原标题: 闵行区中心医院打美白针价格费用导医大夫
Obituary;Nancy Wake; 讣告;南希·威克;Nancy Wake—saboteur and special agent, died on August 7th, aged 98.南希·威克——二战间功勋卓越的英国间谍特工,8月7日去世,享年98岁。Convivial, and not averse to a drink, Nancy Wake could often be found cheering up a cocktail bar. In the late 1940s, and again towards the end of her life, it might have been the American Bar of the Stafford Hotel, just across the road from The Economist’s offices in London. In 1940, when she was living as a newlywed in Vichy France, it could have been another American Bar, this one in the H?tel du Louvre et de la Paix in Marseilles. It was a chance encounter here with an English officer, interned by the French authorities but that day on parole, which led to her membership of the resistance, and then to her role as an agent of the British Special Operations Executive in occupied France. Of the 39 SOE women infiltrated into France, 11 of whom would die in concentration camps, she was perhaps the most redoubtable.热衷于聚会派对,从不拒绝美酒的南希·威克经常出现在鸡尾酒会。到她生命的最后一段时光也是如此,可能她就出现在伦敦《经济学家》杂志社办公大楼对面的斯塔福耶酒店的美国酒馆。上世纪40年代时亦是如此,1940年她刚刚结婚,嫁到维希政权下的法国,那时她经常出现在另一家美国酒馆,在巴黎卢浮旅馆里或者在马赛和平旅馆里。在那里,她很偶然地碰到一位被法国当局保释的在囚英国军官。 这位军官后来带领她加入了抵抗德国纳粹的运动中,也使她成为了英国特别行动处驻占领的法国的一位特工。而在特别行动处39位渗入法国的女特工中,11名没有在德国纳粹集中营中丧生,而她也许是其中最令人敬畏的那个。From her earliest days, Miss Wake combined opposing qualities. She was disciplined, but at the same time a free spirit. In Sydney, to which her large family had moved after leaving her birthplace in New Zealand, she twice ran away from home. As soon as she could, she made her way to London, then to Paris to work as a freelance journalist. There it was her cheerful independence as much as her good looks that caught the eye of the rich French industrialist, Henri Fiocca, who would take her to Marseilles as his wife.早在还是个女孩的时候,威克身上就有了相反的特质。她遵守纪律,同时却又热爱自由。她随大家庭从家乡新西兰搬到悉尼后,就离家出走过两次。她一长到足够负担自己的生活的年纪,就自己去了伦敦生活,然后又到巴黎做了自由记者。她那值得庆贺的独立以及她夺人眼球的美貌,捕获了一位法国企业家亨利·费奥卡的心。随后他们结了婚,来到了马赛。She enjoyed her new life of luxury while it lasted, but she was no flibbertigibbet. Soon after meeting the interned British officer, she was helping to get similar Allied airmen, refugees and escaped prisoners-of-war out of occupied France and into Britain. She took a flat, ostensibly for a lover, in fact for the resistance, sheltered men on the run and became a crucial part of the southern escape line to Spain, travelling all over southern France from Nice to Names to Perpignan, with clothing, money and false documents.她很享受奢华的新生活,但她并不是那种只知享乐的肤浅的人。在她遇到那名被拘禁的英国军官后不久,她就帮着将与他情况相似的盟军飞行员、难民和在逃战俘逃从被占领的法国转移到英国。她买了栋公寓,表面上看是为了会情人用的,但实际上是为了庇护抵抗军。她带着衣物、钱和假造的公文,从尼斯到尼姆再到配里皮昂在法国南部来回奔走,成为法国南部向西班牙逃亡路线的一个关键部分。Inevitably, she was arrested. Beaten up and questioned for four days, she revealed nothing. It was this steadiness and loyalty to her comrades that most appealed to the British officers who later agreed to train her to become an SOE agent.不可避免地,她被逮捕了。敌人鞭打拷问了她四天,她却什么都没有泄露。正是这种坚持稳定和对同志的忠诚打动了那位英国军官,成为他后来同意将她训练为一名特别行动处特工的最重要原因。Other qualities were evident by then. Her femininity was never in doubt. It helped her escape capture, not just because she could on occasion flirt her way out of trouble, but also because her Gestapo pursuers assumed any woman as skilful in evading them must be a butch matron (though because of her ability to scuttle off the Germans called her “the White Mouse”). When she was with the Maquis, silk stockings and Elizabeth Arden face cream were often dropped for her by parachute, along with Sten guns, radios and grenades. Yet she conformed to no stereotype, swearing in the vernacular in the coarsest of terms, living for months in the woods and fighting, in the words of a confrère, not like a man but “like five men”.那时她的其它优秀品质也已经非常明显。她的女性魅力是毋庸置疑的。这帮助她成功逃离拘捕,并不只是因为他能偶尔靠美人计脱险,还因为她的那些盖世太保追求者们认为任何擅长回避他们追求的人必定是个男人婆 (不过因为她非常善于逃跑,德国纳粹称她为“白鼠”)。 在法国抗德游击队工作那会儿,组织经常空降丝袜、伊莉莎白·雅顿的面霜,以及斯特恩式轻机关、收音机和手榴弹给她。然而,她绝不是一般的女人。她可以用最脏的法国方言骂人,她也可以在茂林作战数月。用一位同事的话说,她根本不像一个男人,她“像五个男人”。Her fearlessness seemed to come from a total lack of self-doubt. The certainty with which she held her beliefs—she hated the Nazis, having seen them whipping Jews in Vienna before the war, loved France and was intensely loyal to Britain—freed her of any sense of guilt. This in turn enabled her to act as though she were utterly innocent, even when claiming to be the cousin of an imprisoned Scottish captain, or chatting to a Gestapo officer with 200lb of illegal pork in her suitcase.她的英勇无畏似乎因为她从不自我怀疑。她那种斩钉截铁的确定和由此而来的信念——对战前在维也纳鞭笞犹太人的纳粹的痛恨、对法国的热爱以及对英国无比的忠诚——使她从不愧疚。因此,即使她公开撒谎自己是一名囚禁的苏格兰上校的表,或者是在包里藏着两百磅非法猪肉与一名盖世太保军官交谈,她也表现地底气十足、气定神闲。It was sheer guts, though, that got her over the Pyrenees in her espradilles when the Germans were at her heels. And back in Britain in 1943 it was her character rather than her skills or physical abilities that got her through her training in grenade throwing, silent killing and parachute jumping. As for violence, she hated it—until she became hardened.然而,完全是巨大的勇气,使得她在德国纳粹紧跟其后的情况下,穿着她那破旧的帆布鞋,穿越了比利牛斯山。而再往前,1943年在英国时,正是因为她的顽强的性格,而不是她的技术或身体素质,使她通过了扔手榴弹、无声杀人和跳伞训练。她痛恨暴力,直到她变得无坚不摧。That began in April 1944, when Captain (as she now was) Wake and another SOE agent were parachuted into the Auvergne in south-central France. Their immediate job was to work with the local Maquis to cause as much disruption as possible before D-day five weeks later. Now the fighting began, and Captain Wake showed herself more than willing to take part, ily joining raiding parties, blowing up local Gestapo headquarters and ambushing German patrols.那是1944年4月,威克成为了上尉(到现在一直是),她和另外一位英国特别行动处特工空降在法国中南部的奥弗涅。他们当时的任务是与当地的抗德游击队员一起,尽可能多地制造混乱,为五周后的诺曼底登陆做准备。现在斗争开始了,威克上尉显然不只是要去参与其中,她自愿加入了突击队,端掉了盖世太保的总指挥部,并突袭了德国巡逻兵。She did not enjoy killing a German sentry with her bare hands, but she was unsentimental. Likewise, she saw the necessity of killing a German woman captured by some of her Maquis colleagues who admitted to being a spy. Though she had been raped and tortured, Captain Wake ordered her to be shot—or, if the captain’s later suggestion is to be believed, she herself shot her, since the Maquisards’ sense of honour permitted her rape but not her killing.她不喜欢用徒手杀掉一名德国哨兵的感觉,但她并非冷血无情。同样地,在与她共事的马基队员抓到一名承认自己是名间谍的德国妇女时,她知道必须杀了她。尽管这女人已经被强暴过、折磨过,威克上尉还是命令杀掉她。甚至,人们都不敢相信她后来这个提议:由她亲手干掉她——因为法国抵抗成员的荣誉感使他们只允许自己强暴她,而不允许自己杀掉她。In spite of such horrors, and in spite of such feats as bicycling over 500km in under 72 hours to find a radio operator, Captain Wake was having the time of her life. She was still only 26, a woman among 7,000 (mostly) admiring men, carrying out daily acts of derring-do and revelling in a job she had plainly been born for. Although she lived with the constant possibility of capture, it held no fear for her, and she did not yet know that her husband, rather than betray her, had been arrested by the Gestapo, tortured and killed. Decorations galore—from Britain, France, America and Australia—awaited her, but life would never be as good again.尽管经历着类似的恐怖事件,尽管曾经有过许多惊人壮举,比如为寻找一个收音机操作员72小时内骑车500公里,威克上尉依然享受着女人生命的黄金时光。她毕业是个26岁的年轻女性,军营中的7000男人大多都是她的倾慕者。在这群男人中,每天英勇地执行任务,完全陶醉于这一她天生注定要从事的工作。尽管随时都有可能被捕,她却从不害怕。那时她还不知道,她的丈夫并不是背叛了她,而是被盖世太保抓了起来,折磨致死。战争结束后,各种荣誉从英国、法国、美国和澳大利亚向她涌来,但她生命最美好的时光已一去不返。201206/187927Books and Arts;Book review;The second world war;文艺;书评;第二次世界大战;Counting the cost;二战代价几何?Two British historians analyse the 20th century’s worst conflict.看两位英国历史学家如何剖析20世纪最严重的军事冲突。All Hell Let Loose: The World at War 1939-1945. By Max Hastings.《人间地狱:1939-1945,战争中的世界》 作者:马克斯·哈斯丁.The Second World War. By Antony Beevor.《第二次世界大战》作者:安东尼·比弗。 History is full of wars that were bloodier than the second world war. As a proportion of the population, more people were killed during the An Lushan rebellion in eighth-century China, for example, or by the Thirty Years War in 17th-century central Europe. But the sheer magnitude of the human tragedy of the second world war puts it in a class of its own, and its relative closeness to the present day makes claims on the collective memory that more remote horrors cannot.纵观人类历史,比第二次世界大战更血腥的战争比比皆是。例如,8世纪中国的安禄山叛乱或17世纪中欧的三十年战争死亡人数占总人口的比例就比二战大。然而,第二次世界大战造成的巨大人间惨剧本身让其他战争根本不能与之相提并论。而且,二战发生的年代相对较近,它给人类留下的集体记忆之深,是那些年代久远的恐怖战争无可比拟的。The statistics of the war are almost mind-numbing. Estimates differ, but up to 70m people died as a direct consequence of the fighting between 1939 and 1945, about two-thirds of them non-combatants, making it in absolute terms the deadliest conflict ever. Nearly one in ten Germans died and 30% of their army. About 15m Chinese perished and 27m Soviets. Squeezed between two totalitarian neighbours, Poland lost 16% of its population, about half of them Jews who were part of Hitler’s final solution. On average, nearly 30,000 people were being killed every day.有关二战的统计数据几乎让人麻木。各方估计的死亡人数有出入,但在1939-1945年的这场战争中,直接死亡人数高达七千万,其中三分之二是非战斗死亡,这使二战成为人类历史上绝对死亡人数最多的战争。二战时期,每十个德国人中就有一个死亡,德军死亡率达30%;约有一千五百万中国人和两千七百万俄国人丧命。夹在两个极权主义国家之间的波兰人口减少了16%,其中约一半是犹太人,那是希特勒的“最终方案”要解决的部分目标。当时,每天平均有将近三万人死于非命。Partly because it is so hard to grasp what these numbers mean, recent historians have tended to concentrate on particular theatres or aspects of the war with an emphasis on trying to describe what it was like for the human beings caught up in it. Both Antony Beevor and Max Hastings are distinguished exemplars of this approach. Mr Hastings has written books on Britain’s strategic bombing campaign, the Allied invasion of Normandy and the battles for Germany and Japan in the closing stages of the war. With several books aly under his belt, Mr Beevor became known in 1998 for his epic account of the siege of Stalingrad, and went on to produce accounts of D-Day and the fall of Berlin. Now both writers have tried something different: single-volume narrative histories of the entire war. In doing so, they are following in the footsteps of Andrew Roberts and Michael Burleigh, who made similar attempts in, respectively, and 2010.在一定程度上,人们很难明白这些数字意味着什么,所以最近的历史学家往往特别关注二战的某些战区或层面,致力于将亲身经历二战的人眼中的二战呈现给读者。安东尼#8226;比弗(Antony Beevor)和马克斯#8226;哈斯丁(Max Hastings)都是这方面的典范。马克斯#8226;哈斯丁已著有多本作品,内容涉及英国的战略轰炸、盟军的诺曼底联合登陆以及战争末期德日两国的战役。安东尼#8226;比弗同样也写了几本书。1998年,他笔下的围攻斯大林格勒令人印象深刻,他也因此闻名于世,之后他又写了关于诺曼底登陆日及攻克柏林的书。现在两位作家尝试了不同的写作方式,即跟随安德卤#8226;罗伯特(Andrew Roberts)和迈克#8226;伯利(Michael Burleigh)的脚步:以单卷本的方式讲述整个二战史。这两位作家分别在年和2010年尝试用单卷本写二战史。Mr Hastings got there before Mr Beevor. “All Hell Let Loose” was published seven months ago (it is now out in paperback) to justifiably rave reviews.马克斯#8226;哈斯丁的动作比安东尼#8226;比弗快。七个月前,《人间地狱》一书出版(现在出了平装本),理所当然地引起了人们的热议。201207/189503

Business.商业The psychology of discounting.“打折”心理学Something doesnt add up.就是算不对How marketers can take advantage of consumers innumeracy.且看营销人员如何利用“数学盲”消费者WHEN retailers want to entice customers to buy a particular product, they typically offer it at a discount. According to a new study to be published in the Journal of Marketing, they are missing a trick.零售商想吸引顾客购买某种特别商品时,典型做法就是打折促销了。但是,一项发表在《市场营销杂志》的新研究则说明了他们并未统揽全局,掌握所有窍门。 A team of researchers, led by Akshay Rao of the University of Minnesotas Carlson School of Management, looked at consumers attitudes to discounting. Shoppers, they found, much prefer getting something extra free to getting something cheaper. The main reason is that most people are useless at fractions.以明尼苏达大学卡尔森管理学院的阿卡什?劳为首的调查小组研究了消费者对打折的态度。他们发现,购物者们更喜欢赠品胜过打折品。主要原因在于多数人对分数运算束手无策。Consumers often struggle to realise, for example, that a 50% increase in quantity is the same as a 33% discount in price. They overwhelmingly assume the former is better value. In an experiment, the researchers sold 73% more hand lotion when it was offered in a bonus pack than when it carried an equivalent discount (even after all other effects, such as a desire to stockpile, were controlled for).比如,消费者们常常很难意识到,加量50%就等同于折扣33%。绝大多人都以为前者更划算。在一次实验中,调查者们出售手霜,一种是带赠品的,另一种是打折品,两者价值相当(即使排除如囤货需要之类的其他因素),但是结果前者多售出73%。This numerical blind spot remains even when the deal clearly favours the discounted product. In another experiment, this time on his undergraduates, Mr Rao offered two deals on loose coffee beans: 33% extra free or 33% off the price. The discount is by far the better proposition, but the supposedly clever students viewed them as equivalent.即便当买打折品明显更划算时,人们还是无法走出数字盲区。另一次实验在本科生中展开,Rao先生出售散装咖啡豆时提供两种选择:赠送33%或者折扣33%。打折远远更加划算,但那些本以为十分聪明的学生们却认为两种促销都是一样的。Studies have shown other ways in which retailers can exploit consumers innumeracy. One is to befuddle them with double discounting. People are more likely to see a bargain in a product that has been reduced by 20%, and then by an additional 25%, than one which has been subject to an equivalent, one-off, 40% reduction.根据学生们的反映,零售商们发现了其他方式来利用消费者对数字上的不敏感。比如利用二次折扣来迷惑他们。人们觉得一件商品如果先打8折再打75折,那肯定比一次性打6折要划算。Marketing types can draw lessons beyond just pricing, says Mr Rao. When advertising a new cars efficiency, for example, it is more convincing to talk about the number of extra miles per gallon it does, rather than the equivalent percentage fall in fuel consumption.Rao先生说,这不仅对营销手段的价格方面有所启发,其他方面也是如此。比如,在宣传新车效率时,引用每加仑汽油多跑的英里数要比引用减少的耗油量的比值要更有说力。There may be lessons for regulators too. Even well-educated shoppers are easily foxed. Sending everyone back to school for maths refresher-courses seems out of the question. But more prominently displayed unit prices in shops and advertisements would be a great help.这对监管者也有所启示。即便是受过良好教育的购物者也很容易被骗。我们不可能让每个人都重新回到数学课堂。但如果商店和广告上能更清楚地标明单价的话必定可以帮上大忙。 201207/192560

Scientists in this laboratory in Sweden have made a medical breakthrough by cultivating artificial corneas they are able to store visions to millions of people in need of transplant in face of the risk of going blind. The biosynthetic cornea developed in Canada and Sweden looks like a contact lens. Eye surgeon May Griffith explains how it made.瑞典一科学实验室内的科学家们在人工角膜领域有了新突破。这将为几百万等待角膜移植,可能失明的患者带来了光明。这种在加拿大和瑞典的人工合成角膜看上去就像隐形眼镜一样。眼科医生May Griffith将向我们做详细解释。;We started with the recombinant human collagen, so the first thing that was done was the scientist at Fibrogen, genetically engineered yeast. They took human DNA, put it into yeast cells, and got the yeast cells to produce this human protein. What we then did was take this protein chemically treated, put into molds and the result is a transparent contact lens looking like cornea. ;“我们从重组人体胶原蛋白开始,所以首先纤维蛋白原方面和基因工程方面的专家制作酵母,他们提取人类DNA,将DNA注入酵母细胞中,使酵母细胞生产人类蛋白质。我们接下来要做的就是将这些蛋白质进行化学处理,注入霉菌,结果就生成了看上去像隐形眼镜的透明人工角膜。”The procedure involves of removing the damage cornea which covers the iris of the people, and replace it with an artificial film-like one. The cornea itself is made from protein collagen, and reflects light allowing the retina to focus. The operation was carried out on 10 patients, and up until now, their sight has improved.患者需要手术移除虹膜上受损的角膜,并换上人工角膜。这种新型的人工角膜由蛋白质组成,质地轻盈,使虹膜能够自由聚焦。已经有10名患者接受了这种手术,截止到现在,他们的视力有了显著提高。This was a test designed primarily to look at the safety of implanting biomaterial into patients. But we were very surprised and very happy for the results we got. Because the results show that six out of ten patients could now see things about four times further away than they could before the operation. And when we put hard contact lens on all ten patients, the vision in all ten patients was improved.这项实验的初衷是检验向病人植入人造角膜的安全性。但结果让我们惊讶并且十分兴奋。结果显示10名接受手术的患者中,六名患者可以看清以前视力所及距离的四倍以外的物体。而所有接受手术的10名患者的视力都有了很大改善。The patients were monitored from 2 years, and doctor said 90% of the cases the tissue grew back completely joining together with the implant. Doctors said that there havent been any adverse effects and the artificial cornea was mimicking a natural one with patients producing tears.接受治疗的患者将会被观察两年,医生表示,90%的患者的眼部组织和植入的人造角膜完全愈合。医生还说,人造角膜不仅没有副作用,并且还能仿照天然角膜制造泪水。Corneal disease affects millions of people around the world, and the number of transplants carried out limited due to a shortage of donors. The second and third phase of the test still needs to be carried out and medics say it will be another five years until the eye opening procedure will be performed at hospitals.角膜类疾病困扰着全世界几百万人口,大批患者等待角膜移植,而捐献者及其有限。人造角膜的第二第三阶段实验仍需实施,相关的医学工作者表示,人造角膜应用于临床还需要至少五年。Basmah Fahim, Reuters.Basmah Fahim,路透社消息。recombinant n. 重组;[生]重组体collagen n. (骨)胶原(蛋白);成胶质yeast cells n.酵母细胞;酵母菌iris n. 虹膜注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/194309Business商业报道Home entertainment家庭Netflix messes upNetflix这回弄巧成拙了The terror of the film and television business has become a lot less scary电影和电视业的担忧恐惧都显得微不足道It seldom pays to annoy your customers你难得会因为惹怒用户而付出代价LAST December Jeff Bewkes, Time Warners boss, sneered that Netflix threatened media about as much as the Albanian army threatened world peace.在去年12月,时代华纳的老板Jeff Bewkes曾嘲笑Netflix就像阿尔巴尼亚军队危害了世界和平一样危害了媒体业。Few were fooled. Netflix, which hires out DVDs through the post as well as streaming films and television through the internet,Netflix,一个凭借邮递务租售DVD光碟和通过互联网租售流媒体电影和电视节目的公司,had aly impoverished Hollywood by training people to rent DVDs instead of buying them.由于使得人们不再购买DVD光碟而只是租借它们,早已让好莱坞的收入大为缩水。It was starting to lure people away from pay-television.它在开始引诱人们离开付费频道,但上当者人数寥寥。But then the army began marching in the wrong direction, and its general shot himself in the foot.然而,这军队接下来开始朝着错误的方向进军,这次,这位上将是搬起石头砸了自己的脚。On September 1st Netflix began imposing new prices on its 25m subscribers.自9月1日起,Netflix开始对2500万订阅用户执行新的收费方案。Americans had been able to pay .99 a month for DVDs through the post as well as the right to stream some films and programmes.在这之前,美国人每个月只需付9.99美元,就能享受邮递租借DVD光碟和网络观赏一些流媒体电影、电视节目的务。Netflix would henceforth offer them a choice:现在,Netflix给了他们一个选择:.99 a month for streaming,要么每个月为流媒体务付7.99美元,or the same price for DVDs.要么以同样的价格租借DVD光碟。People who wanted both would pay .98.两种务都需要的人则需每月付15.98美元。Customers dont like it.用户们并不喜欢这个方案。They have jammed the firms switchboard and posted 82,000 largely hostile comments on its Facebook page.许多人的投诉电话蜂拥而至以致电话系统瘫痪,并且在Netflix的Facebook主页上留下了多达82000条的恶意。Netflix told investors to expect a rare loss of subscribers, driving its shares down.Netflix告知投资者们要做好因订阅用户人数大幅下降所带来的股份下滑的准备,The companys reputation for top-notch customer service has been tarnished.这所公司以顶级用户务著称的名誉已经蒙上了污点。So Netflixs founder and chief executive, Reed Hastings, tried to explain himself—and made matters far worse.因此,Netflix的创立人兼总裁Reed Hastings尝试为自己的决定辩解—却只是越描越黑。On September 18th Mr Hastings explained that the company feared being left behind by technological change, like AOL with its dial-up service.在9月18日,Hastings先生解释说到他害怕公司会像还在提供拨号上网业务的美国在线务公司那样被日新月异的科技变化抛在背后,It was separating DVDs from streaming because its future lies in streaming. The DVD-by-post service,之所以要把DVD光碟业务从流媒体业务中分离出来是因为这项业务的未来存在于流媒体技术之中。he said, would move to a new website, with a new billing system, and be renamed Qwikster.他说到,邮递租借DVD光碟业务将会被移至一个新的网站,拥有新的付系统,并被重新命名为Qwikster。Its an odd name and a big mistake.这真是一个怪名字和一个大错误。As The Economist went to press, Netflix shares were trading around 0—a steep decline from their July peak of 9.在本文交付印刷之时,Netflix的股票成交价大概在130美元左右—与他们在7月份299美元封顶的价格相比下了一个大滑坡。Netflix has made a tactical error and treated its customers shabbily.Netflix不仅犯了策略性错误,而且对待用户们糟糕透顶。It has also jumped too hastily into the future—as if Renault were to declare that electric cars are the future and rename its petrol-car division Qwikmobile.另外,它对未来的规划也太过急进—好比说雷诺公司对外宣称电动车是未来发展的方向,然后就把他们的汽车部门改名为Qwikmobile。Worst of all, Netflix has disregarded a big strategic advantage.而最糟糕的是,Netflix忽略了一个极其重要的战略优势。DVDs may be old media, but they come with strong legal protections.DVD光碟或许是老式媒介,但是它们有着强力的法律保护措施。As soon as a DVD is released by a Hollywood studio,当一张DVD光碟从好莱坞片场发布那刻起,roughly four months after the film appears in cinemas, Netflix can start renting it.大概只要在电影院上映后四个月,Netflix就可以开始租售。To stream a film via the internet, in contrast, Netflix must strike an agreement with the studio or TV firm that owns it.相比之下,如果Netflix要通过互联网来播放流媒体电影,则必须先和持有它的片场或电视公司签订协议。As Netflix has become richer and scarier, negotiations have become harder.随着Netflix变得越来越有钱,越来越胆小,协商日趋困难。The company must wait eight or nine years to stream many studio films.公司必须要等到8到9年才能播放许多片场的流媒体电影,A few media firms refuse to sell any streaming rights at all.一些媒体公司更是拒绝出售任何播放流媒体的权利。When Netflix combined DVDs and streaming, it offered both a vast selection of up-to-date content and the prospect of instant gratification.在Netflix将DVD光碟与流媒体电影电视两种务结合在一起时,它不仅提供了大量可选购的最新内容,而且很容易使用户感到满意。By forcing customers to choose between the two, it has revealed the weaknesses of both of its offerings.然而Netflix强迫用户其二而择一的行为,将两者的弱点都暴露了出来。Netflix isnt like the Albanian army—it is far more dangerous than that.Netflix其实并不像阿尔巴尼亚军队—毕竟他们危险多了。But it seems to have trained its guns against itself.但是这回,看起来他们是把口对准了自己。点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/233262

But its not completely finished. Paul and his team need Luis advice on a couple of issues.但是这还没有完全结束。保罗和他的团队需要路易斯在几个问题上的建议。There are several unknowns. And a complete tail has never been found.有些事是未知的。还有一条完整的尾巴没有找到。So on the older drawings that we have, theres maybe 53 tailbones but the newer thinking is that there is close to 43. Paleontology, most of it is soft science.在我们有的那些旧图上,有53个尾巴骨头,但是新的想法是只有43个左右的骨头。古生物学,大部分是软科学。So these theories change with new evidence that is found. 也就是说,随着新的据发现,这些理论会随着改变。One of the big questions about T-rex is what its surprisingly short arms were used for.有关Trex的一个重要问题是他那超级短的手臂是干嘛用的。They might have been used to hold on to prey or to push the body up from a sitting position. No one knows.它们可能会短手臂抓住猎物或者撑身体改变坐姿。没有人知道。And thats partly because each arm is anchored to the body by the shoulder blade or scapular.部分原因是每一个手臂固定在身体的肩胛骨或者肩胛那儿。And there is no easy way of telling exactly where that set.想要知道手臂的确切位置不是一件容易的事。With the scapular Ive seen, theyve gone up closer to the vertebra in the back bone.我看到的肩胛,向上接近脊柱上的脊椎部位。Ive also seen where they were lowered almost to where belly is.我还能看见向下接近腹部。There is a part of the front end of the scapular, the coccyx, and some people think they go together this much and some people think they go together this much.有一部分肩胛,尾椎的前端,有人认为手臂是和前者连在一起,有人认为是和后者连在一起。But that all has to do with how they, how everything hangs in the front end of this, and also how the hands were used. 但是这些都与它们,还有其他所有东西是如何连在一起的有关系,以及怎么用手。Those arms were just about the same size as we human arm. 这些手臂的大小和人类的接近。The difficulty in placing the scapular on Tomas is compounded by the fact that the bones were distorted over the millions of years that they spent buried underground.把肩胛安置在Tomas上,有一定的难度,并且由于骨头被埋在地下数百万年,早已变形,想要还原肩胛骨就更难了。They were flattened. And they dont really have the curvature that they must have had when the animal was alive before.它们被夷为平地。当恐龙还活着的时候,它的身体有些地方并不一定是弯曲的。It is really difficult to fit them on the sides of the ribcage. I guess thats the nature of the beast.恐龙两边胸腔的骨头也很难还原。我想这也许是野兽的本性。We are gonna have to find a compromise and well live with it.我们必须找到中和的方案,然后适应它。Back in L.A., there are two months to go before the exhibition opens. The 3 T-rexes are now installed.回到洛杉矶,离展览会很有两个月的时间。3个宝贝龙的骨架已经安装好了。201301/221300In the record of his life at Walden Pond, Henry David Thoreau reported on an odd phenomenon. ;As I walked on the railroad causeway,; he wrote, ;I used to wonder at the halo of light around my shadow.; Thoreau was probably seeing a phenomenon called ;heiligenshein,; which is German for halo. This is a glowing light around the head and shoulders of your shadow. These days, its likely to be seen by early morning golfers on dewy grass. Where does this halo come from?在瓦尔登湖的生活记录里,亨利·大卫·梭罗报告了一个奇怪的现象。“而当我在铁路堤道上行走的时候,”他写道:“我常常惊奇地看到我的影子周围有一个光轮。”梭罗可能看到的是一个叫作;heiligenshein;的现象,;heiligenshein;是德语,意为“光环”。那是围绕在头和肩膀的影子周围的一圈耀眼的光芒。这些天,清晨在被露水打湿的高尔夫球场上很有可能看见这种现象。这些光环来自哪里?Your shadows halo is made by something called ;back scattering.; This happens whenever sunlight enters a dewdrop. The sunbeam enters the front of the drop, then a certain amount of light bounces off the back. This light streams back out the front, almost exactly in the direction it came from. Thanks to back scattering, every dewdrop on the golf course is shining a narrow beam of light directly back toward the sun.影子周围的光环是由于“反向散射”形成的。当阳光射进水滴时,往往会发生这种现象。阳光从水滴前方进入时,总有一定数量的光线被反射回去。这些光线从水滴前方反射回去,反射角度几乎与入射方向一样。由于反向散射,高尔夫球场上的每一滴露珠都会向太阳发出一道狭小的光芒。Heiligenshein is the glare from this backward bouncing sunlight. If every dewdrop bounces sunlight, why does the halo only appear around your shadows head instead of over the whole fairway? Unlike a light bulb, which shines light in every direction, each dewdrop is reflecting a narrow, tightly focused beam, aimed directly at the sun. Your eyes must be in the path of these beams to see them. If youre looking down at your shadow, your eyes are only in the line of fire for those dewdrops near your shadows head. The beams from the dewdrops a few feet to the side miss your eyes entirely. This is why youre likely to see a halo around your own shadows head, but not around those of others.Heiligenshein 就是这种反射光线较耀眼的部分。如果每一滴露水都反射阳光,那么为什么光环只出现在头部的影子周围?灯泡向四面八方发光,但与灯泡不同的是,露水反射的光只对着太阳,而且反射光线即狭小又集中。只有当这些光束射入你的眼睛,你才能看见。当你低头看向影子时,只有影子头部周围的露珠反射的光线才会进入你的眼睛,而旁边几英尺远的露珠反射的光芒就会错过。这就是为什么你可能在影子头部周围看到光环,而不是在影子的其它部位看到。原文译文属!201209/201512

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