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来源:中医对话    发布时间:2018年12月13日 01:10:04    编辑:admin         

Britain Schools reform英国 学校改革Class acts优秀法案England’s schools are radically different. Now make them better英格兰各个学校相比其他地方极为不同,现在是是时候改善这些学校了AT the King Solomon Academy in London, children from the nearby tower blocks are settling into a new school year. Girls in hijabs mingle with Afro-Caribbean boys in over-sized new blazers. The proportion of pupils receiving free school meals because their parents are poor is three times the national average. Yet the academy, which is run by ARK, a charity, is ranked as “outstanding” by the schools inspector and has been lavishly praised by Anthony Seldon, headmaster of a leading private school.在位于英国伦敦的索罗门国王学院里,来自附近高层贫民楼的学生们正迎来他们新的学年。学校里学生人种混杂:既有戴着头巾的穆斯林女学生,又有穿着肥大的新校的加勒比黑人男学生。由于家境贫寒,一部分小学生可享受免费的校餐。这部分学生在全校中的比例现已达英国平均比例的三倍之多。然而,对于这所由某名为“ARK”的慈善机构所运营的学院,督学人员表示“表现优异”,同时,某著名私学校长安东尼·塞尔顿(Anthony Seldon)也对其大加赞誉。Max Haimendorf, its young head, has adopted many ideas from American charter schools. His mission is to get as many children as possible to top universities. “It’s what changes lives,” he says. Notice-boards are festooned with information introducing children from primary level upwards to that aspiration.担任该学院校长一职的Max Haimendorf十分年轻。他从美国特许学校中借鉴了许多想法。其办校宗旨是让尽可能多的学生能进入顶尖高等学府。“这将改变命运”,他表示。学校的布告栏上贴满了宣传其学生从小学一路考入名牌大学的各种信息。Ambitious outfits like this delight Michael Gove, the education secretary. He has expanded the academies programme which began under Labour, and which aims to give schools more control over their management and curriculum (though not their admissions policies) as well as discretion to vary teachers’ pay. Over half of state secondary schools are now academies. The coalition is also pushing free schools, created by parents and other groups dissatisfied with the local offerings. So far 79 free schools have opened, with another 100 in the pipeline.对于类似索罗门国王学院这样的学校,英国教育部部长迈克尔·戈夫(Michael Gove)表示十分欢迎。原本由英国工党发起的“学院计划”(academies programme)经其手得到拓展。该计划旨在使校方就学校管理、课程安排、教师工资方面(尽管招生政策不包含在内)有更多的自主权。如今,英国国立中学中有一半以上已是学院类学校。由家长等不满于地方政府补贴的团体也自发组成联盟,以推进此类公益学校。至今为止,已有79所义学向学生开放。同时,另有100所正处于酝酿之中。That Britain’s schools need to be transformed is clear. A new OECD report, Education at a Glance, notes that British pupils slipped down the international league tables in the past decade despite a big increase in spending, which doubled in real terms under the last Labour government. Asian and former communist countries in eastern Europe are leaving them behind.英国学校改革的必要性已不言而喻。据经合组织(OECD)一项名为“教育概览”(Education at a Glance)的最新报告显示,尽管英国政府的教育出激增,相比工党执政期最后一任内阁时的实际额度翻了一番,但其小学生平均成绩的国际排名在过去10年间有所下滑。而亚洲各国和东欧的部分原共产主义国家的表现,则不断赶超英国。Yet the government, so bold in many ways, has not dared to claim that its reforms will push the nation’s pupils up the rankings. England’s schools are different, but not yet demonstrably better (Scotland and Wales oversee their own schools, though not with much distinction). And as the schools revolution rolls on, new problems are popping up.而即使各方面都行事大胆的英国政府,也不敢宣称其改革将升高本国小学生成绩的国际排名。英格兰的学校相对比较不同,但也无法明其表现较好(而苏格兰和威尔士则拥有学校监督的自主权,尽管差别不大)。随着学校改革的推进,新的问题也将不断浮现。The sp of more autonomous schools has created a gap in accountability, which has been filled in a piecemeal way. Getting sluggish local authorities out of running schools is one thing. Ensuring effective intervention when things go wrong in academies or free schools is another. At the moment this role is left to the Department for Education—a state of affairs described by one critic as “Napoleonic” (it is also odd, given the coalition’s enthusiasm for pruning Whitehall bureaucracy).随着各学校自主权的增强,问责制缺口问题已然出现。对此,解决方法各式各样。其一是使学校脱离地方政府的保守经营。其二是确保学院或义校出现问题时政府的有效介入。目前,该义务由英国教育部承担。对于该现状,某家称之为“拿破仑式管理”(同时,由于私人团体强烈要求精简英国政府,这一现状也比较反常)。The education secretary’s ability to send strong reformist signals, so useful in encouraging the growth of academies, can cause a mess. A row over the sudden downward revision of English GSCE grades suggest that the qualifications regulator responded to pressure to make exams tougher—a favourite theme of Mr Gove—without giving due warning of the shift in grade boundaries or how to address them.尽管教育部部长多次有力地暗示将进行教育改革,并有效地刺激了学院式学校的开办,但最终可能引起混乱。就近期英国普通初级中学毕业文凭评级(GSCE)向下修正一事争论迭起,这说明英国的资格考试审查机构屈于压力而增加考试难度(这迎合了戈夫部长的主题),但却没有酒评级标准改变和应对方法作出相应的提醒。Another conundrum is what to do if an academy or free school under-performs (in America, charter schools close every year). Sir Michael Wilshaw, head of OFSTED, the schools inspectorate, hankers for powers to inspect academy chains as well as the local authorities who run the country’s remaining (and frankly neglected) comprehensive schools. OFSTED only has the right to inspect individual schools: a hangover from the previous system. One remedy might lie in the creation of powerful regional school commissioners, who could demand changes, send in improvement teams when things go awry and generally strive to outdo one another. A flaw in both Labour and Conservative school-reform efforts is that there is little drive for improvements to sp round the country. A keener sense of regional responsibility might help.另一个问题是,对于表现不佳的学院或义校该如何处理(美国每年都有倒闭的特许学校)。英国教育标准局(OFSTED)负责监督学校,其局长麦克·威尔萧爵士(Sir Michael Wilshaw) 则希望获得更大的权力,以监督各个学院以及经营英国其他(说白了就是被忽略的)综合学校。而目前,英国教育标准局的权力仅限于监督个别学校,这是先前的教育体系所遗留下的。对此,设立权限较大的地方教育专员可能是一个解决办法。该专业可以要求教育改革,发生问题时派遣补救小组,总体上又能相互竞争。英国工党和保守党在教育改革上都存在一个问题,那就是缺乏将改革扩散至全国的动机。而提高地区政府责任意识可能会有所改善。Ultimately, though, no amount of structural change, interventions or inspections counts for as much as good teaching. Lord Adonis, a former Labour minister who set up the academies programme, says it is “simply absurd” that top universities have no stake in teacher-training, a job left too long, he says, to “under-par educational sociologists”. The best schools could be given more autonomy and incentives to help train teachers, ensuring that newcomers learn from the best of their profession, not the middling performers. Rewards need sharpening, just as poor performers should be edged out more quickly. The coalition, which has supported “golden hellos” for some graduates training as teachers, could do more to entice top maths and science performers. (It might not harm to recruit a few teachers from the Asian Tiger economies, too, if only to impress parents with the amount of homework they would set.)然后最终,无论进行多少结构性改革、加大多少政府介入和审查,都不如改善教育质量来得有效。学院计划的发起人,前工党大臣阿多尼斯男爵(Lord Adonis)表示,教师培训对于顶尖高等学府无关紧要,这“简直荒谬”。他还称,教师培训这一工作被搁置得太久,“教育社会学家们都失望了”。那些优异的学校可以获得更多自主权,同时在教师培训上有更强的动机。这样,可以确保教授学生的是那些顶尖的师资,而非中庸的讲师。对于那些表现不佳者,需要立刻予以取代。同时,留任者的报酬也宜有所提高。而那些私人团体向来持对毕业后接受培训的准教师们提供优厚待遇,这些团体在招揽优秀的数学、理科教师方面将更胜一筹。(若只是为了给家长们留下海量作业的印象,雇佣一些来自“亚洲四小龙”的教师也无伤大雅。)England’s reforms are sound—just not sufficient by themselves to transform outcomes. The focus should now be on acquiring as many brilliant teachers as possible, as fast as possible. Pursuing that aim, rather than judging progress by the numbers of freshly-hatched schools, is the vital next step towards better education.英格兰的教育改革本身没错,只是通过自身不足以改变结果。而现在,改革的焦点应该集中在尽可能多而快地招揽优秀教师。相比以新办学校数来衡量成果,师资力量才是今后改善教育的关键一步。 翻译:沈骜译文属译生译世 /201607/454566。

Charlemagne查理曼大帝专栏No to EUsterity欧盟无需紧缩The European Parliament threatens to veto a hard-won budget欧洲议会扬言将对来之不易的财政预算投上反对票The bitterest family rows are often over money. So it is with the European Union’s leaders. For three years they have argued over who should pay what to save the euro. Earlier this month presidents and prime ministers battled through a sleepless night and a day over the EU budget. Back home, some of the disputed sums might have been approved on the nod.一般而言,最为激烈的家庭纠纷都围绕金钱问题。本次欧盟(European Union,EU)各国领导人亦不例外。在围绕救助欧元区的责任人以及救助金额上,这些首脑们已喋喋不休了三年之久。本月初,这些首脑再次齐聚一堂,就欧盟财政预算,彻夜不眠地争论了一天一夜。而在散会之际,大家对部分有争议的预算数额已达成共识。It is an absurd way to run the world’s biggest economy. The comedy of interminable haggling is compounded by the farce of each leader twisting the numbers to claim victory. Such is the misery that the EU now draws up budgets for seven-year periods. But this is too rigid—even the Soviet Union limited itself to five-year plans. And it magnifies the sums at stake: nearly a trillion euros for 2014-20. Looked at another way, though, the budget is only about one-fiftieth of public spending in the EU. For rich countries, net contributions amount to about 0.3% of GDP.作为管理世界第一经济体的手段,共同协商确实有失偏颇。一方面不休止的争论中,还如同喜剧中贯穿着闹剧般,夹杂了各国首脑为求胜利而歪曲预算金额的片段。而其结果,欧盟不得不忍着痛苦起草了长达七年之长的预算。但这一预算过于僵化,就连当初苏联(Soviet Union)所定的计划期限也仅为五年。同时,这些重要的预算金额(2014年至2020年期的预算金额约为1千亿欧元)也受到夸大。事实上,若以其他视角看来,该预算仅占约欧盟政府出的五分之一。而对某些富裕国家,净出资仅达到约自国GDP的0.3%。One reason for the budget mess is that the money comes from national treasuries, creating a zero-sum game. Another is that the budget must be agreed unanimously. A third is the economic crisis. Most net contributors cannot see why the EU should be exempted from the austerity it preaches to others. And for those running deficits every pound, crown or euro sent to Brussels is an extra pound, crown or euro that must be borrowed.预算如此混乱,其首要原因在于救助金来自各国政府,这将欧盟变为一场零和弈。其次,欧盟规定财政预算只有在全体一致同意下才可通过。随后,经济危机也是原因之一。欧盟在向各国鼓吹财政紧缩的同时,自身却无需紧缩财政,这让大多救助金的净提供国感到不解。同时,对于陷入财政赤字的欧盟国家而言,所有流向欧盟的资金都必须作为救助金向其借贷。As if steering a budget past 27 national vetoes were not hard enough, there is now the threat of a 28th, from the European Parliament. A rejection would be its most confrontational act since it forced the resignation of Jacques Santer’s European Commission in 1999 over allegations of corruption. Would MEPs really dare be so bold, not to say insolent?而今,欧盟仿佛嫌27国以否决权协商财政预算不够艰难,欧洲议会(European Parliament)自身作为第28个拥有否决权的主体加入其中。1999年,贾克斯·桑特(Jacques Santer)为首的欧盟委员会因遭贪污指控,而在欧盟要求下全体辞职。本次欧盟否决权将是此事件以来最具威力的手段。但欧洲议会议员们是否敢于(而并不过分地)行使否决权呢?Voting in the European Parliament is unpredictable. Without such notions as a government or an opposition, party discipline is weak. One Eurocrat quips that “the whole parliament is the opposition”. The single idea that unites most MEPs is a desire for “more Europe”, which usually means more euros. Power derives from the ability to spend. Because the EU does not raise taxes directly or borrow, there are no votes in calls for spending cuts.但欧洲议会内的投票难以预料。由于不存在所谓政府和对立的概念,议会的规矩十分松散。一位欧盟官员曾讽刺道,“整个欧洲议会全是反对派。”大多议员能团结一致的关键在于同一个想法,即“加深欧洲一体化”,通常也意味着增加欧洲资金。一切权力来源于金钱。由于欧盟并不直接征税或借入资金,欧洲议会难以通过财政削减议案。MEPs were outraged when EU leaders decided, for the first time, to trim the budget for 2014-20 by 3% from the previous period. This was a triumph for Britain’s prime minister, David Cameron, who also preserved his country’s much-hated rebate. How, critics asked, could he dictate a budget for the whole EU, running to 2020, when Britain might not even belong after 2017, when Mr Cameron wants to hold a referendum on membership? In truth, the budget was dictated by Angela Merkel. The German chancellor lined up with Mr Cameron against France’s Francois Hollande, who clumsily allied himself with the parliament. The budget ended up where she wanted it: at 1% of gross national income.而本次欧盟财政问题上,各国首脑首次决定从今期开始削减2014年至2020年财政预算的3%后,欧洲议会议会十分震怒。英国首相大卫·卡梅隆在持紧缩欧盟的同时,也推迟了国内屡遭不满的减税政策,本次决定对其而言是一大胜利。然而,家质疑道,根据卡梅隆所提出关于欧盟去留的全民公投,英国或许在2017年退出欧盟,那么他有何资格要求欧盟执行一项时至2020年的预算计划呢?事实上,该计划的推行者是德国总理安格拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)。与卡梅隆结盟后,默克尔面对的是法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德,而奥朗德则失败地选择了与欧洲议会联合。欧盟最终达成财政预算正如默克尔所期望的,为德国国民总收入的1%。Even before the summit ended, the leaders of the four parliamentary “families” had issued a joint statement declaring the deal to be unacceptable. Their leverage is enhanced by the Lisbon treaty, which stipulates that the budget must be approved by an absolute majority of the whole assembly (ie, absences and abstentions count as No votes). Fringe parties of left and right will probably vote against, as could several in opposition at home. French Socialists are being urged by some in Paris to “improve” the terms secured by Mr Hollande.本次欧盟峰会结束前,议会“四大家族”(译者注:欧洲议会的四大政治党团,分别是人民党、社民党、自由党和绿党)发表联合声明,表示无法接受各国首脑提出的预算计划。年欧盟签署的《里斯本条约》(Lisbon treaty)规定欧盟的财政预算须获得欧洲议会绝对多数票后才可通过(缺席和弃权皆算作否决票),该条约也加强了欧洲议会的权力。对于本次财政预算,正如欧洲各国反对党那般,欧洲议会内的左右翼各小党也表示反对。其中,位于法国巴黎的部分成员要求法国自由党(French Socialists)“改善”奥朗德所接受的条款。A stalemate would suit a few. It would push the EU to annual budgets based on 2013 levels, producing higher spending than agreed on by the summit. Yet it would antagonise two groups: recipients of cohesion funds, who would struggle to plan multi-year projects, and net contributors with temporary rebates that will lapse without a new budget (Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden).这一僵局对部分人士比较有利。欧盟的财政预算最终会被推向以2013年为基准的平均水平,进而造成高于峰会所通过的出数额。但这样一来,两大阵营将会形成对立:一方是不断调整长期计划的被救济国,另一方则是需新财政计划以维系临时回扣的净出资国(如奥地利、德国、荷兰和瑞典)。Many MEPs will come under strong pressure from national capitals. The threat of removal from party lists for next year’s European election explains why some want a secret ballot, strange as that may seem. Behind the posturing lies a iness to compromise. Governments hint they would accept some of the parliament’s demands, such as a commitment to review the budget in two or three years’ time or greater flexibility to move money between headings and from one year to the next. Catherine Trautmann, leader of the French Socialists, says: “We seek a negotiation, not the politics of the empty chair.”欧洲议会的众多议会还面临国内政府的巨大压力。由于担心明年被免除欧盟党团选举的资格,议会投票过程并不公开,哪怕该过程看似异常。在此过程背后,不难发现议员们乐意妥协。而各国政府也暗示将接受欧洲议会的部分要求,如承诺二、三年内检讨财政计划,以及在第二年内增强各国政府间资金流动性。法国社会党领袖卡特琳·特劳特曼(Catherine Trautmann)对此表示:“我们寻求协商,而非空椅子上的政治。”Time to cut the CAP削减CAPEuro-federalists say it would all be much easier if the EU could raise taxes directly. “The Americans said no taxation without representation. But in the EU we have representation without taxation,” complains Sylvie Goulard, a French liberal MEP. Yet most governments treat the EU as an international organisation and want to retain control over its money.欧盟持者表示,若欧盟能直接征税,一切将容易许多。一位法籍自由党团议员Sylvie Goulard予以持道:“美国人说过‘无代表不纳税’,而目前欧盟则是‘有代表不纳税’。”但欧洲各国都视欧盟为国际组织,不希望由其掌控资金。The argument boils down to the question of where democratic legitimacy really lies. Little-known MEPs can scarcely claim to command greater popular allegiance than national political leaders, unloved as some may be. And the European Parliament is unlikely to make itself more appealing by overruling national treasuries and parliaments, let alone seeking to exact European taxes on top of aly high national ones.纳税的争论最终归结为欧盟的民主法治程度为何。相比各国首脑(尽管其中部分缺乏人气),欧洲议会的无名小卒始终难以拉拢民众。同时,为了提高民众持,欧洲议会不可能否决各国经济和政治决策,更不可能对那些已然重税缠身的国家开征欧洲税。Rather than moan about marginal cuts to a small budget and pursuing the chimera of “own resources” (eg, EU taxes on carbon or financial transactions), the parliament would do better to focus on the real outrage—that EU leaders did so little to change outdated spending priorities. They have left close to 40% of the budget going to agriculture, an industry that generates less than 2% of GDP. Slashing the CAP could release resources for areas where the EU can genuinely enhance growth, like research, education and cross-border infrastructure. The EU could have the best of both worlds: less spending and more European value.对于欧洲议会而言,与其抱怨财政预算的细微削减或寻求“自身资源”(如开征欧盟碳排放税或金融交易税等)这一幻想,不如着力于改善真正的公愤问题,即为欧洲首脑们无视的公共开落伍的优先顺序。根据峰会达成的预算,财政出的40%将投入农业,而该产业的产出不足于GDP的2%。若大幅削减欧洲共同农业政策(CAP),欧盟将会空出资源,以便促进其研发、教育和跨国基础设施等领域的有效发展。无论是减少财政预算,还是抬高欧洲价值,欧盟都可做到最好。翻译:沈骜译文属译生译世201610/471110。

Human rights in Russia俄罗斯人权问题Grim to be gay悲惨的同志The plight of gays prompts calls for a boycott of the Sochi Olympics同志的困境激起人们对索契冬奥会的抵制SINCE Russia was awarded the 2014 Winter Olympics, it has had to deal with everything from cost overruns to the historical grievances of the Circassian diaspora and concerns over an Islamic insurgency in the north Caucasus. But an issue that the authorities did not foresee, nor seem yet to understand, now threatens to spoil its ambitions most of all.自从俄罗斯获得2014年冬奥会的举办权,他就不得不处理各种问题,从成本超到切尔克斯人的历史遗留问题以及对高加索北部伊斯兰教叛乱的担忧。但是,一件俄罗斯当局没有预见、似乎也不能理解的事情现在却成了破坏奥运会举办的主要威胁。Legislation signed by President Vladimir Putin in June outlaws “propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations” among minors. Such imprecise wording—what exactly constitutes “propaganda”?—means it could be enforced widely or not at all. So far, it has not led to a single case.六月,总统普金签署法律,宣布对未成年人“宣传非传统的两性关系”是违法的。这种极其不精确的用语—如何确定“宣传”所包含的内容?——意味着执行起来可松可紧。目前为止,这项立法还没有导致任何确切的案例。As with other recent moves, such as the ban on adoptions by Americans and the criminalisation of blasphemy, the motive seems more political than moral. A deputy from the pro-Kremlin ed Russia party speaks of protecting the country against the “destruction of its fundamental cultural codes”. It is easiest to define those codes by what they are not: Western, liberal, modern. Masha Lipman of the Carnegie Moscow Centre, a think-tank, says the Kremlin has sought to “isolate and stigmatise” such people, while creating a myth of a new Russian identity from a hotchpotch of Orthodox piety, traditional values and provincial distrust of urban elites.正如像禁止美国人收养儿童和对亵渎宗教的刑事化等其他举措一样,这项举动的政治意义大于道德意义。一位亲克林姆林宫的统一俄罗斯党的代表谈到以反抗“破坏基本文化规范”来保卫国家。我们很容易定义哪些是规范所不包含的:比如西方、自由、现代。卡内基莫斯科中心(一个智囊团)的玛莎·利普顿说克林姆林宫试图“孤立并污蔑”那些人,同时创造一个糅合了正统信仰、传统价值观以及守旧的不信任城市精英的观念的新一代俄罗斯人。Gays and lesbians make easy targets. Russia is socially liberal on adultery, abortion and divorce, but attitudes to homosexuality resemble those in the West of a generation ago. Soviet-era doublethink about sex is compounded by the role of male rape in prison culture, and the stigma attached to its victims: opushenny, “made low” or debased, for life.同志总是容易成为靶。俄罗斯大众对通奸、流产和离婚都很宽容,而对待同性恋的态度却停留在上一代西方人的水平。苏维埃时代,由于监狱中存有男性被强奸的风气以及被害者被烙上污名,使得人们对性有了双重标准。Yet unease and distaste, more than overt hostility, have governed public attitudes. The existence of gays and lesbians is tolerated as long as they are not seen to “contaminate” the public square, says Tanya Lokshina of Human Rights Watch, though the near-invisibility of gays and lesbians has let prejudice and misunderstanding fester. A poll by the Levada Centre found that 80% of respondents do not have a single gay acquaintance. Alexander Smirnov, who was asked to quit his job at the Moscow mayor’s office after he came out in Afisha, an arts and culture magazine, says gays are seen as “alien people”.但是统治公众态度的是不安和厌恶,而不是公开的敌意。人权观察组织的塔尼亚说只要同志不在公共场所乱来公众就能忍耐他们的存在,即使这种让同志近乎隐形的做法还是让偏见和误解加深。列瓦达中心的民调发现80%的被调查者在生活圈中没有同志。亚历山大·斯米尔诺夫因在一本名叫Afisha的文艺杂志上出柜而被迫辞去其在莫斯科市长办公室的工作,他说同志被当成“外星人”看待。Now the new law adds an emotive slur to latent prejudice, by linking homosexuality and paedophilia. That resonates with a cultural idolisation of childhood purity. More than three-quarters of Russians polled say that they support the ban on gay “propaganda” to minors. In principle, the law appears to prevent any public defence of the rights of gays and lesbians—in effect, says Polina Andrianova of Coming Out, a campaign group, creating a “socially unequal” caste.如今,新法通过将同性恋和恋童癖联系起来,给这种潜在的偏见加上令人敏感的污点。这种共鸣是源于对童真的偶像式崇拜风气。超过四分之三的被调查者说她们持禁止在未成年人中宣传同性恋的法律。一个名为“出柜”的宣传团队成员波莉娜说,原则上,立法似乎是为了限制同志在公共场合辩护的权利,而实际上则是制造了一个被不公平对待的群体。Even more worrying, she says, the law has implicitly given a “green light to aggression”. A nasty new trend is the posting of s online showing gay men tricked into meetings where they are humiliated by vigilantes. Police treatment of gay-rights protesters has been harsh. Igor Kochetkov, another campaigner, notices “disillusionment and depression” among Russia’s gays; a poll finds that the number who experienced harassment or pressure doubled in the past year to 50%.她说,更让人担心的是这项立法暗中给侵犯同志的行为亮了绿灯。现在有一种下流的新趋势,人们把同志骗到集会然后将他们被义务警员羞辱的视频上传到网上。警察对待同志权利反抗者的态度十分严酷。另一名活动推广人伊戈尔表示“幻灭和绝望”笼罩了整个俄罗斯同志圈;民调发现感到烦恼和压力的人相比去年翻了一番,达到50%。Russian officials still seem baffled by the idea that outsiders really care about the issue. Spurred by campaigners calling for a boycott of the Olympics, foreign governments have complained. An official of the International Olympic Committee says it is “not happy”. It tried unsuccessfully to warn the government that the new law presented a potentially “massive issue”, but its calls went unheeded.俄罗斯官员至今似乎对外界真的在关注这个问题而感到困惑。受到抵制冬奥会活动的影响,外国政府也开始抱怨。一名国际奥委会的官员说这不是个愉快的结局。他们试图警告俄罗斯政府新法会产生潜在的“巨大问题”,但这些要求都被俄方忽略。The IOC is now waiting for a written document from a deputy prime minister, Dmitry Kozak, which should give what it calls “cast-iron assurances” that the propaganda law will not affect participants or spectators. Other Russian ministers have said repeatedly that the law will be in full force during the Olympics. A compromise for Sochi is likely—but given Mr Putin’s political priorities and society’s attitudes, the outlook for Russian gays is dark.国际奥委会正在等待俄罗斯副总理德米特里·科扎克的书面文件,坚决保新法绝不会影响参赛者和观众。其他俄罗斯大臣则反复强调新法在奥运会期间完全有效。对于索契来说,采取妥协是有可能的,但鉴于普金的政治选择和社会的态度,俄罗斯同志的前景将是黑暗的。译者:周洋 校对:程丽蓉译文属译生译世 /201512/416409。

HIV/AIDS艾滋病A spectre returns幽灵般的转机The fall in HIV infections conceals a worrying rise among gay men艾滋病感染率下降安抚了日益惶恐的男同性恋们A TELEVISION campaign in the 1980s showed a volcano exploding and dark clouds looming over a blackened tombstone chiselled with the word AIDS. “Dont die of ignorance”, intoned a grim voice. Panic about the HIV/AIDS epidemic was widesp. Now better treatment, and better understanding of how the virus sps, means that HIV is no longer a death sentence. But amid the good news there is cause for concern; among gay men in Britain infections are rising.20世纪80年代有一个这样的电视画面:火山喷发,乌云密布,天空下一座黑色的墓碑上刻着“AIDS”(艾滋病)字样。一个冰冷的声音反复出现“不要死于无知”。人们对艾滋病的惶恐情绪迅速蔓延。而今改善的医疗技术以及对艾滋病毒传播途径更为详细的理解都使艾滋病不再是死刑的代名词。但是伴随着好消息而来的也有些令人担忧的情况:伦敦男同性恋者中艾滋病感染率上升。According to statistics released on November 18th by Public Health England (PHE), part of the NHS, 110,000 people in Britain were living with HIV in 2013, the highest number ever. But that is cause for celebration. Those infected are living much longer. People are being tested more often and diagnosed sooner. Between 2004 and 2013 new infections among heterosexuals fell by half.11月18日英国全民医疗务下属的英格兰公共卫生部门(PHE)公布的数据表明,2013年伦敦艾滋病毒携带者有110,000人,创下历史新高。但是也有值得庆祝的事情:这些艾滋病毒携带者的寿命将延长。人们接受检测的频率增多,也能更快得到治疗。2004年到2013年异性恋者之间的艾滋病感染新增人数减少了一半。Over the same period, however, the estimated annual number of new infections among men who have sex with men rose by a third, to 3,250. Some 13% of gay men in London are living with HIV. Compare that to San Francisco; the prevalence is higher—fairly static at about 24%—but the rate of new diagnoses is falling. In London, it is rising. This is partly explained by better testing. But reckless behaviour is also to blame.然而,同期相比,男同性恋者中的艾滋病感染新增人数增至3250,增加了三分之一。伦敦13%的男同性恋者携带有艾滋病毒。相比之下的旧金山,患病人数就略高一些—大约保持在24%左右—但新诊断的人数所占比率在下降,而在伦敦,这个数量却有所上升。很大程度上得益于更精准的病情监测。但是轻率地行径同样是病患人数上升的一大祸源。“Chemsex”—taking drugs, especially crystal methamphetamine, GBL, or mephedrone, just before or during sex—is the chief innovation. Such drugs fuel sex binges, enabling people to have sex for longer, risking trauma and abrasion, and with a greater number of partners. Both increase the risk of transmission. The internet makes it easier to meet casual partners. David Stuart of 56 Dean Street, an NHS sexual-health clinic in Soho, says the centre sees around 100 gay men every month who use drugs for sex. Most have not had sober sex in six months, he says.“化学性爱”——在性爱前或性爱后用毒品,尤其是冰毒, 伽玛丁内酯(GBL)或是甲氧麻黄酮——是主要的诱因。此类药物刺激性欲,延长人们性爱时间,与大量的同伴性爱更易造成外伤和擦伤,二者都增加了艾滋病传播的几率。网络让人们更容易接触到随意的性爱伙伴。迪恩街56号英国全民医疗务性爱健康诊疗中心的大卫·斯图尔特说,该中心每月大概会接待100位借助药物进行性爱的男同性恋。大多数在最近的六个月内都是药性爱。Cultural shifts may also be to blame. For some, fear of HIV may manifest itself in avoidance of the subject, via drugs and escapism, says Mr Stuart. But Amrou al-Kadhi, a magazine editor and drag performer, frets that others are in denial. Treatment has so improved that some assume they no longer need worry. He worries that some men treat post-exposure prophylactics like the morning-after pill. (Such medicine may stop infection if taken straight after exposure to HIV.) There is a divide, he suggests, between older gay men, who saw the horrors of the AIDS epidemic, and the young, who seem more complacent.文化观念的转变也是一个原因。斯图尔特表示,对一些人来说,借着毒品和逃避现实,对HIV的恐慌更可能使它变为一个逃避话题。。但是杂志编辑兼戏剧演员Amrou al-Kadhi担心其他人不肯接受现实。由于当前医疗技术进步不小,有人会认为无需担忧。他担心有些人将做爱后预防药看的跟避药似的,尽管此类药物可能会预防直接暴露于艾滋病后的感染。他建议,经历过艾滋病蔓延的年长男同性恋者和比较自满的年轻人需要分别对待。Analysis by Colin Brown, a research fellow at PHE, suggests that testing may not be as widesp as some believe. In 2011, 58% of gay men in Britain said they had been tested for HIV within the past year. But figures from sexual-health clinics in the capital suggest that 20% or less of HIV-negative gay men there get tested every year, half the rate in San Francisco. That city has seen a steeper decline in the proportion of those infected but unaware of it—who are most likely to infect others—than London has.英格兰公共卫生部门(PHE)的研究员科林·布朗表明测试并不如大家所料的那样普遍。2011年,英国51%的男同性恋表明在过去的一年里做过艾滋病体检。但伦敦性爱健康诊所的数据表明只有20%甚至更低的艾滋病阴性的男同性恋者每年接受艾滋病测试,仅占旧金山的一半。较于伦敦,旧金山感染人数的比例—这些感染人群更易传染他人—已经骤降,但旧金山却并未意识到。Better treatments leave campaigners with a dilemma. They want to see transmissions decline and promote behaviour that minimises risk. But they also want to reassure those who contract HIV that they can still live a long life. Some gay men appear to have taken the second message to heart at the expense of the first.较高的医疗水平让艾滋病活动者进退两难。他们既想降低艾滋病的感染率,又想宣传降低感染风险的行为。但是他们也想确保那些已感染了艾滋病毒的人们活的更久些。有一部分同性恋因为关注了那些宣传行为而感染了艾滋病。译者:毛慧 校对:张娣译文属译生译世 /201412/346872。

A member of the group abba is opening up an abba-themed restaurant,阿巴合唱团的一名成员 将开一家阿巴主题的餐厅where you sing and dance along with the waiters.顾客可以跟务员一起唱歌跳舞Its being called a great place to take that special someone and finally tell them youre gay.餐馆叫做最适合带你的心上人去告诉他们你是同性恋的地方I have to mention this,recently the church of England voted to allow women to become bishops,我得说一句 最近英格兰教会投票允许女性当选主教and just last monday the church appointed its first female senior bishop to the bishopric of Gloucester.上周一 教会任命了首位女性主教 她将在格洛斯特主教辖区担任大主教Wait,wait a minute.Did you say bishopric?Yes,bishopric.等等 你说主教辖区吗 是啊 主教辖区The territory a bishop across is called a bishopric.一个主教所负责的地域叫做主教辖区So this woman has a bishopric now?Thats right,andy.那么这个女人现在有个主教辖区了 是啊 安迪Is it a large bishopric?I think so.Could a catholic woman have a bishopric?这个主教辖区很大吗 应该是的 天主教女人能有主教辖区吗No,in the catholic church only men have bishoprics.不行 天主教只有男人才有主教辖区So,no matter how good she is a catholic woman cant get her hands on a bishopric?那么不管一位女性天主教徒多好 都是不能掌握一个主教辖区的Thats right andy,all the bishopric in the catholic church have to have a man on top of them.是啊 安迪 天主教的主教辖区都得有男人掌管But in England a lady can grap a bishopric and hang on to it for the rest of her life.但在英国 女人可以拿到一个主教辖区 而且可以执掌终生201610/474379。

Britain The 4G spectrum auction英国 英国4G频谱拍卖Second time around再来一发?No bonanza for the government, but that might be no bad thing这一次衙门估计没得赚,不过或许不是什么坏事Just under 13 years ago the fax machines at the Radio communications Agency were humming. For weeks they spewed out bids for five licences to run third-generation (3G) mobile-phone services. The sums went up and up: in the end 22.5 billion pounds (.9 billion) poured into Gordon Brown’s Treasury. For both companies and governments, these are more sober times. On February 20th Ofcom, the telecoms regulator (into which the agency was subsumed in 2003), said that an auction of spectrum to be used for much faster 4G services had raised only 2.3 billion pounds.13年前,英国无线电通讯技术局的传真机嗡嗡作响。几周内,这里前后向外派发5张第三代手机运营务牌照(3G牌照)。后来这一务收益不断上涨,最终到布朗政府时代,财政收益达225亿英镑(约合359亿美元)。然而如今无论是公司还是政府都清醒了不少:今年2月20日,英国电信管理部门,2003年并入无线电通讯技术局的英国通信表示,比3G更快的4G务的频谱拍卖仅上涨了23亿英镑。No one had expected another bonanza, but George Osborne, a chancellor of the exchequer who needs the cash much more than Mr Brown did, had been counting on 3.5 billion pounds. The outcome might be less welcome to the Treasury, but it is better for the industry—and perhaps its customers, too.大家都不再期待电信领域会再挖出一个金矿来。不过财政大臣乔治·奥斯本可不这样看。因为比起布朗,他现在手头并不宽裕。奥斯本还需要35亿英镑。然而4G务的销售结果并不能让英国财政部满意。不过这对于工业领域来说是个好事,而工业本身或许就是4G通讯务的消费者。Ofcom declared five winners: the four companies with 3G networks plus BT, Britain’s biggest fixed-line operator. One of the four, EE, which is jointly owned by Deutsche Telekom and France Telecom-Orange, has been running 4G services since the autumn, having won permission from Ofcom to use spectrum it aly had. BT has no plans to build a national mobile network, but intends to enhance its existing broadband and Wi-Fi services. Ofcom expects services on the new spectrum to begin in the spring or early summer.英国通信表示,如今这个局面下有五:四家3G网络公司和英国最大的固定电话运营商BT公司。前四家中的EE公司是由德国电信和法国典型合资经营的,它已经从英国通信那里拿到了频谱许可权。BT公司则并不打算建造覆盖全英的移动通讯网,不过它计划加强现有的宽带和无线网络务。英国通信希望新的频谱务能在今年春天或是初夏时分就能启动。The 3G auction came at the height of the dotcom frenzy, when inflated prices were being paid for assets in telecoms and information technology. The agency also reserved a block of spectrum for a new entrant: that intensified competition and raised prices across the board. Moreover, mobile operators reasoned that without 3G they would have no business at all. “The operators were paying for their survival,” says Matthew Howett of Ovum, a research firm. They were left without the money to deploy 3G quickly, to the disgruntlement of customers and shareholders. Others have proved more adept at providing other mobile services, such as search and music, than the operators were themselves.3G务拍卖适逢互联网发展的高潮,彼时购买电信信息技术产品的价格也有虚高之嫌。无线电通讯技术局还特地留了一手:加剧竞争和全线上调价格。进一步讲,用移动运营商们的总结来说,没有3G技术,他们就毫无生意可做。欧文研究所的马修·郝威特表示:“3G技术对运营商们来说生死攸关。”如果不能尽快完成3G务的布局,运营商将带着顾客和股东们的不满从这个市场出局。而其他的参与者已经显示出他们比运营商本身更能玩转3G务,比如他们能提供搜索和音乐等其他移动务。Last time, points out John Delaney of IDC, another research firm, the British spectrum auction was one of the first. This time bidders have been able to gauge the going rate from sales in France and Germany. As a group, they have ended up paying a little less—although, in a complicated process, some seem to have done better than others.另一家研究所互联网数据中心的约翰·德兰尼指出,3G刚出来时,英国吃了第一只螃蟹,拍出了第一张频谱;而这一次投标人还能参考法国和德国的市场。德法联盟开出的价码更便宜,而且在某些复杂的程序上,德法做的更出色。Britain was slower to start deploying 4G than many other countries, but its ministers, regulator and operators are keen to make up the ground. Having avoided overpaying, the operators can now get cracking.比起其他许多国家,英国这次的4G拍照发放慢了一些。不过内阁大臣们、监管部门和运营商们都期待能有所作为。为了避免出价过高,运营商们已经在有所动作了。翻译:程蒙译文属译生译世 /201610/470158。

Chicagos schools芝加哥的学校Hard work rewarded勤劳的奖励Rahm Emanuels school reforms are working拉姆·艾玛努尔的学校改革措施正发挥作用Let me teach you some new words让我来教你一些新词汇“NO FAMILY should go to the poorhouse because they are giving their kid a crack at the American dream,” said Rahm Emanuel on January 9th. Chicagos mayor was presenting his plans for education at Kenwood Academy, a high school on the citys South Side.“所有家庭都不该去救济院因为它们击碎了孩子们的美国梦,”拉姆·艾玛努尔在一月九号说道。这位芝加哥市长正在市南边的一所名叫肯沃德学院的高级中学里施行他的教育计划。On the same day in Tennessee, President Barack Obama announced plans to exempt qualified students from tuition fees at community colleges. The White House had taken a leaf out of Chicagos book, said Mr Emanuel, who last October introduced the Chicago STAR Scholarship, which pays the community-college tuition fees of the best graduates from Chicagos public-school system.同一天在田纳西州,奥巴马颁布改革豁免了有资格攻读社区大学学生的学习费用。艾玛努尔说白宫无疑是仿照芝加哥的做法,他们去年十月份推出了芝加哥明星奖学金计划,这项计划将从芝加哥公立学校系统中为优秀毕业生付社区大学学费。Mr Emanuel wants more students to enroll in a college and take courses (and, if they pass, get credits) while still in their last year of high school, which helps to reduce their tuition costs later. With the help of a donation of 500,000 over three years from General Electric, the programme will grow from almost 2,500 students to more than 6,000 next year. Kenwood Academy has more students in the programme than any other high school in Chicago.艾玛努尔想要更多学生在他们高中最后一年进入大学并参加课程学习(而且,如果他们通过就能得到学分),这将有利于随后降低他们的学费。在通用电气公司三年五十万刀捐助的帮助下,这项计划将在明年资助2500名左右的学生上涨至超过6000刀一年。在芝加哥市,肯沃德学院同任何其它学校相比有更多的学生参与这项计划。Some of the toughest decisions Mr Emanuel had to make in his first term concerned schools. He demanded merit pay for teachers and a longer school day (Chicagos was only 5 hours 45 minutes) and earmarked for closure 50 half-empty schools in poor districts. Teachers went on strike for the first time in 25 years, but Mr Emanuel got the longer day and the closures went ahead in 2013. The teachers kept their seniority-based pay system.在艾玛努尔第一任期内不得不做出的艰难选择中,有一些都是关于学校的。他要求建立教师的绩效工资及更久的学习日(芝加哥只有5小时45分钟)而且在穷困地区专门关闭50所半满员的学校。教师们在25年里第一次句型罢工,但是艾玛努尔延长了学习时长并在2013年进行学校关闭措施。教师们还是保留了他们基于工龄决定的工资体系。Mr Emanuel ploughed some of the money saved by closures into charter schools, which made him even more unpopular with the teachers unions. But charter schools have worked well in Chicago. The Noble Network, which aly runs 16 charter high schools with 10,000 pupils and plans to have 20,000 by 2020, has an attendance rate of 94% (compared with 73% for Chicago public schools) and a drop-out rate of only 0.4% (compared with 4.7%). It also gets better results on the ACT, a college-iness test. It has an even higher percentage of minority students (98% compared with 92% at Chicago public schools), and slightly less public funding.通过关闭学校省下了钱,艾玛努尔划拨了一部分给特许学校,这项举措无疑让他在教室公会中更加不受欢迎。但是芝加哥的特许学校开办得如火如荼。高尚网络系统已经经营了十六所特许学校,有着一万名左右的学生,并计划在2020年招生两万名,入学率高达94%(同公立学校73%形成鲜明对比)以及在辍学率方面仅为0.4%(公立学校为4.7%)。在ACT美国大学测试中它也有着更好的成绩。在少数族裔学生比例中它也取得领先(98%同对比公立学校的92%),而且还少占了一点公共资金。Rosa Alanis, the principal of Golder College Prep, one of the Noble network schools, says all her pupils have a teacher as a designated adviser, whom they see twice every school day. Attendance and performance are the advisers responsibility, so they go to great lengths to ensure their charges show up, dress properly in their uniform of grey trousers and blue sweaters, and work hard. Ms Alanis herself looked after a group of 13 “challenging” boys. In one case she even drove to a pupils house to get him to come to school. He was still in his pyjamas, but obeyed.洛萨·阿兰尼斯是黄金大学预科的校长,这所学校是高尚网络特许学校中的一所,他说他所有的学生有一名老师当他们的指定建议人,这些老师每天需要和学生见两次面。学生出勤和日常成绩是这些建议人的职责,因此他们在学校里花很长时间保他们的职责体现出来,统一穿着制—灰裤子和蓝毛衣,并且辛勤工作。阿兰尼斯自己则负责13名“具有挑战性”的男生小组。一次她甚至开车去学生家里将他接到学校。虽然他还穿着睡衣,但还是被许可上学。Mr Emanuel is keen on charter schools, but he didnt mention them when he presented his second-term plans for education. Instead he promised to put Wi-Fi in all classrooms, and to ensure that every family would be within three miles of a high school offering some special focus, such as science or the International Baccalaureate. Presumably, he did not want to annoy those who think that charter schools leave public schools in the dumps. In fact, competition has prodded public schools to shape up a bit. The drop-out rate has gone down and ACT scores have slightly improved, albeit from a very low level.艾玛努尔很倾向于特许学校,但是他在陈述第二期教育计划是没有提及它们。然而他承诺所有教室通上Wi-Fi,并且保每个家同在三英里内都有高中等措施则引起了特别的关注,再例如理科或者国际文凭的开展。可以推测的是,他想顺着那些持有特许学校将公立学校遗弃到垃圾堆观点的人们。事实上,竞争已经刺激公立学校改进了一些。辍学率已经下滑而且尽管ACT得分还是很低,但已经轻微上扬。译者:彭威 译文属译生译世 /201501/355131。

Dear A Moment of Science,I know why the ocean is still salty: evaporated water leaves thesalt behind.亲爱的《科学一刻》我知道为什么海洋依旧是咸的了:水分蒸发掉,留下了盐。But how did it get salty in the first place? SaltyDog.但是一开始盐是怎么进去的呢?咸味鸡尾酒。According to one hypothesis, oceans formed at least 500 million years ago when water vapor andother gasses escaping from the Earths interior gradually formed the atmosphere and cloudssurrounding the planet.有种假设,海洋在至少五亿年前形成。那时水蒸气和其他气体渐渐从地球内部逸出,形成了围绕地球的大气层和云。As the earth cooled below the boiling point of water, rain began to fall, andkept falling for centuries.当地球冷却到水沸点以下,开始下雨,下了好几个世纪。Eventually the rainfall filled the Earths hollows and formed oceans.最后,雨水填满了地球的低洼形成了海洋。In their infant state these oceans were not nearly as salty as they are today.在海洋形成初期,它们还不像今天这样咸。As the initial rainsswept over the planets surface and filtered down to the hollows, the rushing waters picked upchemicals from erosion of the Earths crust.最初的雨席卷地球表面后汇入低洼,激流带进去了地壳腐蚀处的化学成分。These chemicals included sodium, which is one of themain ingredients of salt.这些化学成分包括钠,那正是盐的主要成分。The other main ingredient, chlorine, came from the solid and gaseousfallout of land and ocean floor volcanoes.另一个主要成分,氯,来自陆上海底火山喷发产生的尘土及气体。Over hundreds of millions of years the steady flow ofchemical-rich rivers and streams and the eruption of volcanoes and undersea vents combined toincrease the oceans salt content.经过数亿年,富含化学物质的河流、陆上海底的火山喷发物,合在一起增加了海洋的盐分。This does not mean, however, that the oceans saltiness is constantly increasing.然而,这并不意味着海洋会持续变咸下去。Scientists believethat ocean salinity reached a plateau hundreds of millions of years ago, when roughly the sameamount of salt fed into the oceans was deposited as sediment on the ocean floor.科学家认为,海洋盐度在数亿年前就达到平稳,当时盐注入海洋后,在海底形成了大体等量的沉积物。 201412/350506。