速发生改变。其中一项研究提供了一种全新的太阳能电池生产方式,它要比现有方法更便宜,更安全。另一项研究显示,聚焦式太阳能发电系统(即使用太阳的能量来加热液体,以驱动涡轮机,简称CSP)能够满足“目前相当大一部分能源需求。”In a study released Wednesday in journal Nature, University of Liverpool’s Jon Major and several other researchers announced that they had found that magnesium chloride, which is used in making tofu, bath salts and applied to roads in the winter could replace cadmium chloride in the making of second-generation, think-film solar cells.《自然》杂志(Nature)上周三发布的一份研究报告中,利物浦大学(University of Liverpool)的乔恩o梅杰和其他几位研究人员宣称,氯化镁可以取代生产第二代薄膜太阳能电池所用的氯化镉。氯化镁是制作豆腐和浴盐的原料,还可用来融化冬季道路上的冰雪。Speaking in a teleconference from Copenhagen, Major said magnesium chloride, which is extracted from seawater, would cost .001 per gram compared to .3 for cadmium chloride. It would also eliminate the challenges and expense of handling cadmium chloride, a highly toxic compound that requires elaborate safety measures to protect workers during its manufacture and a special disposal process when panels are no longer needed.梅杰在哥本哈根参加一个电视电话会议时表示,氯化镁源自海水,每克成本仅为0.001美元,远低于每克0.3美元的氯化镉。此外,它还能够消除处理氯化镉的挑战和费用——氯化镉是一种剧毒化合物,需要复杂的安全措施来保护生产工人,废弃的电池板也需要一道特殊的处理程序。“So what we have done without any loss of efficiency is to replace expensive and highly toxic material with one that is completely benign and much lower cost in the process,” Major said. “This offers a great cost benefit for production of these kinds of solar cells and could help make a step change in the production of them.”“所以,我们完全可以用一种完全良性而且成本低得多的物质来取代这种昂贵且带有剧毒的原料,而且无需承受任何效率损失,”梅杰说。“对于各种太阳能电池的生产商来说,这是一项巨大的成本收益,有可能推动生产过程发生巨变。”The solar market is currently dominated by panels made with silicon. In a bid to make solar more competitive, there is growing interest from companies like First Solar in developing solar cells using cadmium telluride, which is more efficient and more flexible so it could be applied many more surfaces including windows.由硅制成的面板目前在太阳能市场占据着主导地位。为了提升太阳能的竞争力,诸如第一太阳能公司(First Solar)这类企业对开发碲化镉制成的太阳能电池越来越感兴趣。这种材质更有效率,更加灵活,可应用于包括窗户在内的更多表面。To make these cadmium telluride cells, a thin layer of cadmium chloride is applied to the solar cell, and then heated up in a furnace. This is considered the activation process, Major said, helping boost a cell’s efficiency from around 1 percent to as much as 20 percent.生产碲化镉电池需要给太阳能电池添加一层薄薄的氯化镉,然后在炉中加热。梅杰说,这个环节被视为激活过程,可以有效推动电池的效率从大约1%提高到20%。In a bid to find a safer alternative, Major and his team first looked at sodium chloride, but found the efficiency was about half of cadmium chloride. Another option was difluorochloromethane but that has been linked to ozone depletion and its use has been restricted by international agreements.寻找更安全的替代材料时,梅杰和他的团队最初考虑的是氯化钠,但他们发现它的效率大约只有氯化镉的一半。另一种选择是氯二氟甲烷,但它跟臭氧层枯竭有关,已被国际协议限制使用。They then turned to magnesium chloride and found that it was just as efficient was comparable and could be applied without any expensive safety equipment.然后,他们转向氯化镁,发现这种物质的效率完全可以跟氯化镉相媲美,而且不需要昂贵的安全设备。Major said magnesium chloride isn’t being used at the moment, but was hopeful it “would be taken up by research and hopefully by industry once this work is publicized.”梅杰说,氯化镁目前还没有得到应用,但他希望“一旦这项研究工作获得关注,就能获得产学界的认可。”Steve Krum, the director of corporate communications for First Solar, would only say cadmium chloride remains “critical part” of its production process and that it was not a “major cost driver in our manufacturing process.”第一太阳能公司企业沟通部主任史蒂夫o克鲁姆仅仅表示,氯化镉仍然是该公司生产过程的“重要组成部分”,它并非“生产过程中主要的成本驱动因素。”In the other solar study, researchers writing in Nature Climate Change this week said concentrating solar power or CSP could supply a large fraction of the power supply in much of the world. The researchers from the Austria-based International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis simulated the construction and operation of CSP systems in four regions around the world taking into account weather, electricity demand and costs. They found that CSP in the Mediterranean region, for example, could provide 70-80% of current electricity demand, at no extra cost compared to gas-fired power plants.《自然气候变化》(Nature Climate Change)杂志本周发表的另一份太阳能研究报告显示,CSP系统可以解决世界大部分地区很大一部分电力供应。来自奥地利国际应用系统分析研究所(International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis)的研究人员模拟了CSP系统在全球四个地区的建设和运营情况,并充分考虑了天气、电力需求和成本等因素。他们发现,CSP系统可以满足地中海地区当前70-80%的电力需求,而且跟燃气电厂相比,它无需付额外费用。“In order to address climate change we need to greatly expand our use of renewable energy systems,” said IIASA researcher Fabian Wagner, who also worked on the study. “The key question, though, is how much energy renewable systems can actually deliver.”“为了应对气候变化,我们需要加大对可再生能源系统的利用,”这项研究的参与者之一、国际应用系统分析研究所研究员费边o瓦格纳说。“但关键问题是,可再生系统真正能够生产多少能源。”A huge challenge with deploying solar energy on a large scale is that the sun doesn’t shine all the time. That means that energy must be stored in some way. For photovoltaic (PV) cells, which convert sunlight directly to electricity, this is especially difficult to overcome, because electricity is difficult to store.大规模部署太阳能的一个重大挑战是,太阳并不是在所有时间都当空高照。这就意味着,能量必须要通过某种方式存储下来。对于直接将太阳光转换为电能的光伏电池来说,这是特别难以克的困难,因为电力很难储存。 /201407/308984上海玫瑰医疗整形美容医院脱毛多少钱

闵行鼻翼整形多少钱Apple Readies IPhone For China LaunchApple Inc. is getting closer to clearing the hurdles to start selling iPhones in China, one of the last major phone markets Apple has yet to tap.The release of the iPhone in China could turbocharge overseas growth for what is aly Apple's fastest-growing product. China is the world's largest mobile market by subscribers, with some 687 million subscribers. That compares with more than 270 million subscribers in the U.S.The iPhone hasn't sold as well in some markets as in the U.S. In Japan, for example, the Apple brand isn't as strong, and regular mobile phones offer many of the same features.In China, however, touch screens are hot, and there are aly a number of popular models that have no keypads. The Apple name has value as a status symbol, and Internet usage through cellphones is increasing.Toni Sacconaghi, an analyst with Sanford C. Bernstein amp; Co., calculates Apple can sell 2.9 million iPhones in China by the end of 2011. 'Ultimately, it will probably be the fastest-growing overseas market,' he said.But Apple faces competition from other smart phones that are set to launch in China in coming months. And analysts say the iPhone has struggled in overseas markets, where it has faced more competition from rivals like Nokia Corp., the world's largest mobile phone maker.'Apple's brand is strongest at home, where the competition is weaker,' said Edward Synder, an analyst for San Francisco-based Charter Equity Research.Apple's iPhone, which launched two years ago, has so far sold more than 26 million units world-wide in more than 80 countries, but the majority of its sales have come from the U.S.According to research firm IDC, only 7% of total iPhone sales in the second quarter, ended in June, came from the Asia Pacific, where it is sold in countries like Australia, Hong Kong and India, compared with 49% from the U.S. and 25% from Western Europe. Other sales come from markets in Japan, Latin America, Canada and the Middle East.An iPhone prototype that was modified for the China market recently received one of the technical licenses the government requires for mobile phones, according to a testing center under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. It is unclear how many approvals are required before the phone can be released.Apple must still complete negotiations with state-owned wireless operator China Unicom (Hong Kong) Ltd., which is expected to carry the iPhone, but analysts say those talks are nearing conclusion. Beijing-based research firm BDA China Ltd. said in a report this month that the iPhone is 'now finally set to make its official debut in China in October,' citing interviews with companies including Unicom.Cynthia Meng, analyst for Merrill Lynch in Hong Kong, said in a report that she also expects the iPhone to launch in the fourth quarter this year, in conjunction with Unicom's planned launch of 3G in October.A China Unicom spokeswoman said negotiations are still being finalized, and declined further comment. A spokesperson for Apple declined to comment. In an earnings call in July, Apple Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook said the Cupertino, Calif., company expects to start selling iPhones in China within a year.Competing products are aly in the works in China, adding urgency to the iPhone's launch. China Mobile Ltd., the country's largest carrier by subscribers, plans to start selling smart phones with similar functions to the iPhone this year based on Google Inc.'s Android operating system. On Monday, Taiwanese phone maker HTC Corp. announced it plans to launch seven third-generation phones, including at least one Android phone, with China Mobile by next year.China Unicom, which holds the only license for the WCDMA 3G technology compatible with the iPhone, is China's second-largest carrier.Apple has faced regulatory hurdles to launching the iPhone in China, including having to comply with a government rule that requires the removal of the device's wireless Internet function. Analysts say they expect a later rollout of a Wi-Fi enabled iPhone that complies with newly revised regulations.Launching the iPhone in China would likely boost Apple's small presence in the country. Apple currently has less than 1% market share in personal-computer shipments in China. In the second quarter, Apple sold only about 36,000 units out of 11.7 million PCs shipped in China, according to IDC.One indication of the iPhone's strong potential in China is the thriving underground iPhone market that aly exists there. Though the device isn't officially available, BDA estimates there are aly 1.5 million iPhones in use in China, and the handset is on sale everywhere from online vendors to resellers of Apple products in sprawling electronics malls.People can use the iPhone and buy applications on Apple's iTunes store by unlocking the device with software that enables it to work with any network operator, even if they aren't approved by Apple.Jessica Wu, a 26-year-old iPhone user in Nanjing, said she bought her first-generation eight-gigabyte iPhone in Nanjing in 2008 for 4,600 yuan (5). Other high-end phones 'seemed expensive and too professional' compared with the iPhone, she said. 'The [iPhone's] icons are cute.''People are paying close attention [to the release of the iPhone],' said Ms. Deng, who declined to give her first name, a saleswoman at an Apple reseller in Beijing called Dragonstar. 'We've aly gotten a couple of phone calls from our clients placing orders for iPhones as soon as they arrive.'The iPhone will likely raise China Unicom's profile as it has for other iPhone operators that have seen their data revenue increase. In Europe, the iPhone has just 15% of smart-phone market share but represents 90% of the total data usage on networks, according to IDC. Ms. Meng of Merrill Lynch rated Unicom a 'buy,' saying the introduction of the iPhone and other data-intensive smart devices 'will be critical catalysts for Unicom to retain and attract mid-to-high end subscribers in highly penetrated urban markets.'How strongly the iPhone sells in China will depend on the subsidy China Unicom provides for it, analysts say. Chinese consumers spend an average of 1,100 yuan, or about 0, on cellphones, according to BDA. For comparison, the newest iPhone 3GS model starts at 9 in the U.S. with a two-year service contract, and 9 without any service commitment.In China, Apple and its operator partner face another challenge: most users prefer to prepay for services rather than subscribe to a monthly service. Average monthly revenue per user in China is also less than , in part because overall charges are lower, compared with about for ATamp;T Inc., the exclusive iPhone provider in the U.S.Still, the payoff could be huge for Apple. Xiang Ligang, chief executive of Chinese telecommunications news portal Cctime.com, estimates 100 million mobile phone users in China change their phones every year and about 20 million of those buy high-end mobile phones. In some of the biggest cities especially, mobile phones are often seen as status symbols and high-end cellphones typically cost upwards of 3,000 yuan. /200908/82668上海做隆鼻手术价格 上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院韩式三点双眼皮多少钱

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