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上海正规的整形医院上海市第八人民医院去眼袋多少钱South Korea’s education system韩国的教育体制The great decompression大减压There are perils for a country in having all your children working too hard for one big exam对一个国家来说,让所有孩子都为一场大型考试而精疲力尽是很危险的Oct 26th 2013 |From the print editionFEW countries have done better than South Korea over the past half-century. Within the span of a single working life, its economy has grown 17-fold, its government has evolved from an austere dictatorship into a rowdy democracy, and its culture, once scarred by censorship, now beguiles the world with its music, soap operas and cinema. Scholars enthuse about the speed and precocity of its “compressed development”.在过去的半个世纪,几乎没有国家表现得比韩国更好。在仅仅一代工作人口的时间跨度里,韩国经济增长了17倍。韩国政府也从严厉的独裁政权进化成了热闹的民主政体。韩国的文化原来被审查体制弄得千疮百孔,现在韩国的音乐、连续剧和电影席卷世界。学者们对这种快速且早熟的“高压发展”非常关注。The only people unimpressed by South Korea’s accomplishments may be South Koreans themselves. As our special report notes, the prosperity they enjoy has not relieved the competitive pressure they endure. To them, the country’s development is compressed in a different way. Its success is confined to a few big employers and industries. The country’s manufacturers are more impressive than its service firms, although these now generate most jobs. And in manufacturing its big, family-owned conglomerates (the chaebol) do far better than their small, hard-pressed suppliers.唯一对韩国的成就不以为然的大概只有韩国人自己了。正如本刊特别报道里所说,韩国人所享受的繁荣并没有缓解其承受的竞争压力。对韩国人而言,国家发展是通过其他方式实现的。韩国的成功仅限于几家大企业和大产业。韩国制造业表现要比务业好得多,虽然现在后者提供大部分的工作岗位。而在制造业中,几家大型的家族式企业集团(即财阀)的表现要比拮据的小型企业好得多。Unsurprisingly, ambitious young South Koreans crave employment in the thriving bits of the economy. Medicine, law, finance and government remain popular, but the chaebol now take the cream. Like the civil service and the professions, Samsung, Hyundai and their peers tend to hire people straight from the best universities, with little chance of entry later in life. This creates a double bottleneck in the labour market. There are only a few appealing employers to choose from, and only one realistic chance to join them. So youngsters spend ages padding out their CVs and prepping for exams—especially for the test taken at 18 which determines your university.毫无疑问,雄心勃勃的韩国年轻人都渴望能在经济中的强势方谋一份职业。制药、法律、金融以及政府职位依旧受欢迎,但财阀才是最。跟公务员和专业人士招聘一样,三星、现代等大集团喜欢直接从顶尖大学中挑人,不给年纪稍大的人留下多少机会。这就给劳动市场造成了双瓶颈现象。有吸引力的雇主就这么几家,而想加入他们,比较现实的机会仅有一种。于是,年轻人花大把时间炮制自己的简历,不停备考,尤其是准备18岁时参加的大学入学考试。This seems like a small thing, and many Western countries would kill to have South Korea’s problem: it is hard to imagine British or American parents fretting that their teenagers work too hard.South Koreacomes at or near the top of most international comparisons of ing, maths and science. But there are costs. A lot of effort goes into costly credentialism, rather than deep learning. The system excludes late-developing talent: blossom at 25, and it’s too late. And in the very long term it means a smaller country. The expense of educating children for the test is one reason why South Korean women give birth to so few of them. With the lowest fertility rate in the OECD rich-country club,South Korea’s greying threatens to be as rapid as its growth.这看起来没什么大不了的,许多西方国家对韩国能有这种问题羡慕得要死:很难想象英国或美国的家长抱怨自己的孩子太努力了。在阅读、数学以及科学方面的国际对比中,韩国人就算不是最优,也是名列前茅。但这是有代价的。大量的精力花在了追求文凭,而不是深入学习。这种体制排斥了那些大器晚成的人:25岁才开窍,太晚了。从长远来讲,这会导致国家人口减少。孩子应试花费过大是韩国女性少生育的原因之一。韩国的生育率在经合组织发达国家中是最低的,老龄化威胁的增长跟经济增长一样快。The indirect cure for education fever教育狂热的间接疗法Other education-obsessed countries in Asia face a version of the same problem. In the pastSouth Korea’s government tried to help parents by banning out-of-class tutoring. (The president of Seoul National University had to resign after letting his own child dodge the ban.) But such pedagogical prohibition is illiberal, and was anyway ruled unconstitutional in 2000. The answer lies not in the schools but in the overall economy—and in creating a more open labour market where more firms are interested in hiring people later.亚洲许多对教育偏执的国家都有类似的问题。之前,韩国政府想帮父母一把,制订了禁止课外补习的政策。(首尔国立大学校长违反规定,让自己的孩子补习,最后只能辞职。)但是,这种针对教学方式的禁令是违背自由精神的,而且在2000年还被判为违宪。要解决问题,关键不在学校,而在整体经济——要构建更开放的劳动市场,让企业有兴趣雇佣年纪稍大的人。 The government should do three things. First, scrap regulations that divide the jobs market into permanent employees, paid more than they are worth, and temporary workers, paid less. Second, it should encourage more firms, including foreign ones, into industries now dominated by the chaebol, expanding the range of alternative employers. And third, it should push the chaebol to expand into services, which they have diplomatically refrained from doing. Retailing, tourism, local transport: all these need some chaebol clout and efficiency.政府能做的有三点。第一,现在就业市场里有长期雇员和临时雇员之别,长期雇员能得到与其能力不相称的高薪,而临时雇员的薪资则达不到应得的水平,必须消除造成这种差别的规矩。第二,政府应鼓励更多企业,包括外国企业,进入目前为财阀所掌控的行业,扩大求职者可选择的雇主范围。第三,政府要推动财阀进入他们目前不想插手的务业。零售、旅游、本地交通等行业都需要一些财阀参与,增进效率。South Korea has astonished the world with its compressed development. For the benefit of hard-pressed parents and hard-working youths, it needs a bout of decompression.韩国已经以其高压发展让世界刮目。为了那些钱包紧张的家长和紧张学习的年轻人,韩国需要减一减压。201310/262699上海华东医院激光去红血丝多少钱 Books and Arts; Book Review;The end of the Soviet Union; Walking dead;文艺;书评;前苏联的末途;行尸走肉;The Last Man in Russia: The Struggle to Save a Dying Nation.By Oliver Bullough.《俄罗斯最后一人:拯救行将灭亡之国》,奥利佛·布洛。Stagnation, writes Oliver Bullough in his haunting account of the late Soviet Union, is not sexy. Biographies of Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev abound, but nobody has written seriously about Leonid Brezhnev, on whose watch the Soviet Union sank into drunken decay. The author of a definitive book about the tortured history of the north Caucasus (“Let our Fame be Great”), Mr Bullough has a good sense of how the traumas of Russias past affect its present. His new book is a mixture of travelogue and biography, as he traces the life of Father Dmitry Dudko, an Orthodox priest who exemplified both resistance to Soviet rule and defeat at its hands.奥利弗·布洛写过一本描述前苏联晚年的著作,阅读之后令人过目难忘,不过其中“停滞部分”却让人不愿直视。关于斯大林和戈尔巴乔夫的传记汗牛充栋,勃列日涅夫却鲜有人问津,即便他眼睁睁地看着前苏联陷入混沌恍惚的泥潭。关于叙述北高加索伤痕累累历史的著作,布洛的《让我们名声大噪》无疑是最好的一本,也就是说,对于俄罗斯过去的创伤如何影响当今时代——布洛的嗅觉像一样灵敏。布洛的这本新书集游记和传记于一体,主线以东正教传教士德米特里·杜德科神父的一生为轴。德米特里·杜德科神父代表了一类人,首先反对苏联制度,之后却臣于它。The Orthodox hierarchy in the post-war Soviet Union was tainted by collaboration with the KGB. For those repelled by the sterility and corruption of the official ideology, religion was part of the axis of resistance. So the authorities kept the lid on, and religious practice beyond the liturgy was risky.由于同克格勃合作,二战后的前苏联东正教教义算是蒙上了一层不堪的色。所有厌恶政府思想体系下不作为和腐败的角色中,宗教处在抗争的洪流中心。所以,政府当局一直在雪藏宗教,而宗教习俗也不再局限于礼拜仪式,开始走向危险的边缘。Father Dmitry, whose post-war theological studies had been interrupted by eight years in the gulag, was a striking exception. He preached passionately and lucidly. He fostered discussion and roused his flock against the degradation, despair, abortions, alcoholism and promiscuity of Soviet life. He resolutely opposed anti-Semitism. Jews were “sacred friends”, he said. In the early 1970s his sermons became a sensation, published in the West and in samizdat in the Soviet Union. The Communist authorities objected. He defied them. They exiled him to a distant village. His flock followed him there. The authorities moved him again. And on it went.德米特里·杜德科神父战后研究宗教学,期间由于羁押在古拉格(关押叛国罪罪犯的苦役监狱)而中断八年。他可以说是人尽皆知的异数。德米特里·杜德科神父传教富有、条理清晰,并且鼓励集思广益,号召教徒反对国家的倒退,抗击前苏联令人绝望生活中的病症,比如堕胎、酗酒和滥交。毋庸置疑,他是坚决反对反犹太主义的。用他的话说,犹太人是“神圣的朋友”。上世纪70年代,他所著的长篇训诫引起不小的轰动,西方国家和前苏联地下都有出版,当然共产党当局是明令禁止的。德米特里·杜德科神父同他们抗争,政府将他流放到了边远农村。教徒们继而一路追随。政府又转移他的流放地,教徒继续跟随。最后就是“政府藏,教徒追”。He began to see the Soviet system as the source of his countrys ills. In 1977 he told the New York Times of the “diabolic storm” that had broken on his country. “Our nation has become corrupted, the family has fallen apart, the nation has got drunk, traitors have betrayed each other.” That was true. But by the late 1970s detente was ending. Fame in the West was no protection. Even a lone independent-minded priest was an existential—and intolerable—threat for the brittle Soviet leadership. The fledgling dissident movement was systematically crushed—by imprisonment, exile, coercive psychiatry or ferocious pressure on family members.德米特里·杜德科神父开始认识到前苏联大的系统正是国家症结所在。1977年,他向“纽约时报”讲道,说“罪恶的风暴”搅得这个国家天翻地覆。“我们的国家腐败透顶,家庭离破碎,我们的国家此时就像一个醉汉,卖国贼之间互相叛变。”他没说错。不过,70年代后期国际紧张关系不再处在缓和状态,西方国家不再顾及名声。在脆弱不堪的前苏联领导层面看来,甚至一个单独具有独立思想的神父也成了实实在在并且不能再坐视不管的威胁。异见运动还没孵化就遭到有计划的打击——监禁、流放、强加精神病罪名亦或异见者家人承受着不堪重负的压力。In January 1980 Father Dmitry was arrested. His friends prayed; the West protested. But he emerged six months later, a changed man: a zealous, repentant patriot who, in a sensational television broadcast, admitted to working with foreign powers against the Soviet state. Worse, he denounced his friends and helpers.1980年1月,德米特里·杜德科神父遭逮捕。他的朋友开始祈祷,西方国家表示抗议。不过在六个月之后,德米特里·杜德科神父不再是之前德米特里·杜德科神父:“洗心革面”之后的他成了一位热忱的爱国志士。他在电视广播中的表态令人震惊:承认与外国势力里勾外连,以反对前苏联政府。更不堪的是,他还揭发了自己的朋友和战友。It was a huge propaganda coup for the regime. He showed no signs of torture, drugs or exhaustion. One of his followers wrote an open letter accusing the KGB of the “murder of my spiritual father”.对于政权而言,大篇幅的宣传获得了意想不到的成功。在他身上,人们看不出一丝拷打或者下了迷魂药的迹象,而他也不显一丝疲态。德米特里·杜德科神父的一位追随者发表了一封公开信,谴责克格勃“谋杀了自己的灵魂长者”。Mr Bullough explains the mystifying conversion. The KGB played on his fears of renewed imprisonment and separation from his family. A skilful interrogator, Vladimir Sorokin found and enlarged the “chink” in his victims soul: patriotism. Surely no true, law-abiding Russian could side with the enemies of his country?布洛在书中解释了这一令人匪夷所思的转变。克格勃利用了德米特里·杜德科神父恐惧二进宫的心理以及害怕同家人再度分开的心情。弗拉基米尔·索罗金深谙审讯之道,他在手中这位受害者的灵魂之中察觉到了一个致命的软肋,并且将其放大:爱国主义。但是,真就没有一个真正并且守法的俄国人会站在国家敌人这一边了吗?Later Father Dmitry was filled with remorse. But it was too late. Dogged by loneliness and guilt, and unable to resurrect his crusade for trust, hope and faith, he descended into the fetid swamps of Russian nationalism, wallowing in the paranoid anti-Semitism he had once eschewed. The brave, happy and confident man of the 1960s and 1970s became a miserable racist, a campaigner for hatred and nihilism.之后,虽然德米特里·杜德科神父心理满是悔恨,但是为时已晚。孤独和罪恶感陪着他走完余生,其间他一直苦于不能重塑自己当年“为信任、希望和信念而战斗的形象”。他深陷散发着“俄罗斯式爱国主义”恶臭的泥潭之中,沉浸在多疑好猜忌的反犹太主义之中,即使这是他曾经一度反对的。60年代勇敢、自信、快乐的德米特里·杜德科神父死了,70年代的德米特里·杜德科神父变成一个卑鄙无耻的种族主义分子,一个满脑子仇恨、虚无缥缈的沿街叫骂的人。Mr Bullough largely succeeds in using this sad tale as a metaphor for the fate of the Soviet Union. He weaves the woes of past decades into his journeys to wretched villages, along with the lies and greed in the metropolis. Father Dmitry may be all but forgotten in modern Russia, but his old self would have plenty to say about it.布洛以这则悲情故事来充当前苏联命运的影子,新书也因此获得了巨大的成功。在过去的几十年里,他游历了一些贫穷困苦村庄,他把其中所体验的悲伤编入书中,当然还有大都市的谎言和欲望。德米特里·杜德科神父或许已经消逝在现代俄罗斯人民的生活里,但是60年代的神父依然对现代俄罗斯影响深刻。 /201306/244713上海哪家医院双眼皮做的好

闵行区中心医院整形科Finance and economics财经商业Free exchange自由互换The once and future currency货币的今天明天A new book examines the worlds love-hate relationship with the dollar新书出炉:世界与美元之间的爱恨情仇LUMPY, unpredictable, potentially large: that was how Tim Geithner, then head of the New York Federal Reserve, described the need for dollars in emerging economies in the dark days of October 2008, according to transcripts of a Fed meeting released last month.根据上个月公布的联邦会议记录,起伏不定,难以预测,潜在市场巨大,这是时任纽约联邦储备长的蒂姆?盖特纳在2008年10月的黑暗日子里所描绘的新兴经济体对美元的需求。To help smooth out those lumps, the Fed offered to swap currencies with four favoured central banks, as far off as South Korea and Singapore.为了平复需求中的大起大落,美联储决定与备受青睐的四家中央互换货币,远及韩国和新加坡。They could exchange their own money for dollars at the prevailing exchange rate.只要承诺日后将以同样的汇率兑换回来,这些可以用现行汇率把他们的货币换成美元。Why did the Fed decide to reach so far beyond its shores?为什么美联储会如此大动干戈?It worried that stress in a financially connected emerging economy could eventually hurt America.因为它担心那些与它利益密切相关的新兴经济体的困境,最终会殃及美国。But Mr Geithner also hinted at another motive.但是盖特纳也暗示了另外一个动机:The privilege of being the reserve currency of the world comes with some burdens, he said.美元作为世界储备货币这一特殊名分,实在是让人欢喜让人忧。That privilege is the subject of a new book, The Dollar Trap, by Eswar Prasad of Cornell University, who shares the worlds ambivalence towards the currency.康奈尔大学的埃斯瓦尔?普拉萨德同样对美元喜忧参半。他在新书《美元之困》中讲述的正是美元作为世界储备货币的尴尬处境。The 2008 financial crisis might have been expected to erode the dollars global prominence.2008年的金融危机貌似削弱了美元在全球的统领地位。Instead, he argues, it cemented it.可普拉萨德论道,事实恰恰相反。Americas fragility was, paradoxically, a source of strength for its currency.金融危机反而加强了这一地位。美国的不景气偏偏是其货币坚挺的源头之一。In the last four months of 2008 America attracted net capital inflows of half a trillion dollars.在2008年的最后四个月中,美国取得了5000亿美元的资本净流入。The dollar was a haven in tumultuous times, even when the tumult originated in America itself.在动荡不定的时期—即使这样的动荡缘起美国—美元依旧是避风港湾。The crisis also shattered conventional views about the adequate level of foreign-exchange reserves, prompting emerging economies with large dollar hoards to hoard even more.这场危机同时也颠覆了对外汇储备应保持适当水平的传统观念,促使那些原本就拥有庞大美元储备的新兴经济体囤积更多的美元。Finally, Americas slump forced the Fed to ease monetary policy dramatically.最终,美国的不景气使得美联储放松了货币政策。In response, central banks in emerging economies bought dollars to stop their own currencies rising too fast.作为回应,新兴经济体的中央买入美元,以阻止他们的货币升值过快。Could Fed swap lines serve as a less costly alternative to rampant reserve accumulation?美联储的互换路线能够为目前愈演愈烈的外汇储备囤积现象开辟一条代价较小的出路吗?If central banks could obtain dollars from the Fed whenever the need arose, they would not need to husband their own supplies.如果这些央行能够按需从美联储那里买入美元,他们就不必为自己的储备精打细算了。The demand is there: India, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic and Peru have all made inquiries.需求是永远存在的:印度,印度尼西亚,多明尼加共和国和秘鲁都已经在询问此事。The swap lines are good business: the Fed keeps the interest from the foreign central banks loans to banks, even though the other central bank bears the credit risk.互换确实是桩好买卖:美联储得以赚取其他外国央行在的借款利息,信用风险也由外国央行承担。The Fed earned 6.84% from South Koreas first swap, for example.举例来说,单是与韩国的第一次货币互换,美联储就得以将6.84%的利息纳入囊中。But it is not a business the Fed wants to be in.然而,这一买卖美联储却并没想插手。As one official said, Were not advertising.正如一位官员所说:我们可不打算广而告之。Swap lines would help emerging economies endure the dollars reign.货币互换路线确实能够帮助新兴经济体在美元的统领之下继续发展。But will that reign endure? Mr Prasad thinks so.但是这统领本身是否还来日方长?普拉萨德先生的是肯定的。The dollars position is suboptimal but stable and self-reinforcing, he writes.他写道:目前美元的地位虽不是最理想的,但却非常稳定,同时也能自我稳固。Much as Mr Prasad finds Americas privileges distasteful, his book points to the countrys qualifications for the job.他发现,尽管美元这种特权非常不受欢迎,美国这个国家还是能够担此重任的。America is not only the worlds biggest economy, but also among the most sophisticated.美国不仅仅是世界上最大的经济体,也是最错综复杂的经济体之一。Size and sophistication do not always go together.规模和复杂度并不总是相依而存。In the 1900s the pound was the global reserve currency and Britains financial system had the widest reach.20世纪初期,英镑还是全球的储备货币,英国的金融体系触及广泛。But America was the bigger economy.但在那个时候,美国已经是最大的经济体了。In the 2020s China will probably be the worlds biggest economy, but not the most advanced.在21世纪20年代,中国极有可能成为世界上最大的经济体,但绝不是最先进的。Americas sophistication is reflected in the depth of its financial markets.美国人的智慧在金融市场的复杂性上得到了体现;It is unusually good at creating tradeable claims on the profits and revenues that its economy generates.他们极为擅长以经济体产生的利润和收入为基础,创造多种多样的可交易性金融产品。In a more primitive system, these spoils would mostly accrue to the state or tycoons; in America, they back a vast range of financial assets.在一个相对原始的体系内,这些战利品将主要归于国家或行业龙头,但在美国,它们会以多样的金融资产形式回馈给市场。Mr Prasad draws the obvious contrast with China and its currency, the yuan, a widely hyped alternative to the dollar.普拉萨德将最近炒得火热的替代货币人民币与美元相比较,结果出现明显的反差:Chinas GDP is now over half the size of Americas.中国当前的GDP总额超过美国的一半,But its debt markets are one-eighth as big, and foreigners are permitted to own only a tiny fraction of them.但其债务市场规模仅仅是美国的八分之一,外债只被允许占其中的一小部分。Chinas low central-government debt should be a source of strength for its currency.中国为数不多的中央国债应该是人民币力量的来源之一,But it also limits the volume of financial instruments on offer.但这同时也限制了其所能提供的金融工具总量。America has a big external balance-sheet, if not an obviously strong one.美国的外部资产负债表并不强劲却足够庞大,Its foreign liabilities exceed its overseas assets.其对外负债超过了其海外资产,But this worrying fact conceals a saving grace: its foreign assets are unusually adventurous and lucrative.但这个令人担忧的事实掩盖了其可取之处:美国对外投资冒险精神十足且利润丰厚。Its liabilities, on the other hand, are largely liquid, safe and low-yielding.而其负债大多流动性强,安全性高,收益率低。America therefore earns more on its foreign assets than it pays on its foreign liabilities.因此,美国从海外资产获得的收益大于它用于外债的出。Alongside its economic maturity, America also has a greying population. This ageing is a source of economic weakness.除了经济成熟度高,美国也背负着人口老龄化的问题。老龄化是经济疲软的根源,But, Mr Prasad argues, it may be another reason for the dollars global appeal.但普拉萨德认为,这也可能是美元受全球追捧的另一个原因。Americas pensioners hold a big chunk of the government debt that is not held by foreigners.美国退休人员持有的国债量远高于外债持有者。A formidable political constituency, they will not allow the government to inflate away the value of these claims.作为一个政治力量强大的选民团体,他们不会允许政府通过通胀消化掉这些债权的价值。Thus Americas powerful pensioners serve to protect the interests of its generous foreign creditors.因此,退休人员巨大的影响力保护了大量外国债权人的利益。Americas sophistication has one final implication: the dollar has no long-term tendency to strengthen.美国成熟的经济体还有一项关键的暗示:美元没有长远走高的趋势。That again contrasts with its principal long-run rival.与之不同,其主要长期的对手中国仍然是一个追赶型经济体。China is still a catch-up economy.随着与美国的生产力差距不断缩小,As it narrows the productivity gap with America, its exchange rate, adjusted for inflation, will tend to rise.人民币基于通胀调整后的汇率会趋于上升。The yuan has appreciated by about 35% against the dollar since mid-2005.自2005年年中以来,人民币对美元已升值约35 %。A self-deprecating currency自我贬值货币The dollars depreciation over that period is, of course, bad for anyone holding American assets.但凡持有美元的债权方都不希望美元在持有时期不断贬值。But the dollar is not merely a store of value.但美元不仅是保值货币,It has also become a popular funding currency.它也是一种流行的融资型货币。Banks and multinational firms borrow in dollars, even as they accumulate assets in other denominations.和跨国公司甚至在用其他货币积累资产时也会借入美元。Since no one wants to borrow in a currency that only goes up, this is not a role that Chinas currency could easily play.鉴于没有人愿意借入只会升值的货币,人民币自然不能如此收放自如。Moreover, because of its role as a funding currency, the dollar tends to strengthen in times of crisis.并且,由于其融资型货币的特点,美元往往在危机时期走强,That explains why emerging economies feel a lumpy, unpredictable need for dollars.这解释了为什么新兴经济体对美元的需求起伏不定,难以预测。Americas currency may not hold its value against others.美元可能不会保持住其相对于他国货币的价值,But in times of stress, the appeal of a dollar asset is that it always holds its value against a dollar debt.但在非常时期,美元资产的吸引力在于它能始终保持其相对于美元债务的价值。The dollar is a global hegemon partly because it is also a global hedge.这种全方位的防御力某种程度上巩固了美元的全球霸主地位。 /201403/279629上海交通大学医学院附属新华医院口腔科 Harold Pinters “Old Times”哈罗德品特的《昔日》Ah yes, I remember it well是的,我都记得A mysterious play about the tricks of memory returns to London关于记忆之隙的神秘戏剧重登伦敦舞台She says tomato, I say nothing她说了番茄,我可什么也没说HAROLD PINTER knew his way around silence. There is something dangerous about quiet on stage, as if it is a gap, an emptiness, a mistake. But Pinter, an English playwright who died in 2008, understood these moments to be the essence of drama, charged and full of reckoning. Speech, on the other hand, was “a constant stratagem to cover nakedness”, he once wrote. In his work the lapses in dialogue can yawn on awkwardly, even oppressively, but they tend to be more expressive than the words.哈罗德品特深谙沉默之道。舞台上的沉默有某种危险性,仿佛一道裂缝,一种虚无,一个错误。然而故世于2008年的英国剧作家品特,却深深懂得:这些沉默时刻暗潮汹涌,蓄势待发,正是戏剧的精华所在。他曾经写道,言语仅仅是“为掩饰而经常采用的伎俩”。在品特的作品中,对话间的空白尴尬地蔓延开来,甚至压抑得叫人窒息。然而,这些空白却比言语更富表现性。“Old Times”, a play that premiered in 1971, is full of this electric silence.In a new production at the recently renamed Harold Pinter Theatre in London, directed by the gifted Ian Rickson, the work feels as vital as ever.《昔日》,这部首演于1971年的作品,就充满了这种火花四射的沉默。在一家最近被命名为哈罗德.品特剧院的伦敦剧院里,由天才的伊恩.瑞克森执导的《昔日》,魅力不减当年。At a remote farmhouse on the English seaside, Anna pays an unexpected visit to Kate and her husband Deeley, seemingly to reminisce about all of those adventures they shared in London 20 years ago. But memory can be a funny thing, full of selfish needs and manipulative fictions. These three figures seem to know each other intimately, but it is not clear what history they actually share. Their recollections overlap but also confuse and compete with each other. To heighten the sense that this is a play about the power and frailty of perception, Kristin Scott Thomas and Lia Williams switch roles for different performances, though Rufus Sewell stays anchored as Deeley.在英国海滨一间偏远的家舍,女主人凯特和丈夫迪利迎来了一个意外访客:安娜;勾起了三人20年前在伦敦嬉游冒险的回忆。但是记忆这个恶作剧鬼,满是自私自利的念头和操纵人心的捏造。三人似乎曾经过从甚密;然而却无法言明究意有何共同经历。他们的记忆彼此重叠,却又各执一词,让人费解。克里斯汀.斯考特.托马斯和利娅.威廉姆斯在不同场次的演出中会互换角色,以凸显该剧的主题:感觉的威力与脆弱;不过迪利一角,始终由鲁弗斯扮演。“What silence!” declares Anna. “Is it always as silent?” She has just finished rhapsodising about their young, romantic lives in the big city, only to be greeted by an inhospitable wall of quiet. Annas memories are so colourful, so vivacious, but the Kate she describes is nothing like the quietly intense woman on stage. Undeterred, Anna manically lobs yet more memories as if they are weapons. Kate consistently tries to perch on the sofa behind her husband, turning him into a shield. Deeley, meanwhile, is both spectator and provocateur, stoking the evening with his own memories. As the lone man in the room, he enjoys a unique power. He clings to it, sensing that he is always on the verge of being the odd one out.“多么安静啊!”安娜感叹,“这安静一直如斯吗?”这时她刚刚吟诵完他们年轻时在伦敦的浪漫生活,回应她的却是一堵不甚友善的沉默之墙。安娜的记忆缤纷绚烂,栩栩如生;她描述的凯特一点也不像舞台上这个神经质般紧张安静的女人。然而安娜毫不气馁,她像投射武器一般急急匆匆地扔出更多的记忆;凯特总想躲在丈夫身后的沙发上,仿佛他是一个盾牌。迪利既是旁观者又是破坏者,用自己的记忆为这个夜晚煽风点火。作为屋里唯一的男人,他仿佛拥有有了某种特别的力量—他感觉自己将要成为被踢出局的格格不入者时,便紧紧攀附着这种力量。This is a strange play, puzzling and haunting. It works as well as it does thanks not only to Pinters text, but also to superb interpretation on stage. Mr Sewell stomps and sputters as the charismatic and slightly insecure Deeley, though he might be a touch too handsome—his face too chiselled—for the role. Ms Williams makes for a nervously effervescent Anna. But it is Ms Scott Thomas who steals the show. Her enormous hooded grey eyes shine and then brood; the drama ricochets off her impressive cheekbones. In either role, she is compelling enough to command even the small gestures, such as when she picks at her toes after a bath, or languorously drapes a foot over a bed. Her silence, far from empty, is seductive and mysterious.这出古怪的戏剧,莫明其妙却引人入胜。这不仅归功于品特的剧本,也要归功于舞台上演员出色的演绎。西维尔在舞台上不停哚脚,喋喋不休,正是那个气势逼人却又有轻微不安全感的丈夫。不过对迪利这个角色而言,他实在太英俊了些,脸庞也太轮廓分明了些。威廉姆斯塑造的极富生气的安娜也很成功。然而斯考特.托马斯的表演夺人心魄。她阴影深重的灰眼睛里光芒闪烁,旋即陷入沉思;所有的戏剧性都汇聚到她高耸的颧骨上。无论是安娜或是凯特一角,都被她诠释得天衣无缝。无论是洗澡后拨弄脚趾,或懒洋洋地把脚搭在床上;这些微小的动作在她做来却让人目不转睛,心驰神往。她的沉默远非虚无,却是风情万种,神秘莫测。 /201405/301791第六人民医院东院激光除皱手术价格费用

长宁区同仁医院疤痕多少钱 African Pentecostalism非洲五旬节派The power of prayer祈祷的力量African churches are leaving a mark on British Christianity非洲教会在英国基督教上留下的印记“WE BELIEVE in you for better jobs, raises and bonuses, finding money, money finding us, incomes, royalties, real estates, dividends, inheritances…We pray to Jesus and there shall be a turnaround.” So ends the service at the Walthamstow branch of the Kingsway International Christian Centre. Dancers in long white skirts carrying red umbrellas leap onto the stage. Perhaps 1,000 smartly dressed worshippers chant along while ushers collect hefty “tithes”.“我们信奉您会帮助我们得到更好的工作、加薪和奖金,寻得生财之道,财运自来,收入、稿酬、地产、分红、遗产……我们向耶稣祷告,愿有转折之日。”这是在金斯威国际基督教中心沃尔瑟姆斯托分会举行的仪式的尾声。身着白色长衫的舞者手拿红色雨伞跃上舞台。约1,000名穿着得体的信徒共同吟唱着圣歌,与此同时接待人员在收取着高额的“什一税”。Between 2008 and 2013 the membership of Pentecostal churches grew by 25%,to 430,000, reckons Peter Brierley, who tracks church attendance. Not all are west African—Brazilian Pentecostal churches are also buzzing—and not all west African churches are Pentecostal. But African churches of all sorts do seem to be thriving. Whether as materialistic as the KICC or more traditional in their gospel, they are all entrepreneurial. Increasingly, they are reaching out to suburbs and to whites as well.记录教会信徒数的彼得·布赖尔利估算,在2008年到2013年间,五旬节派教会的信徒数增长了25%,达到了430,000人。并不是所有的都在西非——巴西的五旬节派教会也在蒸蒸日上——而且并不是所有的西非教会都是五旬节派的。但各种各样的非洲教会都看起来在蓬勃发展。无论是像KICC一样唯物主义,还是信条更为保守,这些教会都如同企业一般。他们也逐渐将枝桠伸向郊区和白人。The Redeemed Christian Church of God, a particularly successful Nigerian organisation, now has 670 churches in Britain, including branches in Basingstoke and Guildford. The KICC was based in Hackney, but when it lost its building to the 2012 London Olympics it opened a new megachurch near Chatham, a poorish part of Kent.基督教救赎会是一个相当成功的尼日利亚组织,如今在英国已拥有了670个教堂,包括在贝辛斯托克和吉尔福德的分。KICC原位于哈克尼,但为了给2012年伦敦奥运会让位它搬离了原有的建筑,在肯特一个名为查塔姆的不发达地区建立了新的大教会。Some preachers see themselves as reverse missionaries, bringing back Christianity to Britain, suggests Babatunde Abedibu, the RCCGs chief policy officer in Britain. They set up new branches of churches and relentlessly seek converts. To get them, RCCG churches are increasingly doing the sorts of things Anglican churches do:running food banks, creches and Sunday schools.RCCG在英国的首席政策专员巴巴通德·阿伯迪布表示,一些传教士认为自己是反向传教士,将基督教重新带回英国。他们建立新的教会分并不断寻求皈依者。为了赢得信徒,RCCG教会越来越频繁地效仿国教教会的做法:运营食物,托儿所和主日学校。And African churches may be encouraging change in Anglican ones. Under the current Archbishop of York, John Sentamu, it is not unusual to see full outdoor adult baptisms, notes David Goodhew of Durham University. That is perfectly compatible with Anglican theology—but also rather new. He thinks “happy-clappy” charismatic worship is also becoming more common, even in some quite fuddy-duddy churches. Some Africans now go to two services each Sunday, one Pentecostal, one Anglican. The most popular churches are those that run good primary schools.非洲教会也许也在鼓励着国教教会进行变革。英国杜伦大学的大卫·古德休说,在当前约克大主教约翰·森塔穆的带领下,不难见到完整的户外成人洗礼。这与英国国教神学完全兼容——但更创新。他认为“狂热、自发的”灵恩式礼拜也越来越稀松平常,甚至在一些守旧的教堂里也是如此。一些非洲人如今每周日都去参加两个仪式,一个五旬节的,一个国教的。最受欢迎的教会是运营优秀小学的教会。 /201407/311126杨浦激光脱腋毛多少钱上海市第八人民医院做韩式隆鼻手术价格

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