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天柱学会美甲技术全套美甲视频教程大全分享南城县哪里有美甲培训大概花多少钱 Having grabbed a big chunk of the profitable smartphone business from Apple Inc. and others, Samsung Electronics Co. now faces a new, enviable Apple-like challenge: a mammoth pile of unspent, accumulated cash.三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)从苹果(Apple Inc.)和其他公司那里夺走了大量利润丰厚的智能手机业务,如今,三星电子面临着一个与苹果类似的惹人嫉妒的新挑战:公司积累的大量闲置现金。After a first quarter marked by a 42% rise in net profit, Samsung said its cash and cash equivalents grew to nearly billion at the end of March. After stripping out debt, Samsung#39;s net cash position is 31.2 trillion won, or .5 billion. Aly one of the biggest in Asia, Samsung#39;s cash pile is building at an eye-popping rate. Its net cash has nearly tripled over the last year alone.在第一季度录得42%的净利润增长之后,三星电子说,该公司的现金和现金等价物3月底时已经增长到了将近400亿美元。剔除债务后,三星电子的净现金头寸为31.2万亿韩圆,即285亿美元。三星电子的现金规模在亚洲已经处于最高水平,目前仍以令人瞠目的速度增长。仅过去一年,三星电子的净现金就几乎增长了两倍。Analysts expect Samsung to use that money for acquisitions that will allow the company to beef up in certain areas like software and medical equipment. Shareholders are likely to start seeking higher returns, either through a boost in its dividend -- currently less than 1% of its share price -- or a share buyback. And while there is no sign yet of the market pressure that forced Apple to announce last month both such steps, investors are starting to notice.分析人士预计,三星电子将使用这些钱进行收购,从而增强公司在软件和医疗设备等领域的实力。股东们可能会开始寻求更高的回报,方法是增加派息──目前不到股价的1%──或是股票回购。尽管目前对于三星电子来说,还没有出现迫使苹果上个月宣布采取这两种措施的市场压力,投资者正在开始予以关注。#39;We will be asking them if they plan to keep all that cash,#39; said Willis Tsai, a San Francisco-based director in the equity research division at TIAA-CREF, which manages more than 0 million of Samsung shares, according to shareholder data from Samp;P Capital IQ. #39;When I see the company, it#39;ll probably be the first question I ask.#39;主流智能手机大比拼TIAA-CREF驻旧金山的股票研究部门的经理Willis Tsai说,我们将询问他们是否打算留下所有现金。根据标普资本智商公司(Samp;P Capital IQ)的股东数据,TIAA-CREF管理着市值超过4亿美元的三星电子股票。他说,如果我看到这家公司,这可能是我要问的第一个问题。In response to a Wall Street Journal question about its cash strategy, Samsung issued a statement last week saying its cash reserves will be managed in a way that prioritizes #39;investments sustainable for areas like facilities, Ramp;D, and marketing that will help the company solidify or boost competitiveness#39; in respective business areas. The company declined to comment on any specific dividend payout, share buyback or acquisition plans in the future.三星电子上周发表了一份声明回应《华尔街日报》关于其现金策略的质疑,声明说,其现金管理方式是重点对设施、研发和营销等领域进行可持续的投资,从而巩固和提高公司在这些领域的竞争力。三星电子拒绝谈论任何具体的股息派发、股票回购或收购计划。The growth in Samsung#39;s cash reflects a dramatic shift in how it generates its profit. In the past, Samsung#39;s chip and components divisions -- underpinned by years of massive capital spending -- propelled the company#39;s earnings. Now, its huge profit comes largely from smartphones, which generate more cash because they don#39;t require as much capital investment.三星电子的现金增长反映了其利润产生方式的明显变化。过去,三星电子的芯片和零件部门推动了公司的盈利增长,这些部门多年以来受到了大规模资本出的持。如今,三星电子的大量利润主要来自智能手机,由于智能手机不需要那么多的资本投资,它们能够制造更多现金。The division containing the mobile business accounted for 74% of Samsung#39;s operating profit, with consumer electronics -- such as TVs -- and components -- such as chips -- making up the rest in the first quarter of 2013. Three years earlier in the same quarter, the mobile-phone segment accounted for 25% of operating profit, with semiconductors and LCDs comprising 56%.2013年第一季度,手机业务所在的部门对三星电子运营利润的贡献率为74%,公司其余的利润来自消费电子产品(如电视机)和零部件(如芯片)。三年前的一季度,手机业务对三星电子运营利润的贡献率为25%,半导体和液晶显示器的利润贡献率为56%。Samsung routinely outspends rivals on capital expenditures to build newer and bigger factories. During market downturns, when competitors would scale back on investment, the world#39;s top producer of memory chips would continue to spend billions of dollars -- allowing it to extend its market-share lead and give it scale to gain more bargaining power in price negotiations.三星电子用来建设更新和更大厂房的资本出通常高于竞争对手。在市场低迷期间,竞争者纷纷削减投资,这家世界顶尖的内存芯片制造商继续斥资数十亿美元进行投资,这帮助三星电子扩大了市场份额方面的领先优势,也使公司在价格谈判中拥有了更多讨价还价的权力。But in recent years, Samsung has kept capital spending mostly flat -- albeit at levels far greater than its competition. Samsung spent 22.8 trillion won in capital expenditures in 2012. It was largely unchanged from 2011 and the company has said it would keep spending flat this year.但是最近几年,三星电子的资本出虽然仍远高于其竞争对手,但却没有太大变化。三星电子2012年的资本出为22.8万亿韩圆,与2011年基本持平。三星电子表示,今年的出仍将保持在这个水平。#39;The cash balloon never got that big because they were reinvesting it all, but now that#39;s starting to change,#39; said Mark Newman, a Hong Kong-based analyst for Sanford C. Bernstein., who estimates that Samsung#39;s cash may grow to 100 trillion won by the end of 2015. #39;It#39;s getting near the point where it#39;s more than enough.#39;美国投行Sanford C. Bernstein驻香港的分析师纽曼(Mark Newman)说,三星电子的现金规模从来没有像现在这么大,因为该公司以往会将手中的现金全部用于再投资,但是现在情况已经变了。纽曼估计,三星电子的现金储备到2015年底时可能增长到100万亿韩圆。纽曼说,它正在超出满足需要的水平。Based on the amount of cash and liquid securities sitting on its balance sheet at the end of its most recent business year, Samsung has the second-biggest cash pile in Asia behind China Mobile Ltd.#39;s billion war chest and ahead of Toyota Motor Corp.#39;s .5 billion cash reserves, according to data from Samp;P Capital IQ, which excludes financial and energy companies,标普资本智商提供的数据显示,在三星电子刚刚结束的这个财年,该公司资产负债表上的现金和易变现券规的模,在不包括金融和能源企业的亚洲公司中排名第二,仅次于中国移动(China Mobile Ltd.)640亿美元的现金规模,超过了丰田汽车(Toyota Motor Corp.)275亿美元的现金储备。The stockpile is building rapidly in part because of Samsung#39;s conservative use of cash. The company#39;s latest annual dividend of 8,000 won translates to a fairly modest yield of 0.54% relative to its share price. As a percentage of net profit, Samsung#39;s total dividend payout has decreased for five years in a row to 5% in 2012, from 15.8% in 2007.三星电子手中现金迅速增加的部分原因是该公司对现金的保守使用。三星电子最新的年度股息为每股8,000韩圆,仅相当于该公司股价的0.54%。三星付的股息总数与公司净利润的比率已经连续五年下降,从2007年的15.8%下降到2012年的5%。In addition, Samsung hasn#39;t bought back shares since 2007. Between 2004 and 2007, it bought back at least 1.8 trillion won, or .6 billion, of shares every year. The impetus for a share buyback may have diminished because Samsung#39;s stock price has nearly tripled since the start of 2008.此外,三星自2007年以来一直没有回购过股票。2004至2007年,三星每年至少回购了价值1.8万亿韩圆(合16亿美元)的股票。由于三星股价自2008年初以来上涨了近两倍,回购股票的动力可能已经减弱。With regard to acquisitions, Samsung has gone for either relatively small companies or small stakes in larger companies. The last big deal it tried to pull off -- an acquisition of flash-memory supplier SanDisk Corp. for .85 billion in 2008 -- failed because the two parties couldn#39;t agree on a price.在收购方面,三星的收购对象要么是规模相对较小的公司,要么是大公司的少数股权。该公司最后一次尝试进行的大规模收购是在2008年试图以58.5亿美元收购闪存供应商SanDisk Corp.,该交易由于双方无法就价格达成一致而失败。According to research firm Dealogic, the biggest overseas deal Samsung Electronics has ever completed is a two-part acquisition of Irvine, Calif.-based AST Research Inc. for a total of 0 million, more than a decade ago. Its most recent deal, announced in March, was an acquisition of a 3% stake in struggling Japanese electronics manufacturer Sharp Corp. for about 6 million.研究公司Dealogic的数据显示,三星电子曾经完成过的最大规模海外收购交易是十多年前分两步收购了加州尔湾(Irvine)的AST Research Inc.,该交易总计为8.4亿美元。其最新的收购交易于今年3月宣布,三星称它将以大约1.06亿美元收购陷入困境的日本电子产品生产商夏普(Sharp Corp.) 3%的股份。Bernstein#39;s Mr. Newman said it is growing more likely that Samsung may look for a larger, multibillion-dollar acquisition in the near future. He didn#39;t specify any potential targets. One area where the company has been expanding its reach through a series of smaller acquisitions is medical equipment.Bernstein的纽曼说,三星目前已更有可能在不久的将来寻求进行耗字数十亿美元的更大规模收购。他没有具体说明任何可能的目标。三星一直在通过一系列较小的收购行动来扩大影响力的一个领域是医疗设备。Mr. Newman expects the company to perform some kind of return to shareholders within the next two to three years. Based on its history, the company is more likely to do a share buyback, he said.纽曼预计,三星未来两到三年可能会以某种形式回报股东。他说,根据三星的历史,其更有可能进行股票回购。Samsung still has time before its cash pile becomes an Apple-sized issue. Apple#39;s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities reached 4.7 billion at the end of March. Under pressure from investors to return more cash to shareholders, Apple announced last month that it plans to return more cash to investors than previously planned. In a series of moves aimed at returning 0 billion in cash to shareholders by the end of 2015, Apple increased the size of its share repurchase program and raised quarterly dividends.在三星的现金储备问题变得像苹果公司的这一问题那般严重之前,三星还有时间。苹果的现金、现金等价物和适销券在3月底达到1,447亿美元。在投资者要求向股东返还更多现金的压力下,苹果上个月宣布其计划向投资者返还超过以前计划的现金。苹果采取了一系列行动,目的是在2015年底之前向股东返还1,000亿美元现金,这些行动包括扩大股票回购计划的规模以及增加季度股息。Apple and Samsung have totally different cash needs. While Samsung#39;s memory and panel businesses may not be as critical to current earnings, they are still leading their respective industries and they will continue to require cash for capital spending to stay ahead of the competition.苹果和三星有着截然不同的现金需求。虽然三星的存储器和面板业务对该公司当前利润的贡献率可能不是那么大,但它们仍在各自的行业占据领先地位,为保持这种竞争优势,三星电子依然需要在这两项业务上投入现金以用作资本出。Also, fortunes can change quickly in the technology industry. Samsung only needs to look to its once-bigger rival Panasonic Corp.同时,在科技行业,运气也可能随时发生变化。三星只要看看曾经比自己规模更大的竞争对手松下(Panasonic Corp.)就知道了。When flat-panel televisions started to replace bulky cathode-ray tube TV models, Panasonic invested heavily in plasma displays. It built several billion-dollar factories to churn out the displays, only to see those investments suffer during a prolonged downturn.在平板电视开始取代笨重的显像管电视时,松下在等离子显示屏上投入巨资。该公司修建了耗资数十亿美元的工厂以生产显示器,但等离子显示屏行业旷日持久的不景气却使这些投资遭遇了损失。After losing more than 1.5 trillion yen, or .3 billion, over the last two years, Panasonic has seen its credit rating cut to below investment grade, or #39;junk#39; status, by rating agency Fitch in November.过去两年亏损逾1.5万亿日圆(合153亿美元)之后,松下的信用评级在去年11月被评级机构惠誉(Fitch)下调至投资级以下,跌入“垃圾”级。Christopher Wong, a Singapore-based senior investment manager at Aberdeen Asset Management, said it is #39;not a bad thing#39; for Samsung to maintain a large cash balance because of the size of Samsung#39;s annual capital expenditures and the cyclical nature of the technology industry.新加坡安本资产管理公司(Aberdeen Asset Management)的高级投资经理Christopher Wong说,由于三星年度资本开的规模和科技行业的周期性质,三星持有大量现金不是坏事。#39;We#39;re quite relaxed when it comes to the cash pile as long as it continues to find uses for the cash,#39; said Mr. Wong.他说,我们并不担心现金储备的问题,只要三星能继续为这些现金找到用途就行了。 /201305/239269龙门县开一个美甲店多少钱

章丘美甲美睫培训学校FOR decades, the overuse of antibiotics has encouraged the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria which, though they have never broken out and caused an epidemic in the way that was once feared, have nevertheless been responsible for many deaths that might otherwise have been avoided. Now something similar seems to be happening in agriculture. The overuse of drugs against parasitic worms which infest stock animals means that these, too, are becoming drug-resistant. That is bad for the animals#39; health and welfare, and equally bad for farmers#39; profits.几十年来,广泛使用抗生素促进了耐药病菌的进化。尽管它们从来没有失控,爆发人们一度为止恐惧的大规模瘟疫,但还是造成了大量本来可以避免的死亡。现在畜牧业中似乎也有类似现象。人们对家畜身上的寄生虫过分使用药物,这让它们也有了抗药性。这对动物的健康与安乐绝非好事,同样也会减少饲养它们的农民的利润。This, at least, is the conclusion drawn by Ray Kaplan, a parasitologist at the University of Georgia who has just published a review of research on the problem. His results, which appear in Veterinary Parasitology, make grim ing.这至少是乔治亚大学(University of Georgia)寄生虫病学家雷?卡普兰(Ray Kaplan)在他最近发表的有关这一问题的研究综述中得出的结论。他发表在《兽医寄生虫学》(Veterinary Parasitology)上的文章读来让人心情沉重。Sheep and goats are the worst affected. Studies in Australia, Brazil and the ed States suggest that animals in half or more of farms in many parts of those countries are infested with drug-resistant worms. In some cases the parasites are resistant to every drug that can be thrown at them. The proportion of infested farms is lower in New Zealand, a country that has a huge population of sheep, but even there it is rising at a worrying rate.绵羊与山羊受的影响最大。在澳大利亚、巴西和美国所做的研究表明,在这些国家的许多地区,一半或更多的农场中的家畜身上有耐药寄生虫。有些农场的寄生虫对所有可用药物有抗药性。新西兰的农场饲养着大量绵羊,它们受到影响的比例比较低;但即使在该国,受影响农场比例的增长速度还是令人担心。Cattle, too, are afflicted. Dr Kaplan cites work done in Argentina, Brazil and New Zealand. And horses suffer as well, with resistant worms turning up in both America and Europe.家牛也身受其害。卡普兰士引用了在阿根廷、巴西和新西兰所做的研究工作。马也是受害者,美国与欧洲的马身上都发现了抗药寄生虫。The root of the problem is what Dr Kaplan refers to as ;global worming;-giving drugs prophylactically to all livestock rather than reserving them for use as a treatment when an animal actually becomes infested. It is common sense, of course, to try to prevent infestation rather than merely treating it once it has arisen.问题的根源是卡普兰士称为;全球防虫;的现象——预防性地对所有家畜用药,而不是在动物身上真正出现了寄生虫时投药治疗。当然,防病胜于治病是常识。Unfortunately, such promiscuous use of drugs is the best way to put selection pressure on the worms and encourage the evolution of resistant strains.不幸的是,这样的预防性用药是在寄生虫身上施加选择压力的最佳方法,能够促进抗药品种的进化。What is needed, says Dr Kaplan, is more selective drug use, and better management. Worms are not evenly distributed. Instead, a minority of animals play host to most of them. Aiming treatment at those animals would reduce the likelihood of resistance emerging without harming a farmer#39;s ability to control infestations. Better husbandry might help, too. Not grazing so many animals on a given patch of land would discourage transmission.卡普兰士认为,现在需要做的是加强管理与更有选择性地用药。寄生虫并非均匀寄生在各种动物身上。有少数动物是大多数寄生虫的寄主。集中治疗这些动物则会降低耐药性发生的可能性,同时也不会损害农民控制虫害的能力。改进饲养方法或许也有益处。不在一块草地上过量放牧动物会减轻虫害传播。That, though, would bring problems of its own, as it would reduce the number of animals which could be raised on a given farm. Which leads to the nub of the issue: it is hard to work out exactly how much damage resistant worms are doing, and thus how much effort should be put into trying to stop the sp of resistance-not least because, as Dr Kaplan found out when he conducted his survey, the data are pretty sporadic. But they are worrying enough to be worth following up, for if resistance did get out of hand the consequences could be very expensive indeed.但这本身也会带来问题,因为这会减少一座农场能饲养的家畜数目。这就引出了问题的症结:人们很难确定抗药寄生虫会造成多大的危害,因此也不知道该花多少代价来阻止抗药性蔓延,因为很重要的是,卡普兰士在纵观研究结果时发现有关数据相当零散。但这些数据还是很令人忧虑,值得进一步跟踪,因为一旦人们无法控制抗药性,就确实可能会付出惨重的代价。No one farmer is to blame. This is a tragedy of the commons, in which sensible individual decisions have led to a collective difficulty. But it might behove farmers to think more about how they use anti-worm drugs. If they do not, they may find that those drugs have become useless.无法就此责备某个农民。这是一个公地悲剧 [注],许多明智的个人决定导致了群体的困难。但或许农民们有责任多想想他们应该如何使用抗寄生虫药物。如果放弃这一责任,他们或许有一天会发现这些药物变得全然无用。 /201208/193576 Global sea levels are about eight inches higher today than they were in 1880, and they are expected to rise another two to seven feet during this century. At the same time, some 5 million people in the U.S. live in 2.6 million coastal homes situated less than 4 feet above high tide.你知道吗,今天的全球海平面要比1880年的时候高出8英寸,而就在本世纪内,全球海平面预计还将上涨2到7英尺。另外,美国沿海地区有260万户家庭的500余万人口的住宅,在海水满潮时,只高出海平面不到4英尺。Do the math: Climate change is a problem, whatever its cause.毫无疑问,气候变化是个大问题,不管导致它的原因是什么。The problem? Actually making those complex calculations is an extremely challenging proposition. To understand the impact of climate change at the local level, you’ll need more than back-of-the-napkin mathematics.那么如何计算气候对环境的影响呢?事实上,要进行这些复杂的计算,是一个极具挑战性的课题。要想了解气候变化对一国一地的影响水平,绝对不是在一张餐巾纸上写写画画就能算得出来的。You’ll need big data technology.这时你就需要大数据技术了。Surging Seas is an interactive map and tool developed by the nonprofit Climate Central that shows in graphic detail the threats from sea-level rise and storm surges to all of the 3,000-plus coastal towns, cities, counties and states in the continental ed States. With detail down to neighborhood scale—search for a specific location or zoom down as necessary—the tool matches areas with flooding risk timelines and provides links to fact sheets, data downloads, action plans, embeddable widgets, and other items.“上升的海平面”(Surging Seas)是由非盈利组织“气候中心”(Climate Central)开发的一款互动式地图工具,它用图形的形式详细描绘了海平面上升和风暴潮给美国大陆沿海3000多个城市、城镇和农村造成的威胁。它的细节可以精确到每一个街区——你可以搜索一个特定的地理位置,或是按照需要继续缩小目标范围。这个工具会与存在洪泛风险的地区进行匹配,并且提供相关实时报道、数据下载、行动计划、内嵌小工具和其它相关事项的链接。It’s the kind of number-crunching that was all but impossible only a few years ago.这种数据处理方式仅仅在几年前还是不可能实现的。‘Just as powerful, just as big’能力有多大,困难就多大“Our strategy is to tell people about their climate locally in ways they can understand, and the only way to do that is with big data analysis,” said Richard Wiles, vice president for strategic communications and director of research with Climate Central. “Big data allows you to say simple, clear things.”气候中心的战略沟通副总裁兼研究主任理查德o怀尔斯表示:“我们的战略是以人们能够理解的方式告诉他们当地的气候情况,唯一能实现这个目标的方法就是通过大数据分析。大数据让你能够简单、清晰地表达。”There are actually two types of big data in use today to help understand and deal with climate change, Wiles said. The first is relatively recently collected data that is so voluminous and complex that it couldn’t be effectively manipulated before, such as NASA images of heat over cities, Wiles said. This kind of data “literally was too big to handle not that long ago,” he said, “but now you can handle it on a regular computer.”怀尔斯指出,目前主要有两种大数据形式可以用来帮助人们了解和应对气候变化。第一类是某些在近期才收集到的数据,但它们往往数据量极大且非常复杂,搁在以前很难对其进行有效分析,比如美国国家航空航天局(NASA)对各大城市的热成像绘图。怀尔斯表示,这种数据“一直到不久之前,还因为数据量过大而基本上没法处理,但是现在你已经可以在一台普通的电脑上处理它们了。”The second type of big data is older datasets that may be less-than-reliable. This data “was always kind of there,” Wiles said, such as historic temperature trends in the ed States. That kind of dataset is not overly complex, but it can be fraught with gaps and errors. “A guy in Oklahoma may have broken his thermometer back in 1936,” Wiles said, meaning that there could be no measurements at all for two months of that year.第二类大数据是一些相对较老但可能不那么可靠的数据。怀尔斯表示,这些数据“基本上一直都在那儿”,比如美国的历史气温趋势。这种数据一般不太复杂,但有可能存在不少缺口和误差。比如怀尔斯就指出:“1936年,俄克拉荷马州的某个负责量气温的家伙有可能不小心把温度计弄坏了。”这样的话,当年可能就有两个月根本没有气温记录。Address those issues, and existing data can be “just as powerful, just as big,” Wiles said. “It makes it possible to make the story very local.”怀尔斯表示,要解决这些问题,现有的数据可以说“能力有多大,困难就有多大。但是大数据技术使得揭示一城一地的气候变化成为可能。”Climate Central imports data from historical government records to produce highly localized graphics for about 150 local TV weather forecasters across the U.S., illustrating climate change in each station’s particular area. For example, “Junes in Toledo are getting hotter,” Wiles said. “We use these data all the time to try to localize the climate change story so people can understand it.”气候中心从政府的历史记录中获取原始数据,然后为美国各地的150余家地方电视台的天气预报节目制作高度本地化的气候图形,以阐释该地区的气候变化。比如怀尔斯指出:“今年六月,托雷多市变热了。我们一直利用这些数据试图让当地人了解气候变化趋势。”‘One million hours of computation’100万小时的计算Though the Climate Central map is an effective tool for illustrating the problem of rising sea levels, big data technology is also helping researchers model, analyze, and predict the effects of climate change.气候中心的地图是阐释海平面上升情况的一个非常有效的工具。此外,大数据技术还能帮助研究人员模拟、分析和预测气候变化的影响。“Our goal is to turbo-charge the best science on massive data to create novel insights and drive action,” said Rebecca Moore, engineering manager for Google Earth Engine. Google Earth Engine aims to bring together the world’s satellite imagery—trillions of scientific measurements dating back almost 40 years—and make it available online along with tools for researchers.谷歌地图引擎(Google Earth Engine)的工程经理瑞贝卡o尔介绍道:“我们的目标是助力最好的大数据分析技术,以催生新颖的见解并且促进行动。”谷歌地图旨在将全球的卫星图像进行汇总,其中还包括40年来数以万亿计的观测数据,并将其与其它为研究人员开发的工具一道放在网上。Global deforestation, for example, “is a significant contributor to climate change, and until recently you could not find a detailed current map of the state of the world’s forests anywhere,” Moore said. That changed last November when Science magazine published the first high-resolution maps of global forest change from 2000 to 2012, powered by Google Earth Engine.比如在全球荒漠化问题上,尔表示:“全球荒漠化是气候变化的一个重要推手,直到不久之前,还没有一份详细的实时地图能够显示全球各地的森林情况。但现在情况不同了,去年11月,《科学》(Science)杂志在谷歌地图引擎的帮助下,发布了首张2000至2012年的高分辨率全球森林变化图。“We ran forest-mapping algorithms developed by Professor Matt Hansen of University of Maryland on almost 700,000 Landsat satellite images—a total of 20 trillion pixels,” she said. “It required more than one million hours of computation, but because we ran the analysis on 10,000 computers in parallel, Earth Engine was able to produce the results in a matter of days.”尔介绍道:“我们运行的森林测绘算法是由马里兰大学(University of Maryland)的马特o汉森教授开发的,总共利用了70万张美国陆地资源卫星的图像,加起来大约有20万亿个像素点。它需要超过100万小时的计算时间,但由于我们是在10,000台计算机上并行计算的,因此谷歌地球引擎才得以在几天内就得出了结果。On a single computer, that analysis would have taken more than 15 years. Anyone in the world can view the resulting interactive global map on a PC or mobile device.如果只用一台计算机计算的话,完成这样一次分析大概需要超过15年的时间。但现在全球各地的任何人都可以在电脑或移动设备上查看这次分析得到的这张互动式全球地图。‘We have sensors everywhere’传感器无所不在Rapidly propelling such developments, meanwhile, is the fact that data is being collected today on a larger scale than ever before.在这些项目取得快速进展的背后离不开这样一个事实:如今我们对数据的收集程度已经远超以往任何时候。“Big data in climate first means that we have sensors everywhere: in space, looking down via remote sensing satellites, and on the ground,” said Kirk Borne, a data scientist and professor at George Mason University. Those sensors are continually recording information about weather, land use, vegetation, oceans, ice cover, precipitation, drought, water quality, and many more variables, he said. They are also tracking correlations between datasets: biodiversity changes, invasive species, and at-risk species, for example.乔治梅森大学的数据学家柯克o波恩教授指出:“大数据技术在气候研究领域的发展,首先意味着传感器已经无所不在。首先是太空中的遥感卫星,其次是地面上的传感器。”这些传感器时刻记录着地球各地的天气、土地利用、植被、海洋、冰层、降水、干旱、水质等信息以及许多变量。同时它们也在跟踪各种数据之间的关联,比如生物多样性的变化、入侵物种和濒危物种等等。Two large monitoring projects of this kind are NEON—the National Ecological Observatory Network—andOOI, the Ocean Observatories Initiative.在这一类监控项目中有两个比较有代表性的大型项目,一个是美国国家生态观测站网络(NEON),一个是海洋观测计划(OOI)。“All of these sensors also deliver a vast increase in the rate and the number of climate-related parameters that we are now measuring, monitoring, and tracking,” Borne said. “These data give us increasingly deeper and broader coverage of climate change, both temporally and geospatially.”波恩指出:“这些传感器令我们现在正在观测和追踪的气候参数无论在等级还是数量上都有了极大的提高。另外无论是在时间上还是在地理空间上,这些数据对气候变化的覆盖都变得越来越深、越来越广。”Climate change is one of the largest examples of scientific modeling and simulation, Borne said. Efforts are focused not on tomorrow’s weather but on decades and centuries into the future.波恩表示,气候变化是科学建模仿真应用得最广泛的例子之一。科学家不仅利用建模仿真来预测明天的天气,而且还用它来预测几十年甚至几百年后的气候。“Huge climate simulations are now run daily, if not more frequently,” he said. These simulations have increasingly higher horizontal spatial resolution—hundreds of kilometers, versus tens of kilometers in older simulations; higher vertical resolution, referring to the number of atmospheric layers that can be modeled; and higher temporal resolution—zeroing in on minutes or hours as opposed to days or weeks, he added.他还表示:“大规模的气候模拟现在每天都在运行,有些甚至可能更为频繁。”这些模拟的水平分辨率更高,达到几百公里,而过去的模拟只能达到几十公里。同时它们垂直分辨率也变得更高,这也就表示可以对大气层中更多的层进行建模。另外还有更高的瞬时分辨率,也就是说只需要几分钟或几个小时就可以进行归零校正,而不是几天或几个星期。The output of each daily simulation amounts to petabytes of data and requires an assortment of tools for storing, processing, analyzing, visualizing, and mining.每天的气候模拟都会生成几千兆字节的数据,并且需要一系列工具进行存储、处理、分析、挖掘和图像化。‘All models are wrong, but some are useful’所有模型都是错的,但有些很有用Interpreting climate change data may be the most challenging part.气候变化数据的解读可能是最具有挑战性的部分。“When working with big data, it is easy to create a model that explains the correlations that we discover in our data,” Borne said. “But we need to remember that correlation does not imply causation, and so we need to apply systematic scientific methodology.”波恩指出:“搞大数据时,要建立一个模型来解释我们在数据中发现的某种关联是很容易的。但我们得记住,这种关联并不代表原因,所以我们需要应用系统化的科学方法。”It’s also important to heed the maxim that “all models are wrong, but some are useful,” Borne said, ing statistician George Box. “This is especially critical for numerical computer simulations, where there are so many assumptions and ‘parameterizations of our ignorance.’波恩还指出,搞大数据最好要记住统计学家乔治o克斯的名言:“所有模型都是错的,但有些很有用。”他表示:“这对数字计算机模拟尤为重要,因为其中有很多假设和‘代表了我们的无知的参数’”。“What fixes that problem—and also addresses Box’s warning—is data assimilation,” Borne said, referring to the process by which “we incorporate the latest and greatest observational data into the current model of a real system in order to correct, adjust, and validate. Big data play a vital and essential role in climate prediction science by providing corrective actions through ongoing data assimilation.”波恩表示:“要想解决这个问题,以及解决克斯警告我们的问题,最重要的是做好数据同化。”也就是“把最新最好的观测数据纳入一个真实系统的实时模型中,以对数据进行纠正、调整、确认。通过以不间断的数据同化作为校正措施,大数据在气候预测科学中扮演了至关重要且不可或缺的角色。‘We are in a data revolution’我们已经在一场数据革命之中Earlier this year, the Obama administration launchedClimate.data.gov with more than 100 curated, high-quality data sets, Web services, and tools that can be used by anyone to help prepare for the effects of climate change. At the same time, NASA invited citizens to help find solutions to the coastal flooding challenge at an April mass-collaboration event.今年早些时候,奥巴马政府推出了官方的气象研究网站Climate.data.gov,上面有100多种精心编辑的高质量数据以及网页务和工具,任何人都可以利用这些数据与工具来研究气候变化的影响。与此同时,NASA也在今年四月的一次大型协作活动上,邀请普通民众协助其寻找应对沿海洪灾的解决方案。More recently, UN Global Pulse launched a Big Data Climate Challenge to crowdsource projects that use big data to address the economic dimensions of climate change.最近,联合国“全球脉动”行动(UN Global Pulse)推出了一项“大数据气候挑战”项目,将一些用大数据研究气候变化对经济的影响的项目通过众包的形式进行了发布。“We’ve aly received submissions from 20 countries in energy, smart cities, forestry and agriculture,” said Miguel Luengo-Oroz, chief scientist for Global Pulse, which focuses on relief and development efforts around the world. “We also hope to see submissions from fields such as architecture, green data centers, risk management and material sciences.”“全球脉动”行动主要致力于全球各地的扶贫救灾与发展事业,该行动的首席科学家卢恩戈o奥罗兹表示:“我们已经收到了来自20多个国家的在能源、智能城市、林业和农业等领域的意见书。我们也希望收到建筑、绿色数据中心、风险管理和材料科学等领域的意见书。”Big data can allow for more efficient responses to emerging crises, distributed access to knowledge, and greater understanding of the effects personal and policy decisions have on the planet’s climate, Luengo-Oroz added.卢恩戈o奥罗兹补充道,大数据还可以用于提高突发灾害的应急工作效率,提供更广泛地获取知识的渠道,以及帮助我们更好地了解私人与政府的决策会对地球的气候造成哪些影响。“But it’s not the data that will save us,” he said. “It’s the analysis and usage of the data that can help us make better decisions for climate action. Just like with climate change, it is no longer a question of, ‘is this happening?’ We are in a data revolution.”奥罗兹表示:“然而拯救我们的不是那些数据,而是那些让我们能做出更好的决策来应对气候变化的数据分析与使用方法。这就像气候变化本身一样,现在已经不是‘它开始了吗’的问题。我们已经在一场数据革命之中。” /201407/310075玉田日式法式美甲美发业彩妆培训秀峰区美甲学校机构

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